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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi:10.7537/marsnys, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 83); January 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Phytotoxicity in Herbal Medicine: A Review

 

Wahab Olasumbo Monsurat

 

Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria.

olasumbowahab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In spite of the increasing popularity of medicinal plants the world over, phytotoxicity remains an issue of major concern in herbal medicine. Historically, phytotoxic plants have been useful in the development of important drugs used in western medicine, and are still used in modern times by herbal medicinal practitioners. The continuous usage is due to the precautionary measures taken by people using the phytotoxic plants. The measures include avoidance of the entire or parts of known toxic plants, cooking the plant materials to denature toxic compounds and charring to convert organic material into inorganic residues. The fact that toxicity tests are increasingly conducted and the knowledge of phytotoxic plants is advanced, serves as an encouragement that phytotoxicity should not be a negative factor in herbal medicine.

[Wahab, OM. Phytotoxicity in Herbal Medicine: A Review. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):1-8]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.01

 

Keywords:  Phytotoxicity; herbal medicine; review

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2

Co-digestion of tannery wastewater and phragmites karka using a laboratory scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

 

Andualem Mekonnen1*, Seyoum Leta2** and Karoli Nicholas Njau3

 

1,2 Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 33348, Addis Ababa Ethiopia

*E-mail: andumk21@gmail.com, ** E-mail: letaseyoum@yahoo.com

3The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447 Arusha, Tanzania.

Email: knjau30@yahoo.com

*Corresponding Author

 

Abstract: This study was investigated co-digestion of tannery wastewater and phragmites karka using a laboratory scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at mesophilic temperatures. The co-digestion experiment was conducted at four different mixing ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75) of tannery wastewaters to phragmites karka by volume. The digestion of tannery wastewater without phragmites karka showed the maximum COD (88.9%) and VS (94.1%) removal efficiency. The mixture containing 25% phragmites karka produced the highest average methane content (71%) and methane yield (0.26L/g COD removed) while showing the second highest COD and VS removal efficiency. On the other hand, the mixture containing 50% and 75% phragmites showed the lowest biogas production rate and removal efficiency. The methane content and yield were also the lowest. The results of this study showed that co-digestion of tannery wastewater with phragmites karka up to 25% improve the quality and the production rate of the biogas than digestion tannery wastewater alone under mesphilic temperature condition.

[Andualem Mekonnen, Seyoum Leta and Karoli Nicholas Njau. Co-digestion of tannery wastewater and phragmites karka using a laboratory scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):9-14]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.02.

 

Keyword: ASBR, COD, methane yield, phragmites karka and tannery wastewater

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3

Geotechnical Considerations in Shoreline Protection and Land Reclamation in Kula, Eastern Niger Delta

 

1H.O Nwankwoala & 2M.O Orji

 

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Engineering and Geosciences, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

Email: nwankwoala_ho@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The investigation is to determine the suitability of the study site for the design and construction of a shoreline protection and also carry out reclamation exercise at the adjoining lands. Nine (9) number boreholes were drilled to a maximum depth of 20.0m below the existing ground level using a cable percussion rig and nine (9) numbers Cone Penetrometer Testing using 2.5 tonne CPT equipment. The lithology reveals intercalations of clay and sand in thin layers to a depth of 2.0m below the existing ground level. Only borehole 3 revealed the clay layer to a depth of 5.0m. Underlying this clay is a stratum of loose to medium dense sand and dense sand. The sand is well sorted grading from fine to medium as the borehole advances. The laboratory analysis showed that the silty clay has undrained shear strength of 48 kPa. The loose sand has a maximum SPT (N) value of 12 while the medium dense sand has maximum SPT (N) value of 28. Considering the nature of the intended structure, the anticipated load and the moderate compressibility of this near surface silty clay and the underlying loose silty sand, it is suggested that the cellar slab be supported by means of raft foundation founded within the clay layer. Where the proposed project precludes the use of raft foundation, pile foundation should be employed to transmit the anticipated load from the cellar slab to the underlying sand stratum and that such piles should be closed-ended, straight-shaft steel pipe piles driven into the sand stratum and all driven piles should undergo pile load test to confirm their working load and consequent estimated settlement.

[H.O Nwankwoala & M.O Orji. Geotechnical Considerations in Shoreline Protection and Land Reclamation in Kula, Eastern Niger Delta. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):15-21]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.03

 

Keywords: Engineering geology, foundation, subsoil, boreholes, stratigraphy, Niger Delta

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4

Legal and juridical study of child psychological abuse

 

Mojtaba Nikdosti (PhD), Marjan Azarm, Faezeh Toghani pour, Mozhgan Motaleby

 

Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: Legal and Juridical Study of psychological abuse of children. Article 958 of the Civil law says: child or minor is a person who has not reached physical and spirit growth necessary for social life. Abuse or harassment in word means torture, suffering and torment. Psychological harassment in the Quran comes in the form of denunciation and ridicule, slander, surveillance and backbit. For example, in verse of Hojorat says: O you who believe, people must never scoff and ridicule other people. Child abuse consists any kind of physical, mental or moral damage and harm, of children or adolescents that have been against the law and to threaten physical or mental health of them. Generally, child abuse occurs in two forms: (1) The child abuse caused by act of child's parent or caregiver that deliberately cause damage to children. (2) Child abuse resulting from the omission of doing activities that are necessary to protect the child's physical or mental health. (3) Psychological child abuse including factors that cause mental harassment of children and leave a lot of psychological effects and harm. (4) Psychological child abuse happen in two forms: 1- psychotic child abuse induced by act. (5) Psychotic child abuse caused by omission of act. Psychotic child abuse induced by act means obscene behavior that is harmful to children's mental health such as psychotic abuse caused by aggressive parents and denying abilities of children, or doing moral sins by parents like lying and dishonesty. Psychotic child abuse caused by omission of act includes parent’s wastage and omit to psychological dimension of child such as lack of attention to the emotional needs of children and denial of education of children, So omission or neglect has 3 categories including emotional neglect, Training neglect and educational neglect. Kindness is a human basic need, especially for children, and lack of affection is groundwork for many and social crime and turmoil. The Prophet said about it: love children and affect them, then if promise them fulfill it because they see their aliment in you. Article 1173 of the Civil law says: when because of lack of care or moral decline of parents that have child's custody, physical health or moral training is at risk, court can consider any appropriate decision for child custody, based on request of victims of child or his (her) resident or head of the jurisdiction. Basic strategies forth prevention of psychotic child abuse such as, developing the awareness of society and parents about child right sand prohibition use of verbal violence for educational purposes in school and family, and effacing traditional methods of training that hurts children's mental health, can barefaced.

[Mojtaba Nikdosti, Marjan Azarm, Faeze Toqanipor, Mozhgan Matlabi. Legal and juridical study of child psychological abuse. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):22-27]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.04

 

Keywords: Legal, juridical study, child psychological

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5

Direct plant regeneration from in-vitro derived nodal explants of Physochlaina praealta (G. Don) Miers - a vulnerable plant of medicinal importance

 

Mohd Mansoor Bhat1*, Azra N. Kamili1, Amjad M. Husaini2, Seema Akbar3, Sumira Tuyb1 and Aashiq H. Kuchy1

 

1Centre of Research for Development (CORD), University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir- 190006, India.

2Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Division of Biotechnology, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-191121, India

3Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar.

*Corresponding author: mansor12bhat@gmail.com

Mobile No.: 9419721204

 

Abstract: Physochlaina praealta is a valuable medicinal plant that grows in the high-altitude, cold desert region of Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Being a noval and medicinally strategic, this plant is under severe threat and needs germplasm conservation for its progeny to continue. We developed an efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro regeneration from nodal explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. To determine the optimal conditions for regeneration and multiple shoot induction, we compared callus induction and organogenesis under different hormone combinations and concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)/ Indole acetic acid (IAA), thidiazuran (TDZ) and photoperiod regimes (day length of 12, 16, or 24 h). A maximum of 78% shoot regeneration with 9.46 shoots/explants was achieved on a medium containing MS (half strength) and BAP (10M) +IAA (5M) + TDZ (5M). A day length of 12 h was optimal for multiple shoot induction. After sub-culturing on MS (1/2) + IBA (5 M), 79% of the regenerated shoots developed into plantlets within four weeks. Seventy-three percent of the regenerated plantlets survived and grew well under greenhouse conditions. Our protocol for regeneration and multiple shoot induction has potential use for germplasm conservation of this vulnerable plant and for research on its medicinally-important active constituents.

[Bhat MM, Azra NK, Amjad MH, Seema A, Sumira T, Aashiq HK. Direct plant regeneration from in-vitro derived nodal explants of Physochlaina praealta (G. Don) Miers - a vulnerable plant of medicinal importance  N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):28-34]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.05

 

Key words: Physochlaina praealta; Ladakh: in vitro cultivation; axillary shooting; multiple shooting

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6

Phytochemical, Proximate Composition and Antimicrobial Potentials of Pleurotus tuber-regium Sclerotium

 

Ngozi Goodluck Anyanwu1*, Clement Ibi Mboto2, Leera Solomon3 and Nnenna Frank-Peterside1

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Rivers State College of Arts and Science, P.M.B. 5936, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

anyanwungozi91@yahoo.com, sololeera@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A comparative study of the phytochemical properties, proximate analysis and antimicrobial potentials of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Pleurotus tuber-regiums clerotium was carried out. The activities of the extracts were compared with activities of standard antibiotics (Streptomycin (30g), Ampicillin (30g), Ciprofloxacin (10g), Tetracycline (30g), Penicillin (30g) and Erythromycin (30g) and antifungal (Fluconazole (30g), Nystatin (30g) and Amphotericin (30g) discs. The test organisms were S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., and P. aeruginosa and fungal (A. niger and C. albicans). Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, polyphenols and glycosides were in moderate amount with traces of tannins which were more in ethanolic than in aqueous extracts. Proximate analysis revealed moisture (0.25+0.02), ash (2.40+0.1), protein (7.87+0.02), fat (20.80+0.2), fibre (11.88+0.01) and carbohydrate (56.80+0.02). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanolic extract were 12.5mg/ml for S. aureus, 50mg/ml for Streptococcus sp., 6.25mg/ml for Escherichia coli, 3.13mg/ml for P. aeruginosa and 25mg/ml for Aspergillussp. whereas the minimum bactericidal concentrations of the aqueous extract gave 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml for S. auerus, Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.Antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to standard antibiotics. The highest zone of inhibition with penicillin was observed on Staphylococcus aureus while the lowest was on P. aeruginosa. Bacterial isolates were all susceptible to the antibiotics except Streptococcus sp. and S. aureus which were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, whereas C. albicans and Aspergillus sp. were sensitive to all antifungals. Extracts of Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotium can be used as substitute for conventional antibiotics. [N. G. Anyanwu, C. I. Mboto, L. Solomon and N. Frank-Peterside. Phytochemical, Proximate Composition and Antimicrobial Potentials of Pleurotus tuber-regium Sclerotium. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):35-42]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.06

 

Key words: Proximate analysis, antimicrobial potentials, Pleurotus tuber-regiums clerotium

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7

Fermat Last Theorem was Proved in 1991

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: We found out a new method for proving Fermat last theorem (FLT) on the afternoon of October 25, 1991. We proved FLT at one stroke for all prime exponents , It led to the discovery to calculate . To this date, no one disprove this proof. Anyone can not deny it, because it is a simple and marvelous proof. It can fit in the margin of Fermat book.

 

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Fermat Last Theorem was Proved in 1991. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):43-47]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.07

 

Keywords: Fermat last theorem (FLT); prime; exponent; marvelous proof; book

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8

Riemann Paper(1859) Is False

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: In 1859 Riemann defined the zeta function . From Gamma function he derived the zeta function with Gamma function .  and are the two different functions. It is false that  replaces . After him later mathematicians put forward Riemann hypothesis(RH) which is false. The Jiang function  can replace RH.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Riemann Paper(1859) Is False. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):48-52]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.08

 

Keywords: Riemann; zeta function; ; Gamma function

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9

Santilli-Jiang Isomathematical theory for changing modern mathematics

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: We establish the Santilli’s isomathematics based on the generalization of the modern mathematics. Isomultiplication , isodivision , where  is called an isounit, ,  inverse of isounit. Keeping unchanged addition and subtraction,  are four arithmetic operations in Santilli’s isomathematics. Isoaddition , isosubtraction  where  is called isozero,  are four arithmetic operations in Santilli-Jiang isomathematics. We give an example to illustrate the Santilli-Jiang isomathematics.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Santilli-Jiang Isomathematical theory for changing modern mathematics. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):53-56]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.09

 

Keywords: Santilli-Jiang; Isomathematical; theory; modern; mathematics

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10

Fermat’s Marvelous Proofs for Fermat’s Last Theorem

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: Using the complex hyperbolic functions and complex trigonometric functions we reappear the Fermat’s marvelous proofs for Fermat’s last theorem (FLT) [1-7]. We  present three proofs: (1) Jiang’s marvelous proofs, (2) Fermat’s marvelous proofs and (3) Frey-Ribet-Wiles proofs. Ribenbiom [11] points out that there are some mathematicians who are not satisfied with the method of proof using elliptic curves and modular form, perhaps wrongly? or rightly?

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Fermat’s Marvelous Proofs for Fermat’s Last Theorem. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):57-59]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.10

 

Keywords: Fermat’s Marvelous; Proof; Theorem

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11

Generalized Fermat’s Last Theorem(1)

 

Chun-Xuan, Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we prove  has infinitely many nonzero integer solutions. We prove  has no nonzero integer solutions.

[Chun-Xuan, Jiang. Generalized Fermat’s Last Theorem(1) . N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):60-62]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.11

 

Keywords: Generalize; Fermat’s Last Theorem;

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12

Jiang’s function  in prime distribution

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com

 

Abstract: We define that prime equations

                                                                                               5

are polynomials (with integer coefficients) irreducible over integers, where  are all prime. If Jiang’s function  then 5has finite prime solutions. If  then there are infinitely many primes  such that  are  primes. We obtain a unite prime formula in prime distribution

                                                       8

Jiang’s function is accurate sieve function. Using Jiang’s function we prove about 600 prime theorems [6]. Jiang’s function provides proofs of the prime theorems which are simple enough to understand and accurate enough to be useful. 2000 mathematics subject classification 11P32 (primary), 11P99 (secondary).

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Jiang’s function  in prime distribution. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):63-70]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.12

 

Keywords: Jiang’s function; ; prime; distribution

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13

Improving Performance of On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol by Fuzzy Logic

 

Alireza Shams Shafigh 1, Kamran Abdollahi 1, Marjan Kouchaki1

 

1. Department of Computer Engineering, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mails: ali_shams@itrc.ac.ir, K_abdollahi@itrc.ac.ir, M_kouchaki@itrc.ac.ir

(Ali_shams,K_abdollahi,M_kouchaki)@itrc.ac.ir

 

Abstract: A Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless communication nodes that dynamically organize themselves to form a network without the need for any fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. The network topology dynamically changes frequently in an unpredictable manner since nodes are free to move. Multicasting can be considered as an efficient way to deliver information from source nodes to several client nodes. Although multicast routing algorithms are desirable, their forwarding structure and network resource consumption makes them significantly less efficient than unicast routing algorithms. In this research, a fuzzy-based policy is used to improve performance of On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol. The main goal of FBODMRP is to establish a small, high quality and efficient forwarding group. This is achieved by augmenting the join query packets with additional information such as speed, power level of node and link bandwidths. By introducing fuzzy control in the route selection, we can cope with uncertain and imprecise information. By restricting the domain of control packet flooding, we can further reduce the overhead. An evaluation shows that our approach increases packet delivery rate by up to 40%, reduces average end to end delay and consumed power by about 35% and 45% respectively.

[Alireza Shams Shafigh, Kamran Abdollahi, Marjan Kouchaki in Islamic Azad University. Improving Performance of On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol by Fuzzy Logic. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):71-85]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.13

 

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Multicast routing, Fuzzy logic

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14

Iranian intellectuals and feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran

 

M. Y. Salahi, M. D. Ghuparanloo

 

Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

ghuparanlu@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Feminism and women’s movements has been in to concern during the last years in Iran. But there isn’t any comprehensive and coherent understanding about it among Iranian intellectuals’ minds due to its deconstructive aspect of this theory. Since feminism thesis relies on Foucault’s theory of discourse and power relation analysis, this article is trying to represent the reply to this question that how Iranian elites have perceived feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran by applying the concepts of Foucault’s discourse theory such as discourse, power/knowledge and gender. From the view of Foucault’s, in any negotiation the knowledge power will produce its own correlated thus the current negotiation in Islamic Republic of Iran (Islamic, construction, reforms and fundamentalism) have formulated the feminism knowledge in intellectuals’ mind under the shadow of dominant power relation considering the fact which has been produced pertaining to women (gender) in discussed discourses. Consequently, what as feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran has been generated by Iranian intellectuals is strictly affected by the frame of power in this period, so acquires features and characteristics which will distinguish it from its own western model.

[M. Y. Salahi, M. D. Ghuparanloo. Iranian intellectuals and feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):86-105]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.14

 

Keywords: Feminist; knowledge/power; discourse; gender; Islamic Republic of Iran

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15

Prognostic value of serum Leptin ∕ Adiponectin ratio in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus

 

Fathy Ghamry Abd El Razik1, Yusuf Nassar1, Mostafa Sabrah1and Ahmed Fathy Abd El Aziz2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

yusuf_nassar2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Leptin and adiponectin are the main metabolic products of adipose tissue. There is an increasing interest in the role of these adipokines in the development of hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis, particularly in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Objective: To evaluate the utility of serum leptin/adiponectin ratio in predicting disease progression in chronic HCV patients. Methods: Thirty chronic hepatitis C patients and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. They were subjected to: Complete blood count, fasting and post prandial blood sugars, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), prothrombin time, serum proteins, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea, serum creatinine, HCV-Ab, HBs-Ag, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), serum leptin, serum adiponectin, leptin/ adiponectin ratio, abdominal ultrasound and liver biopsy for HCV patients. Patients were classified according to Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) classification in to three groups A, B and C. Results: Univariate analysis showed that leptin, adeponectin and leptin/adeponectin ratio were correlating to CTP class and fibrosis stage in HCV patients. Also there were significant correlations between: albumin, ALT/AST ratio, body mass index, platelet count, prothrombin time and total bilirubin with CPT class in HCV patients. Multivariate analysis was used to formulate a collective score “Factor Score” to predict CTP class. Factor Score was able to differentiate different CTP classes A, B and C. Mean values of Factor Score were 0.682, -0.315, -1.291 and 0.925 for CTP class A, B, C and control group respectively. Conclusion: leptin/adeponectin ratio is a good predictor of disease progression in HCV patients. Factor Score is a useful new score for prediction of CPT class in HCV patients.

[Fathy Ghamry Abd El Razik, Yusuf Nassar, Mostafa Sabrah and Ahmed Fathy Abd El Aziz. Prognostic value of serum Leptin ∕ Adiponectin ratio in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. N Y Sci J 2016;9(1):106-112]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090116.15

 

Key Words: Leptin, Adiponectin, Fibrosis, HCV.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 15, 2016. 

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