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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 86); April 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Appraisal of heavy metals in the organs of fish species Cyprinus carpio and Heterotis niloticus in Alaro Stream, Ibadan

 

Emmanuel Teryila Tyokumbur

 

Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Email: e.tyokumbur@mail.ui.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Studies were carried out on the evaluation of heavy metals in the organs of the fish species Cyprinus carpio and Heterotis niloticus in Alaro Stream located in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study was to assess the extent of heavy metals which have the chemical and ecological potential to be become elevated with the tendency to bioaccumulate in fish which are higher consumers in the food chain of aquatic ecosystems. A total of 64 fish representing two fish species of H. niloticus (32) and C. carpio (32) were collected from the sampling sites. Fish were dissected to remove the gills, gut, liver, fins, bones and muscle (flesh) and dried separately in an oven at 1050C for 6hours for pulverization. The pulverized samples were acid digested for analyses with Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results of mean Cu, Zn, Mo, V and Co in the fish organs in this study supports earlier findings that indicated elevated levels in polluted aquatic ecosystems. For instance, all the organs of H. niloticus had higher mean values of Ni that were above World Health Organization’s (WHO) limit guideline limit in food while in C. carpio, only the intestine, gut , bones and fins were higher than the permissible level . The mean V concentration in the two fish species was above the WHO permissible limit guideline of 0.02ppm in the order in the order: Liver<Gills<Fins<Intestine<Gut<Muscle C. carpio and Gills<Bone<Fins<Intestine<Muscle<Gut (H. niloticus). The study shows that these fish caught in Alaro Stream is not safe for human consumption.

[Emmanuel Teryila Tyokumbur. Appraisal of heavy metals in the organs of fish species Cyprinus carpio and Heterotis niloticus in Alaro Stream, Ibadan. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):1-7]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.01

 

Keywords: Heavy metals, fish, Cyprinus carpio, Heterotis niloticus, Ibadan.

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2

The Liability Distribution due to the Perpetrator and Accessory Combination in Iran Penal Code

 

Mahmood Shekarpour1, Sadegh Esmaeili2*, Ghasem Aboo -Pour Bisheh3

 

1 MA. Student, The Private Law, Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 MA. Student, Criminal Law and Criminology, Islamic Azad University of Ilam, Sciences and Research Branch, Ilam, Iran.

3 MA., Criminal Law and Criminology, Islamic Azad University of Ilam, Sciences and Research Branch, Ilam, Iran.

*E-mail: Lawyer.international80@gmail.com

 

Abstract: We know that atonement is facing two views of penalties and compensation which in any case has to be paid either with the cause and perpetrator life, or both.  The Penal Code has assigned it a particular penalty; different comments have been asserted on the occasions of which hurting and damage to the injured is caused by the cause and perpetrator interference. In comparative law, each of the causes is entitled to compensate as his/her fault and crime proportion against the injured person. This approach is more consistent with the general civil liability rules, but the former Penal Code was prescribed in Article 363: (in the case of the perpetrator and accessory combining in a crime, the perpetrator is the responsible; unless the cause is more liable than the perpetrator). Many criticized this legal article and even some courts, particularly regarding injury or death of construction workers happened due to different factors , shared the crime responsibility and paying atonement and the compensation according to the proportion of the their role in committing the crime. However, recently, the judicial procedures has got a legal order by passing the new Islamic Penal Code and applied in a legal form perused by the article 526. The basis of responsibility in this law is applying the crime to the factor act or the operating factors and each responsible as much as they have a role in the crime.

[Mahmood Shekarpour, Sadegh Esmaeili, Ghasem Aboo -Pour Bisheh. The Liability Distribution due to the Perpetrator and Accessory Combination in Iran Penal Code. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):8-14]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.02

 

Key words:  Civil Liability, perpetrator and accessory combination, pure responsibility, fault

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Analysis of Sports Manufacturing Industry by Porter's Five Forces Model

 

Mahdi Ansaripour jarmafshari1 (Corresponding Author), Hamed Khorasani Toroghi2, Mohammad Haghighi3

 

1. MSc of EMBA, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. PhD Student of Behavioral Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

ansaripour_m@alumni.ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Nowadays, competition between companies is not only caused by competitors. Porter believes that the competitive environment of the industry is determined by interaction of five relatively stable forces. These forces include threat of new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers; threat of substitutes for products and Rivalry among competitors. Porter forces due to economic and technological characteristics of each industry are different. In this study, it was planned to use these forces to deal with the analysis of sports products industry. For this purpose, by reviewing research literature, indicators related to any of forces and a questionnaire survey among 322 producers of sports, the intensity of each of forces were measured. In addition, collected data was analyzed using bar graphs and bar spider. Results showed that the intensity of every five forces were bigger than the average. Also, T tests (p <0.05) indicated that bargaining power of suppliers and threat of substitute products had most weight and there were significant differences with the mean value.

[Mahdi Ansaripour Jarmafshari, Hamed Khorasani Toroghi, Mohammad Haghighi. Analysis of Sports Manufacturing Industry by Porter's Five Forces Model. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):15-22]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.03

 

Keywords: Sport Industry, Porter Model, Bargaining Power, Threat, Competition

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4

Suicidal Risk Assessment in Hospitalized Schizophrenic patients

 

Hussein Elolaimy Elsheikh; Shewikar Tawfik El Bakry; Waleed Eleraky Elazaband Aimen Ebdorebbh Albuhwri.

 

Neuropsychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

aimen_ebdorebbh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disorder with an estimated suicide risk of 4–5%. Many factors are involved in the suicidal process, some of which are different from those in the general population. Clinical risk factors include previous attempted suicide, depression symptoms, male gender, substance abuse, psychosis and hopelessness. Biosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functions, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. Suicide risk is supposed to be high during the first year after diagnosis. Many of the suicide attempts occur during hospital admission or soon after discharge. Management of suicide risk includes both medical treatment and psychosocial interventions. Still, risk factors are crude; efforts to predict individual suicides have not proved useful and more researches are needed.

[Hussein Elolaimy Elsheikh; Shewikar Tawfik El Bakry; Waleed Eleraky Elazaband Aimen Ebdorebbh Albuhwri. Suicidal Risk Assessment in Hospitalized Schizophrenic patients. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):23-26]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.04

 

Key words: suicide; schizophrenia; suicide risk; risk factors; uicide attempt; suicide intent; management

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5

Genetic association among morphological and plant growth related traits of Medicago polymorpha

 

Muhammad Waqar Anwar1*, Qurban Ali2, Muhammad Zeeshan Ali1, Muhammad Abu Bakar Jaffar1, Tariq Manzoor Khan1 and Idrees Ahmad Nasir2

 

1.  Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: waqaragriscience@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Weeds are plants which grow voluntarily at place where it is not wanted and also grow in where there is crop plants plantation. Weeds are interfere with the utilization of natural resources, persistent, resistant, prolific, competitive, and harmful even poisonous in nature and can grow under adverse climate conditions. The prescribed study was conducted at the Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the genetic variability and biodiversity of Medicago polymorpha from three different locations. The data was recorded for different morphological traits and statistically analyzed for significance of the results. It was found from results that significant correlations among the morphological traits, mean performance and from GGEbiplot showed the Medicago polymorpha at location 1 with higher ability to withstand in harsh environmental conditions which help to survive much better as compared with sensitive weed and crop plants. It was concluded that the use of manual, chemical and agronomic practices for the removal of the M. polymorpha should be carried out to reduce crop plant yield losses and use of transgenic crop plants may be an advantage to compete and improve the yield potential of crop plants.

[Anwar MW, Ali Q, Ali MZ, Jaffar MAB, Khan TM and Nasir IA. Genetic association among morphological and plant growth related traits of Medicago polymorpha. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):27-31]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.05

 

Keywords: Medicago polymorpha, weeds, locations, correlation, genetic association, GGEbiplot

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Genotypic Detection of Resistance in Bacteria Associated With Urethral Catheterised Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Abia State, Nigeria

 

1&2Iwu, J. O. 2Chikere, C.B. and 2Otokunefor, T.O.

 

1Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The increasing rate of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents a major public health concern. This study investigated the incidence of plasmid-mediated extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical isolates associated with CAUTI in patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 1000 urine specimens from 1000 patients on urethral catheter were cultured, bacterial isolates identified using Analytical Profile Index followed by antibiogram determination. Detection of plasmid-borne ESBL genes CTX-M, SHV and OXA in isolates was done by PCR. Molecular characterization of isolates with 16SrRNA gene identified them as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia sp., Alcaligenes faecalis strains, Escherichia coli strains, Strenotrophomonas sp., Providencia rettgeri, Serratia sp. Staphylococcus sciuri, Flavobacterium mizutaii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, Shigella flexneri,Proteus vulgaris,Bacillus pumilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus toyonensis.All sequences were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KT984383-KT984405. The organisms showed 100% resistance to Cotrimoxazole and Cloxacillin while 99% to Cefixime, 98% to Tetracycline, 96% to Augmentin, 94% to Erythromycin and Streptomycin, 93% to Ceftazidime and Cefuroxime, 89% to Nitrofurantoin, 83% to Chloramphenicol, 77% to Ciprofloxacin and 67% to Gentamycin. Staphylococcus was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 85.4%, followed by Pseudomonas 7.0%, Klebsiella 4.4%, E.coli 2.2% and Proteus 1.0%. ANOVA showed insignificant difference between means for the various parameters examined at P ≤ 0.05. Out of the 40 bacterial isolates screened for plasmid-borne ESBL genes, 51% harbored SHV genes, 49% had CTX-M genes while none was found with OXA genes. With the emergence of ESBL resistance in these clinical isolates, therapeutic options may become very restricted to physicians if appropriate measures to stop or reduce this trend are not enforced.

[Iwu, J. O., Chikere, C.B. and Otokunefor, T.V. Genotypic Detection of Resistance in Bacteria Associated With Urethral Catheterised Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Abia State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):32-45]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.06

 

Keywords: ESBL; Antibiogram; CAUTI; Genotypic Detection; Resistance; Bacteria Associated

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Status of Tuberculosis Burden in War Affected Province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: Analysis of Quaterly Reported Cases

 

Abdul Waheed Khan 1,2; Sadia Nawab 1; Abdul Haleem Khan 3; Zeeshan Nasim 1; Fazli Zahir 1; Shakir Khan 1; Muhammad Yasir Khan Khattak 4; Abid Ali 1; Aqib Iqbal 1 and Iqbal Munir 1

 

1 Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan.

2 Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Pakistan.

3 Department of Zoology, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan.

4 Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.

khan_ibge@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was aimed to ascertain Tuberculosis (TB) morbidity in hospital patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Record of 6549 suspects including 2318 (2241 new cases and 77 previously treated cases) confirmed positive patients was recovered from multiple hospitals of KP. Retrieved data was analyzed for various demographic parameters and TB types. Results indicated overall morbidity of 34.21% (2241/6549). Gender wise, 46.98% (1053) were males while 53.01% (1188) were females (P < 0.0001). Age wise, age group ≥15 was highly affected with 75.94% (1702) infection morbidity followed by age group 4-15 with 16.64% (373) and age group 0-4 with 7.40% (166) (P < 0.0001). On the basis of TB type, highest numbers comprised of pulmonary sputum smear positive cases with 36.09% (809) followed by extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) cases with 33.28% (746) and pulmonary sputum smear negative cases with 30.61% (686) (P < 0.0001). Among the previously treated cases (77), 77.92% (60) were relapse cases, 12.98% (10) were treatment failure cases while 9.09% (7) were treatment default cases. Conclusively, high number of TB cases were identified. The elevated TB morbidity in KP emphasize the need of improvement in the current TB management policy for effective eradication of the infection.

[Abdul Waheed Khan; Sadia Nawab; Abdul Haleem Khan; Zeeshan Nasim; Fazli Zahir; Shakir Khan; Muhammad Yasir Khan Khattak; Abid Ali; Aqib Iqbal and Iqbal Munir. Status of Tuberculosis Burden in War Affected Province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: Analysis of Quaterly Reported Cases. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):46-51]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.07

 

Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; Morbidity; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Bacteriological Quality Of Different Bathroom Wall Surface Biofilms

 

F.I. Okoronkwo*, C.B. Chikere and G.C. Okpokwasili

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. Tel: +2348038664201. E-mail: greatadajesus2014@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bacteriological assessments of three different bathroom wall surface type biofilms were performed. Twenty eight biofilm samples scraped from tiled, wooden and concrete bathroom wall surfaces and three control samples from non bathroom surfaces of each surface material types were collected from ten different locations in Mile 2 Diobu. Port Harcourt. All the samples were highly contaminated. The mean aerobic and anaerobic bacterial load of the tiled, wooden and concrete bathroom wall surface samples on nutrient agar and thioglycollate agar were 1.32 0.30 105 cfu/g, 8.17 0.60 104 cfu/g, 9.27 0.50 105cfu/g and 1.92 0.13 105 cfu/g, 2.61 0.10 106cfu/g and 2.64 0.2 105 cfu/g respectively. The control samples had a mean of 2.82 0.10 105cfu/g, 1.55 0.30 106 cfu/g and 1.77 0.10 106 cfu/g for the tiled, wooden and concrete surfaces respectively on nutrient agar. Also, the mean microbial counts of the control samples on thioglycollate agar were as follows, 1.38 0.10 105cfu/g, 1.70 0.12 105 cfu/g and 1.30 0.20 105 cfu/g for the tiled, wooden and concrete surfaces respectively. Seventeen aerobic bacteria and twelve anaerobic bacteria genera were isolated with Bacillus and Clostridium being the most prevalent. Tile surfaces showed the least in bacterial density when compared to the other surface types and so does not support the growth of bacteria very well. This study has shown a high bacterial diversity in the bathroom wall surface type biofilms and so has served as a baseline in the development of strategies and safety plans for bathrooms, to reduce potential hazards to health for all its numerous users.

[F.I. Okoronkwo, C.B. Chikere and G.C. Okpokwasili. Bacteriological Quality of Different Bathroom Wall Surface Biofilms. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):52-57]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.08

 

Keyword: Bathroom wall surfaces, Biofilms, Bacteriological survey, Aerobic organism, Anaerobic organism

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Pathogenic Organisms Associated with Commonly Consumed Kaolin in Southern Nigeria

 

Okereke, Fidelia1 and Okereke, Victor C.2*

 

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: chykeoky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pathogenic organisms associated with commonly consumed kaolin were investigated with the intention of determining the degree of bacterial and fungal contamination of the samples. Three different kaolin samples namely; raw kaolin, sundried kaolin and baked kaolin obtained from different parts of Southern Nigeria were employed in the experiment. Total bacterial and fungal count was determined using plate count techniques. Results obtained from the study revealed mean bacterial count of 6.23 x 108 cfu/g, 10.5 x 108 cfu/g and 7.0 x 108 cfu/g for raw, sundried and baked kaolin, respectively. The total fungal count was 3.1 x 102 cfu/g, 2.4 x 102 cfu/g and1.5 x 102 cfu/g for raw, sundried and baked kaolin, respectively. The commonly isolated organisms were Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp, Mucor sp and yeast.

[Okereke, Fidelia and Okereke, Victor C. Pathogenic Organisms Associated with Commonly Consumed Kaolin in Southern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):58-61]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.09

 

Key words: Geophagia, Kaolin, Bacterial, Fungal, Colonies, Pathogenic.

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The Condition Factor and Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI) of Heterotis niloticus of Kugbo-Creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

 

*1Edoghotu, A. J., 2George, U. U 3Hart, A. I. and 3Sikoki, F. D.

 

1Department of Biology, Ignatiue Ajuru University of Education, PMB. 5047, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

2Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

3Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

E-mail: azibodiedoghotu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Condition factor (C.F.) and Gonado-somatic index (G.S.I) of Kugbo Creek in the Niger Delta, of Nigeria was investigated. From the results of findings it was observed that both C.F. and GIS decreased as the fish grew older. This phenomenon was attributed to ecological factor of food shortage since the animal is omnivorous plankton feeder that depends predominantly on plankton, awfush algae and seldom on higher plant food source. Also, Variations in the condition factor of the species in the river system may indicate a period of high yield or otherwise of the species in the river system. Younger individual had high value of C.F and G.S.I as would be expected; these individuals fed vigorously and grew more plumber, preparing for reproduction by developing gonads rapidly, hence, the high condition factor value which might have been additionally induced by favorable ecological condition. Larger individuals has reached a stage in life where it only feeds for sustenance rather than for growth and development of sex organs for reproduction, hence, the low values of C.F and G.S.I observed during the study. Fresh water habitat being poor in plankton composition relative to brackish environment provides less energy than it requires per day, thus creating energy deficiency that affects both energy budget and reproduction cycle.

[Edoghotu, AJ., George, UU., Hart, AI and Sikoki, FD. The Condition Factor and Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI) of Heterotis niloticus of Kugbo-Creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):62-64]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.10

 

Keywords: Condition Factor, Gonado-Somatic Index, Heterotis niloticus, Kugbo-Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

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The Ichthyiofauna And Physico-Chemical Properties Of Kugbo Creek In The Niger Delta, Nigeria

 

*1Edoghotu, A. J., 2George, U. U. and 3Hart, A. I.

 

1Department of Biology. Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt

2Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River  State, Nigeria.

3Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt.

E-mail: azibodiedoghotu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ichthyiofauna of Kugbo Creek system was studied in nine stations of three zones (brackish, freshwater and in between) of the creek. Biweekly samples of 24 months showed a total of 87 finfish species belonging to 31 families. Zone one (Fresh water) had 50 species of which pelagic and 15 demarsal. Zone 2 had had 51 species in open waters and 20 species in demersal sample. While zone three (brackish water) had 47 species in open water and 9 demarsal species obtained at the banks of the creek. Dominant family of the open brackish waters was Cichilidae with 12 representative species. This was followed by Bagridae and Characidae with 5 species each. The entire 24 months samples of both fresh water zones were dominated by Xenomistus nigri of the family Notopteridae with 7,323 individuals of the family Notopteridae with 784 individuals’ fish which occurred all year round. This was followed by Epetoichthys calabaricus of the family Polypteridae with 1,306 individual. However, the brackish region (zone 3) was dominated by Tilapia zilli of the family Cichilidae. Fish found in sample were of the families Chanidae, Claridae, Gymnachidae, Nandidae, Notopteridae, Osteoglossidae, Polypteridae, Malapteridae and Phractolemidae were only found in fresh water and not brackish, while Syngnathidae, Sphyraenidae, Sciaenidae, Pomadasyidae, Polynemidae, Mugilidae, Lutjanidae and Carangidae were caught in the brackish station. Others were caught in all the 3 zones. Mean value range of limnological characteristics were temperature 25.6oC 1.1 – 30.8oC 2.5; depth profile 110cm 113 – 479cm 160; flow rate 4.3cms- 0.7 – 7.6 cms- 3.4; transparency 34.9cm 2.7- 265.0cm 58.9; TSS 38 mg / l 9 – 615 mg / l 55; and DO 2.9 mg / l 0.9 – 8.2 mg / l 4.06.

[Edoghotu, AJ., George, UU., Hart, AI. The Ichthyiofauna And Physico-Chemical Properties Of Kugbo Creek In The Niger Delta, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):65-74]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.11

 

Keywords: Ichthyiofauna, Fisheries, Kugbo Creeks, Conservation, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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Assessment of Salmonella Contamination in Organic Chicken Meats sold and Slaughtered in Some Selected Markets in Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Omorodion NJP, Odu NN, Njoku HO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. Tel: +2349083622583, E-mail: nnenna.omorodion@uniport.edu.ng, nnennaomorodion@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess and compare the microbial quality of organic chicken meats purchased from two different markets in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To determine for the presence of Salmonella spp., organic chicken meat comprising of the 5 wings and the 5 thighs, were analysed using the standard  method , resulting isolates were exposed to various biochemical tests. Confirmed  Salmonella spp. were subjected to various antibiotics. The results revealed that Salmonella spp. counts were higher in the thighs than the wings   counts ranges from 4.5x 104 to 8.0x105 cfu/g for the thigh samples, 4.0x104 to 7.5x105cfu/g for the wings sample, the total viable counts ranges from1.12x108-2.13x109 cfu/g for the thigh samples, 1.03x108 to 1.37x109 for the wings samples. The Salmonella spp showed resistance to Ampicillin and Augmentin 44%, Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidine, Cefuroxime 22.2%, and Ofloxacin 11%. High rate of susceptibility was counted against Nitrofurantoin 88.9%. The need for microbial assessment of organic chicken meat cannot be over emphasized so as to reduce possible health risk and contamination. Maintenance and strict hygiene during slaughter and processing will produce organic chicken meat parts with good quality and ensure safety to the consumer.

[Omorodion NJP, Odu NN, Njoku HO. Assessment of Salmonella Contamination in Organic Chicken Meats sold and Slaughtered in Some Selected Markets in Rivers State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):75-80]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.12

 

Keywords: Assessment, Salmonella, Contamination, Organic Chicken Meats, Slaughtered, Selected Markets

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Principles of growth and economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

 

Azadeh Jafari Kargar

 

MSc of Economic Sciences, Economic Sciences University of Tehran

azadeh.jafarii@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explores strategies for institutions and policies to increase growth in Middle East and North Africa. Long-term economic growth definitely depends on the quality and strength of a country's institutions. Normally the basic institutions under the rule of law, fair trial, representative government, an effective bureaucracy, and open markets as the minimum limit, however, to build the principles of growth, long time and a lot of resources to be spent. As a result, developing countries with weak institutions, a key question is whether these countries as a growth strategy to focus on their bodies and do not wait to long-term growth emerge or sought short-term and medium-term alternatives to principles, while this solution may be permanent and may violate some of the principles of good governance? But growth may be provided for a time and create opportunity for further development. The argument of some of the MENA countries so far has invested in areas with limited returns. Other countries have found a good alternative and faster growth but, more needs awareness and effective growth strategies. This is a sign that these countries are too weak to be able to deal with future economic shocks waves.

[Azadeh Jafari Kargar. Principles of growth and economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):81-89]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.13

 

Keywords: Good governance, rule of law, effective bureaucracy, open markets, growth principles

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The possibility of development of organizational learning in the light of intellectual capital

 

Sara Almasizadeh

 

M.A. Student Educational Management Urmia University

saraalmasi850@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study has been done with the aim of prediction of factors of organizational learning based on intellectual capital dimensions among Faculty members of Razi University. 86 people of faculty members were accidentally chosen through (by) co relational research method. Data were gathered through two researcher made organizational learning questionnaire according to Nife model and intellectual capital dimensions questionnaire according to Bunits models. The reliability of questionnaires were measured by Cronbach coefficient on a sample of 30 people. The intellectual capital dimensions questionnaire α= 0.813 and organizational learning questionnaire α= 0.828. The gathered data were analyzed with MANOVA analysis and Multiple Regression. The attained results revealed that: there is a positive significant relationship between the whole dimensions of intellectual capital with the whole factors of organizational learning. There is also positive significant relationship among human capital, structural capital and customer capital with factors of organizational learning.

[Sara Almasizadeh. The possibility of development of organizational learning in the light of intellectual capital. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):90-99]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.14

 

Keywords: Organizational Learning, Intellectual Capital, Faculty Member

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Developing Professional Competence Of Pedagogies In Foreign Languages By Computer Technologies

 

Khurshid Mamatkulov

 

PhD Researcher of Uzbek State World Languages University

E-mails: ilkhom.mamatkulov@abdn.ac.uk, imamatkulov@gmsai.com

 

Abstract: In the last two decades, a number of changes have occurred in educational system of Uzbekistan. For instance, the decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan was promulgated (In December 10, 2012). There are serious reasons for this step. As a result of this extremely important document, learning foreign languages, mainly English, has started at the first grade of secondary schools. According to the decree it is stated that “the analysis of the current system of organization of foreign language teaching shows that educational standards, curricula and textbooks do not fully meet modern standards, especially in the use of advanced information and media technologies. Continuously organising foreign languages learning at all levels of the education system, and also upgrading the skills of teachers and the provision of modern teaching materials should be further improved”, and/or “teaching special subjects, especially on technical and international specialties at higher educational institutions will be conducted in foreign languages”. All these measures are undertaken to further integration of Uzbekistan into the world community.

[Khurshid Mamatkulov. Developing Professional Competence Of Pedagogies In Foreign Languages By Computer Technologies. N Y Sci J 2016;9(4):100-103]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15.

doi:10.7537/marsnys090416.15

 

Keywords: Foreign Languages, Computer Technologies

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 2, 2016. 

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