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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 88); June 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Dietary Intake among a group of Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

 

DR. Safaa T. El Hussein PhD*, Salwa M. Saleh; M.D**; Maysa A. Samy; M.D*** Manar M. Fathy

 

Assistant professor of pediatric, lecturer of pediatric, professor of community medicinelecturer of pediatric, National Nutrition Institute, Cario, Egypt. drsalwamahmoud@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at elevated risk for nutrition-related morbidities both during and after therapy. Children who are malnourished are at increased risk for infection, reduced quality of life, and poor neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes. Objectives: This study carried for assessment of the dietary intake of group of children of ALL. Subjects and Methods: This study is a cross sectional descriptive one for which the study population was recruited from hematology oncology unit in Zagazig University hospitals. The study included 21 Children undergoing treatment for ALL. Their age ranged from 3-11 year both boys and girls was included. The population sample was interviewed by using special questionnaire of the Hematology Oncology unit. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Dietary Assessment was performed using 24H dietary recall, food frequency of selected food items, FVS and DDS. Our patients were subjected to laboratory investigation including fasting and post-prandial blood sugar, liver and kidney function tests. Results: There was accepted level of consumption of the caloric intake. The majority of patients were within the RDI for all other macronutrients with specific decrease intake of essential fatty acid. Despite adequate caloric intake, the majority of patients had low dietary intakes of vitamin E,C, niacin, folic acid, calcium, selenium and vitamin D. Meanwhile accepted dietary intakes were observed for some vitamins and some minerals,. There was fair consumption of food variety and accepted level of consumption of different food groups. Conclusion: This study was successful in identifying priority nutrients for dietary intervention (total caloric intake, essential fatty acid intake, antioxidants (vitamin, C, E, selenium) and bone forming nutrients (vitamin D and calcium) and folic acid in selected group of ALL children.

[Safaa T. El Hussein, Salwa M. Saleh; Maysa A. Samy and Manar M. Fathy. Dietary Intake among a group of Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):1-6]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.01.

 

Key words: ALL (acute lymphoplastic leukemia), Children. Dietary intake

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Development and Evaluation of a Multipurpose Juice Extractor

 

Aremu, Ademola. K. and Ogunlade, Clement A.

 

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

ademolaomooroye@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A portable multipurpose extractor was developed for extracting juice from some tropical fruits (pineapple, orange and watermelon). The machine was fabricated using locally available materials (basically stainless steel); the main functional parts of the machine include a cylindrical drum (30cm length x 20cm diameter), screw rod (28cm long), sieve and a hopper (10.2 x 6.4 x 7.5 cm). The machine was evaluated in accordance with standard evaluation methods. Three test trials were carried out each with varying sieve opening diameter (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mm) for both peeled and unpeeled fruits. The time taken for juice extraction, mass of juice extracted, mass of fruits and residual wastes were recorded and used to obtain the juice yield, extraction efficiency and losses. Peeled and unpeeled orange, pineapple and watermelon have the highest juice yield and extraction efficiency of 45, 46.5, and 50.8, 60.1, 55.3, 47.6 and 67.4, 50.8, 31.8, 46.3 and 38.2, 52.2 respectively. Highest juice yield and extraction efficiency was obtained with 2mm diameter sieve. The sieve diameter had a significant effect on the percent juice yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss of the machine.

[Aremu, A. K., Ogunlade, C. A. Development and Evaluation of a Multipurpose Juice Extractor. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):7-14]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.02.

 

Keywords: Tropical Fruits, Juice Extractor, Extraction Efficiency, Juice Yield, Extraction Loss

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Planning The Management In Educational Institutions

 

Abdullayev Safibullo Habibullayevich

 

Rector of Institute for Advanced Studies and Retraining of secondary special education of Namangan region 100052, Uzbekistan

Telephone: +998903276666; E-mail: saida.beknazarova@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The head of educational institution and its managing activity is divided into two subjects, in other words we may understand the activity as the activity between the head and education system. In this position managing object of the head and ruling itself is considered reaching as the essential peculiarities of the educational system, on the basis of different effects, so being ruled educational foundation is also considered to affect the managing subject.

[Abdullayev Safibullo Habibullayevich. Planning The Management In Educational Institutions. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):15-17]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.03.

 

Keywords: planning, the management, educational institutions

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Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Farmers in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Tasie C. M. and Ojimba T. P.

 

Department of Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics and Extension Unit), Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, P.M.B 5047, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

tasiechimezie@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the awareness and adaptation to climate change among small-scale farmers in Emohua L.G.A in Rivers State. Data for the study were collected from 60 respondents selected through the Multi-stage sampling technique. A socio-economic analysis of the respondents indicated that the average age of respondents’ was 49 years and majority (90%) had attended at least primary school. The study also revealed that a majority (92. 3%) of the respondents were small-scale farm holders. Analyses of the source of climate change awareness revealed that majority (83.3%) of the respondents were aware of the phenomenon of climate change. Of that number, extension service and friends/neighbours were ranked high as sources of awareness about climate change, accounting for 33.3% and 25% respectively. Analysis of adaptation practices used by the respondents showed that planting ahead of rains, use of improved varieties and planting of cover crops were used mostly. Analysis of the relationships between some selected socio-economic variables and the use of climate change adaptation measures revealed that educational qualification and the number of extension contacts were the most important factors influencing the use of adaptation measures among the respondents. The main constraints on climate change adaptation measures by farmers in the study area were poor financial resources and unavailability of weather information. The study concluded that the majority of farmers were aware of climate change and its consequences. The study also concluded that although the majority of farmers were engaged in husbandry practices aimed at climate change adaptation, they were constrained by some factors; therefore we recommended that extension education should be strengthened to boost farmers’ awareness of climate change and prepare them for adaptation measures and that appropriate/indigenous technologies be promoted for adaptation by farmers.

[Tasie C. M. and Ojimba T. P. Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Farmers in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):18-25]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.04.

 

Keywords: Awareness, Adaptation, Climate change, Small-scale, Farmers, Emohua

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Microbial Evaluation Of Locally Produced Soybean Products

 

Mordi Rm, 1 Iyere B, 1 Igeleke Cl, 1 Mokweye Vn, 2 Borke Me 3

 

1 Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

Email address: Raphael_mordi@yahoo.com; Phone: 2348023518894

 

Abstract: This study is aimed at the microbial evaluation of locally produced soybean products such as soymilk and soy yeast produced by a Nigerian manufacturing company in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The microbial evaluation procedures were done using the Pour plate method and streaking. The media used were Nutrient Agar (NA), MacConkey Agar (Mcc), Blood Agar (BA) for isolation of bacteria and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) for isolation of fungal organisms. Incubation was carried out in an inverted position at 250C for five days for fungal isolates and 370C for 24hrs for bacterial isolates. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS 10.0 package software and excel. The result of the mean bacteria count ranged from 0.85 x 102– 20.3 x 102 cfu/g. Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Enterobacter Bacillussp had the highest frequency of occurrence rate of 4 (36.36%) and 4 (36.36%) respectively. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that almost all the bacteria isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics used except for Ampiclox and Amoxacillin to which they were resistant. The fungal counts ranged from 0.45 x 102 – 15.3 x 102 cfu/g. The fungal isolates were Trichoderma sp, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata and Candida sp. Aspergillus flavus had the highest frequency of occurrence rate of 5 (29.41%). The microbial population obtained from this study was below the acceptable limit of 2.0 x 104 cfu/g recommended for the general bacterial count by the Soy Food Association of America (SFAA). It is therefore, recommended that adequate monitoring and strict adherence to quality control measures and good manufacturing practice (GMP) during production should be strictly adhered to, as this will ensure that products are free from pathogenic microorganisms.

[Mordi RM, Iyere B, Igeleke CL, Mokwenye VN, Borke ME. Microbial Evaluation Of Locally Made Soybean Products. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):26-34]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.05.

 

Key words: Microbial evaluation, Microbial contaminants, Soybean product

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Economic analysis of the costs associated with criminal behavior

 

Fazel Sendi, Sadegh fatili, Hadi Reza poor, Hossein Hayavi

 

Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

 

Abstracts: Our country is one of the developing countries that looking for reforming its economic system. Economists believe that any change in rules effects directly or not on economics variable and finally effects on allocation of resources. So ordain rules in various fields without any attention to the economic system reforms and economic tools can lead to failure of the reform. Economic approach provides the opportunity to be able to explain economic tools and predict methods of law. In this thesis we tried to express economic criminal justice analysis and its cost-benefit with criminal criteria to criminalize economic analysis and finally we investigate the punishments that are optimized and low cost from the perspective of economic analysis to society. Damage caused by crime means that the crime occurred and Mjnylyh (who is his crime) has been damaged. Damage caused by crime into three categories: material losses (damage to life and property), intellectual (loss of prestige) and non-profit divided. pay damages.

[Fazel Sendi, Sadegh fatili, Hadi Reza poor, Hossein Hayavi. Economic analysis of the costs associated with criminal behavior. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):35-42]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.06.

 

Key words: economic criminal justice analysis, optimal punishments, crime analysis,crime costs,estimate, rational analysis of crime

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Effects of Compost Manure on Performances of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and on Soil Properties in Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone, South Western Nigeria

 

Godonu, K. G., *Sanni, K. O. and Sodola, O. O.

 

Department of Crop Production and Horticulture

Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

*sunny_kenny2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Soils condition and its fertility status are vital for the agricultural production. A field study was carried out to evaluate the influence of compost on the growth and yield performances of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) at the Teaching and Research Farm, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria in experiments consisting of four treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of 300kg/ha-1, 250kg/ha-1, 200kg/ha-1 and 0kg/ha-1 (control). Growth and yield attributes studies were plant height, number of leaves and vine length at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP), number of days to 50% flowering, fruit weight and fruit diameter. The results obtained shows that there were significant differences among treatments in most parameters during the growing period for growth attributes under study and compost application resulted in an increase in growth and yield attributes compared to unfertilized plot. Post soil analysis shows that all the treatments reduced the soil pH from 6.20 to a range between 5.56-5.86 and, magnesium, organic carbon, total nitrogen and CEC increased and available phosphorus, calcium and sodium decreased Compost incorporated at 300kg/ha-1 produced significant higher vegetative growth and yield attributes at harvest than other treatments and the findings suggested that 300 kg/ha-1 of compost would supply sufficient nutrients required for the optimum growth and yield of watermelon  and improves the soil physiochemical properties in Ikorodu area of Lagos, Nigeria.

[Godonu, K. G., Sanni, K. O. and Sodola, O. O. Effects of Compost Manure on Performances of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and on Soil Properties in Ikorodu Agro-Ecological Zone, South Western Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):43-49]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.07.

 

Keyword: fruit diameter, Post soil analysis, vegetative growth, watermelon, yield attributes

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Methods And Functions Of Organizing And Leading Pedagogical Experiments

 

Abdullayev Safibullo Habibullayevich

 

Rector of Institute for Advanced Studies and Retraining of secondary special education of Namangan region

 

Abstract: In organizing and leading pedagogical experiments according to the direction and signification of organizers and participants work carrying out number of leading functions can be shown. For example, planning, appointing the place of experimental activity, creating good conditions for the participant of the procedure of pedagogical experiments and giving them tasks according to their capabilities, supporting financially, planning and organizing functions in social defense will be carried out. Motivating function will be fulfilled ( carried out) by developing in the results of innovation process and adapting participants` mutual attitude providing their activities according to their profits and needs.

[Abdullayev Safibullo Habibullayevich. Methods And Functions Of Organizing And Leading Pedagogical Experiments. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):50-51]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.08.

 

Keywords: planning, the management, educational institutions, functions of organizing, leading pedagogical experiments

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Assessment of in vitro effects of chlorpyrifos on biomass and antimicrobial production functionality of Actinomycetes isolated from soils in Yola, Nigeria.

 

Ajunwa, O.M1., Audu, J.O2*., Adedeji, B.A1., and Ja’afaru, M.I1.

 

1. Department of Microbiology, Modibbo Adama, University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Laboratory Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria

j3suwa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (-0, 0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6- trichloro – 2-pyridyl) phosphorothiote is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide with potentials for altering soil microbiota. Actinomycetes were isolated from soils in four sites in Yola, Adamawa State (a hospital waste-dump site, a university campus, a river bank, and an organic farm). The isolates were screened for antibiotic production using perpendicular streaking method against Staphylococcus aureus A6 as an indicator organism. Four actinomycete isolates (HS03, RB04, OS02, and FL02) with best inhibition were selected and subjected to in-vitro tests with varying concentrations of chlorpyrifos (ranging from 2 to 20g/l) in starch casein medium. Liquid culture-spectrophotometry results (at 600nm) showed growth of all the actinomycete isolates at chlorpyrifos concentrations less than 10g/l but a biomass decline at chlorpyrifos concentrations of 10g/l ≤ x ≤ 20g/l. After chlorpyrifos treatment, agar diffusion method with culture filtrate was applied in testing the antimicrobial functionality of actinomycetes exposed to chorpyrifos (20g/L). Actinomycetes OS02 and FL02 (isolated from university campus and organic farm respectively) were heavily affected as they showed reduced efficacy against test organisms S. aureus A6 and Escherichia coli G3. Actinomycete RB04 and HS03 (isolated from river bank and hospital waste dump site respectively) were however not affected as they produced high zones of inhibition (15mm-26mm) against the test organisms with and without exposure to chlorpyrifos. Biochemical and morphological characteristics identified all actinomycetes as Streptomyces spp. []Ajunwa, OM, Audu, JO, Adedeji, BA, and Ja’afaru, MI. Assessment of in vitro effects of chlorpyrifos on biomass and antimicrobial production functionality of Actinomycetes isolated from soils in Yola, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):52-57]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.09.

 

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, actinomycetes, antimicrobials

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Studies Of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives For Anti-Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Activities: Combinations Of DFT-QSAR And Docking Methods.

 

Oyebamiji Kolawole Abel and Semire Banjo

 

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

bsemire@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: A series of 1,4-dihydropyridine (1, 4-DHP) derivatives were studied for inhibitory activity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell using Density Functional theory (DFT), Quantitative Structure Activity Relation (QSAR) and docking approaches. Some of the calculated molecular descriptors such as log P, solvation energy and average electronic charges on heteroatoms showed that each of these descriptors has a fair relationship with observed anticancer activity. However, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis indicated that the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), dipole moment, solvation energy and average of average electronic charges on heteroatoms as being critical factors for the observed biological activity. The QSAR model predicted bioactivity (IC50) agreed well with the experimental IC50. All these compounds were docked against cancer cell receptors (1HI7) and the binding free energy of ligand-receptor interactions agreed with the observed bioactivity (IC50) of the 1, 4-DHPs with the receptor.

[Oyebamiji Kolawole Abel and Semire Banjo. Studies of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives For Anti-Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Activities: Combinations of DFT-QSAR And Docking Methods. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):58-66]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.10.

 

Keywords: 1, 4-Dihydropyridine derivatives, DFT, QSAR, Docking

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Preliminary evaluation of antibacterial potential of five common Nigerian plants against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

 

Amos Dangana 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 1*, Bibiana Nonye Egenti 2

 

1. Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, PMB 228 Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria.

2. Department of Community Medicine, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

* Corresponding author: Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, PMB 228 Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. Email: eedris888@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Allium sativum (Garlic), Zmgiber ojficinale (Ginger), Allium cepa (Onions) were evaluated against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). The ethanol and water (cold and hot) extracts of these plants were obtained by standard pharmacognostic methods while the antibacterial activities were determined by modified agar well diffusion method. Ampicilin was used as the positive control antibiotic. The cold water extract of A. indica showed no antibacterial activity while the hot water and ethanolic extracts of A. indica showed maximal antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameters of ethanolic extract at 27mm for S.aureus and 40mm for E. coli while hot water extract at 18mg/ml showed 30mm for E.coli and 27mm for S. aureus. Fresh ethanolic extracts of A. sativa at 0.5mg/ml showed 28mm as maximal IZD antibacterial activity against the test bacteria while the fresh extract of Z. officinale showed 18mm maximal IZD antibacterial activity against S. aureus but no IZD against E.coli. The fresh ethanolic extract and aqueous (cold water and hot water) of A. cepa (onions) produced no antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria at all concentrations. The test bacteria were resistant to ampicilin (control) at all concentration used in this study. Findings from this study show that two (A indica and A. sativum) of the plants constitute significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. However, plants with significant antibacterial activity should be subjected to further analysis in order to unravel the active ingredients responsible for their antibacterial actions.

[Amos Dangana, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Bibiana Nonye Egenti. Preliminary evaluation of antibacterial potential of five common Nigerian plants against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):67-71]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.11.

 

Keywords: Pathogens; Medicinal plants; Antibacterial

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Comparative study of proximate composition, minerals and amino acid of some economically species in Sudan

 

Egbal O. Ahmed 1 Habeab S. Adm2 and Altib A. Altib2

 

1-AL Neelain University, School of fish Science.

P. O Box 12702 Khartoum; E-mail egbalosman1@gmail.com

2-Ministry of animal resources and fisheries, Khartoum, Sudan.

 

Abstract: The edible muscle tissue of two marine fish (Lethrinus nublosus and Eipiniphilus coioies) and two freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Bagrus bayad) were analyzed for their mineral, amino acid, and proximate compositions. Wide variation between species in moisture content (marine, 73.0–74.66%; freshwater, 75.33–78.0%), fat content (marine, 3.33–4.16%; freshwater 5.3–13.17%) and protein content (marine, 73.3–78.07%; freshwater, 78.20–77.0%) was observed. The amino acid composition showed that all fish studied were balanced with respect to essential amino acids. Marine and freshwater fish were comparable in their mineral compositions. The content per g muscle was 2920-4305 mg Ca, 7270-7730 mg P, 705-748 mg Mg, 9990-10175 mg K, 2060-2305mg Na and Se 3610 mg for freshwater fish, while marine fish was 3113-5880 mg Ca, 9010-9350 mg P, 687-696 mg Mg, 11550-12100 mg K, 22856-2935mg Na and Se 4328-4565 mg.

[Egbal O. Ahmed Habeab S. Adm and Altib A. Altib. Comparative study of proximate composition, minerals and amino acid of some economically species in Sudan. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):72-76]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.12.

 

Key words: Proximate, mineral, amino acid, freshwater fish, marine fish, Sudan

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Effect of roof-top Positioned Photovoltaics Panel's Tilt Angle on Catchable Solar Radiation (Case Study: Rasht Region, Iran)

 

Hafez Abdolkarimi Komleh1 (Author for correspondence), Mohammad Mehdi Raeis Samiei2

 

1 Master of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran; Hafez.Abdolkarimi@Gmail.com

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, The University Of Guilan, Rasht, Iran; R_samiei@guilan.ac.ir

 

Abstract – Solar radiation is a source of energy that is free, clean, and without damaging impacts on the environment. In addition, it can be directly and/or indirectly converted into other forms of energy and thus it is the most unique type of renewable energy sources in the world. Photovoltaic panels are one of the most promising technologies for renewable energies to supply required energy of the structures in the future. When solar panels are installed on the roofs of buildings, knowing the optimal tilt angle is important in order to have the most energy annually or quarterly. In fact, changes in the tilt angle influences the solar radiation received by the surface of panels. In this study, the optimal tilt angle of photovoltaic panels in Rasht City, Iran with latitude of 37.120 North was obtained based on mathematical model of Liu & Jordan and regarding data from the Rasht City’s Bureau of Meteorology. Results showed that regions with latitude and climate similar to Rasht City, solar equipment at an angle of 31.16 degrees respect to the horizon and to the south has the maximum annual amount of radiation received from the sun. In addition, the optimal average seasonal angle in the summer and winter months are zero and 65.31 degrees, respectively.

[Hafez Abdolkarimi Komleh, Mohammad Mehdi Raeis Samiei. Effect of roof-top Positioned Photovoltaics Panel's Tilt Angle on Catchable Solar Radiation (Case Study: Rasht Region, Iran). N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):77-84]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.13.

 

Keywords: Solar Energy, Optimal Tilt Angle, Photovoltaic Panel, radiation Intensity

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An Evaluation Of The Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Profiles Of Vernonia Amygdalina And Bark Of Magnifera indica

 

Matthew Egbobor Eja1, Joseph Ubi Otu1, Nsor Odo Alobi2, Uno Agbo Uno2, Magdalene Obi-Abang2

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, P.M.B 1123, Calabar, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemical Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.

Kingenyi4gold@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Since the emergence of tetracycline – resistant bacterium, Shegella dysenteriae in 1953, there has been a lot of research on the production of semi-synthetic drugs against several emerging drug-resistant bacteria. In this regard, herbal scientists have contributed very little. This study investigated the phytochemical compositions and antimicrobial effects of Vernonia amygdalina (E1) and the bark of Magnifera indica (E2) in combination with themselves and conventional drugs, Ampicillin (AmP) and Chloramphenicol (CPC), against Salmonella species isolated from poultry farms. Broth dilution and disc diffusion methods were respectively applied to determine the sensitivity of Salmonella species and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plants affecting Salmonella species; the phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Results revealed that E1 possessed greater antimicrobial effect on Salmonella species (Zone of inhibition: 9.06+0.66 to 15.12+0.61mm) than E2 (Zone of inhibition: 0.0 to 12.10+0.20mm); while Salmonella was resistant to E2. The combination of E1 and E2 gave antagonistic results with E1 antagonizing E2. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between E1 and E2, and the combination of each of the plants and antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition of E1 + AMP (21.66+0.97mm) indicateing better effectivity than E2 + AMP (13.77+0.86mm). Also, E1 + CPC has the same advantage over E2 + CPC. There was antagonism in 100% of the isolates when E1 and E2 were combined. However, E1 + AMP and E1 + CPC resulted in synergism in 93% and 100% of the isolates respectively, indicating a possible hope in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Also, the MIC of E1 (3.12mg/ml) affected 38.46% of the isolates unlike that of E2 (6.25mg/ml) which affected 12.82% of the isolates, thus confirming E1 as having greater effectivity than E2. In conclusion, Vernonia amygdalina in combination with ampicillin and chloramphenicol could be drugs of choice against resistant Salmonella species.

[Matthew Egbobor Eja, Joseph Ubi Otu, Nsor Odo Alobi, Uno Agbo Uno, Magdalene Obi-Abang. An Evaluation Of The Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Profiles Of Vernonia Amygdalina And Bark Of Magnifera indica. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):85-94]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.14.

 

Keywords: Phytochemical profiles, antimicrobial effects, conventionaldrugs, Vernonia amygdalina, Magnifera indica.

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The Accounting Information Systems and Their Role in Reducing the Risks of Banking Funding

 

Enas Sayed Mahgoub Elsayed, Fatima Elyass Mohamed

 

Department of Accounting, Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

enassayed@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:. The research aimed to develop an integrated framework for evaluating the efficiency of accounting information systems to identify and measure, as well as reducing the risks of banking funding that threaten the bank's profitability and stability. Also, this study aims to identify the benefits achieved through using accounting information systems in banks and highlight some problems and barriers limit the application of accounting information systems and the extent commitment of the banks to these systems. The importance of the study is represented in identifying the characteristics of the accounting information systems and its contributing in reducing the risks of banking funding, as well as simulating and encouraging the banks to develop and update their accounting systems to reduce the risks of the banking transactions, and the extent contributing of these systems in the future and economic plans for the organization under the current study. The study's hypothesis is represented that, these systems will help in reducing the banking funding risks. The researcher used the deductive method to determine the problem and identify its nature, as well as the research axes. Also, the researcher used the inductive method to test the research hypothesis and the analytic descriptive method through following the approach of case study and analyses its data and interpret this data to perform accurate description for the problem. Also, the researcher used historical method to identify the previous studies related to the research topic.

[Enas Sayed Mahgoub, Fatima Elyass Mohamed. The Accounting Information Systems and Their Role in Reducing the Risks of Banking Funding. N Y Sci J 2016;9(6):94-109]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.15.

 

Keywords: Banks, Accounting Information Systems, risks of banking funding

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 30, 2016. 

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doi:10.7537/marsnys090616.15

 

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2016 Marsland Press