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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 91); September 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts Against Erwinia carotovora. subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables.

 

Ijato, J.Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com; GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: Erwinia carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease on variety of crops. Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia amygdalina, Azardirachta indica and Bauhinia monandra were evaluated for their antibacterial effects on the growth of E. carotovora. Hundred grams of powdered leaves of each was mixed with 200ml of distilled cold H2O and left overnight. This was filtered and the filtrate served as extracts. The antibacterial activities of the test plant were determined using agar diffusion method. The effects of cold water leaf extracts of A. indica ranged from 0.55-2.85cm. It was most and least inhibitive at 5%and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.55cm and 2.85cm respectively, followed by J. curcas which had the highest and lowest inhibition at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.52cm and 1.68cm. V. amygdalina mostly reduced the growth of E. carotovora at 5% and 20% by 0.52cm and 0.73cm, followed by M. oleifera which was most antimicrobial on E. carotovora at 5% by 0.12cm while 20% of M. oleifera extracts highly reduced the growth of E. carotovora by 2.27cm. B. monandra was most and least inhibitive at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.20cm and 1.69cm respectively. The results showed that, the higher the concentration of different aqueous leaf extracts, the higher the inhibitory capacity on E. carotovora.

[Ijato JY. Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts Against Erwinia carotovora. subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):1-3]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.01.

 

Keywords: antibacterial activities, E. carotovora, aqueous leaf extracts

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2

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Assessment of Citrus maxima Burm. Seeds Extracts Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens

 

Ajeet Singh* and Navneet

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University Haridwar, Uttrakhand, India – 249404

Contact: 08791539165; Email: ajeetchoudharygkv@gmail.com

Contact: 07351628000; Email: navneetbithel@gmail.com

 

Abstract- The antimicrobial activity and phytochemical investigation of seeds extracts of Citrus maxima Burm. was examined against common respiratory tract pathogens. The pathogens used in this study were Streptococcus pneumoniae (MTCC 655), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1144), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2474), Streptococcus pyogens (MTCC 442), Haemophillus influenzae (MTCC 3826) and two fungal pathogens Candida albicans (MTCC 227), Aspergillus niger (MTCC 921). The plant material was extracted with four different solvents i.e., petroleum ether (PET), acetone (ACE), methanol (MeOH) and water (H2O) with increasing polarity by Soxhlet apparatus and removed the solvent using vacuum evaporator at 30˚C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were examined by Agar well diffusion method and poisoned food technique, respectively. The methanol (MeOH) extract was found most active as compared to other extracts. The maximum inhibition zone was found against Staphylococcus aureus (240.88 mm) and minimum against Candida albicans (7.660.32 mm). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for MeOH extract between 3.12 to 25 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans respectively. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts showed the occurrence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, resins and phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of plant represents a considerable outcome for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

[Ajeet Singh and Navneet. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Assessment of Citrus maxima Burm. Seeds Extracts Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):4-10]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.02.

 

Keywords: Respiratory Tract Pathogens, Antimicrobial, Phytochemical, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Citrus maxima.

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3

The effect of personal experience or knowledge on gap auditor’s expectations of funders and quality of their decisions

 

Arezo Shishe Bor1, Alborz Abbasi2 (corresponding author)

 

Department of Accounting, Yazd science and research branch, Islamic Azad university, Yazd, Iran.

Department of Accounting, Yazd branch, Islamic Azad university, Yazd, Iran.

mohsen8203934@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate auditor’s expectations gap as the intermediary in the relationship between work experience and accounting loan officers and work experience and loan officers, quality of decision. This is a correlative survey study and has an applied purpose. The population of study is consisted of audit institutions and banks in Yazd province and the sample size was 310 participants. This study used random sampling method for sampling. In this study, a researcher made questionnaire was used to collect data. The hypotheses were investigated using SPSS software. The results show that work experience of financial suppliers will significantly influence on auditor’s expectations gap and its amount of influence is equal to 6.10, and negative (inverse). It means that as work experience of financial suppliers increases, auditor’s expectations gap decreases. Work experience of financial suppliers will significantly influence on auditor’s expectations gap and its amount of influence is equal to 6.10, and negative (inverse). Work experience of financial suppliers related to job will significantly influence on auditor’s expectations gap and its amount of influence is equal to 0.320, and negative (inverse). It means that as work experience of financial suppliers related to job is increased, auditor’s expectations gap is decreased. Work experience related to financial suppliers job is increased, auditor’s expectations gap is decreased. Auditor’s expectations gap will significantly influence on loan decision making quality and its amount of influence is equal to 0.61, and negative (inverse). It means that as auditor’s expectations gap is increased, loan decision making quality is decreased. Work experience of financial suppliers has no significant impact on the loan decision making quality. Work experience of financial suppliers related to job has no significant impact on loan decision making quality. Auditor’s expectations gap has significant impact on loan decision making quality.

[Arezo Shishe Bor, Alborz Abbasi. The effect of personal experience or knowledge on gap auditor’s expectations of funders and quality of their decisions. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):11-14]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.03.

 

Keywords: Audit expectations gap, financial suppliers

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4

Implementation And Relative Effectiveness Of The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund In Nigeria

 

Oluwatusin, Femi Michael

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University

P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Credit is regarded as a catalyst that boosts the use of other factors of production and makes under-used capacities functional for increased production. The study examined the implementation and relative effectiveness of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the south western part of Nigeria. Both primary and secondary data were used for this research work. The primary data were collected with a well- structured questionnaire from the randomly selected 160 beneficiaries of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) in the study area. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the data collected. The study subjected the primary data collected to three functional forms (Linear, Semi-log and Exponential) and the lead equation was again selected taken into consideration the econometrics and economics theory criteria. The study found out that the majority of the beneficiaries (69%) applied for loans above N50000 while 70 percent (N 1.7billion) of the loans guaranteed in the study area went to the male farmers. Very large percentage (98.8%) of the loans guaranteed went to individual category. The mean age of the beneficiaries was 42 years. The study further revealed that 86 percent (majority) of the beneficiaries were married while 75 percent of the respondents had formal education. The mean household size was 9 while the mean farming experience was 15 years. The majority (90%) of the beneficiaries went for short term loans. The majority (86%) of those that benefited from the guaranteed loans were crop farmers. Linear functional form was chosen as the lead equation and the main determinants of the amount of loan requested for by the beneficiaries were farmer’s age, farmer’s income, farming experience, and farm size. It was recommended that more should be done by the Scheme to empower the farming community in the study area through cooperative societies and informal groups.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Implementation And Relative Effectiveness Of The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):15-22]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.04.

 

Keywords: Credit, guarantee, farmers, implementation, fund

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5

The Effect Of Thermal Treatment On The Characteristics Of Commercially Available Edible Vegetable Oils In Nigeria.

 

Osu Charles I.1* and E.C. Ogoko2

 

1Department Of Pure And Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria.

2Department Of Chemistry, National Open University Of Nigeria, 14 – 16 Ahmadu Bello Way. P.M.B. 80067, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: Phone: +2348037783246; E-mail: charsike@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the effect of thermal treatment on the characteristics of commercially available edible vegetable oils used in Nigeria. The saponification value of oil was found to be higher in C than in A and B. At 20 minutes of heating time, C has the highest value of value 194.30 mgKOH/g, followed by A with value of 185,90 mgKOH/g while B has the lowest value of 184.40 mgKOH/g after 20mins of heating time respectively. The saponification value decreases with an increase in heating time. The iodine value decreased for all samples as heating time increases. Sample A has the highest value of 102.50 g/100g while sample B has the lowest value of 92.0 g/100g respectively. As the heating time increase, the acid value and free fatty acid values also increases for all samples. Repeated heating of the oil eventually resulting in Lipid peroxidation and formation of hydro-peroxides and aldehydes. Increasing the heating time of edible oil accelerates oxidative degradation of lipids, forming hazardous reactive oxygen species and depleting the natural antioxidant contents of the cooking oil.

[Osu, Charles I. and E.C. Ogoko. The Effect Of Thermal Treatment On The Characteristics Of Commercially Available Edible Vegetable Oil In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):23-27]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.05.

 

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, Vegetable Oil, Thermal treatment

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6

North West region of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves, Garhwal Himalaya with Unexplored Lichen Wealth and its Medicinal Lichen Distribution in Different Aspect

 

Shobha Rawat*

 

Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena Campus, Almora, Uttrakhand-263601.

*Corresponding Author E-mail- shobharawat1981@gmail.com, Mob:9450675466

 

Abstract: The present work describes lichen diversity in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves, Chamoli district, Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, in North West region of India. A total of 206 species belonging to 78 genera and 29 families were enumerated during the present study. Parmeliaceae family dominates with 72 species and 24 genera. The foliose lichen are represented by maximum growth of lichen families, namely Parmeliaceae > Physciaceae > Collemataceae by the no. of species 56 > 24 > 8 and maximum growth of crustose lichen Teloschistaceae > Lecanoraceae > Megasporacea by 11 > 9 > 5 and fruticose lichen Parmeliaceae > Cladoniaceae > Ramaliaceae by 16 > 9 > 3 respectively. Malari area has occurrence 67 species belonging to 45 genera of 18 families and the members of Parmeliaceae have 34 species and 15 genera While Jumma area has 62 species 31 genera. The Valley of Flowers represents 59 species belonging to 39 genera of lichens of 21 families. Parmeliaceae dominances with 19 species and 11 genera. Out of the 72 species of Parmeliceae lichens, 33 species have medicinal properties. Out of these species only 14 species have Traditional medicine; 24 with antimicrobial activity; 13 with Anticancer/Cytotoxicity activity; 7 have antioxidant/tyrosinase, 2 have Immuno modulating and 1with Antiinflamatory from the different localities. Thus present baseline information on lichen species in these localities will be useful for biomonitoring, bioprospection, conservation policy, formulation and pharmacological studies, keeping in view of global warming and climate change.

[Shobha Rawat. North West region of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves, Garhwal Himalaya with Unexplored Lichen Wealth and its Medicinal Lichen Distribution in Different Aspect. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):28-40]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.06.

 

Key Words: Lichen, Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

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7

Development of a Tractor Mounted Groundnut Harvester

 

V.U. Saakuma, V.I. Umogbai, and T. Bako

 

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

engbako@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A tractor mounted groundnut harvester was designed and constructed to harvest groundnuts on a flat field. Performance evaluation of the harvester was carried out to determine the effect of forward speed at a constant depth on the machine performance. The forward speeds, 1.6 km/hr, 2.4 km/hr and 3.2 km/hr were investigated at a constant depth of 10cm with three (3) replications in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried at P ≤ 0.05 significant level. When significant difference was observed, treatment means were separated using the F-LSD. The results obtained from the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows that there was significant difference in the weight of harvested groundnuts and there was no significant difference in the weight of damaged and un-uprooted groundnuts. From the means separation, there was significant difference in the weight of harvested groundnuts between the speeds of 1.6 km/hr and 2.4 km/hr, 1.6 km/hr and 3.2 km/hr but there was no significant difference in the weight of harvested groundnuts between the speeds of 2.4 km/hr and 3.2 km/hr. From the results it was observed that the weight (kg) of groundnuts harvested decreased with increasing operation speed while both the weight (kg) of damaged groundnuts and the weight of un-uprooted groundnuts increased with increasing operation speed. It was also observed that the harvesting efficiency decreased with increasing speed of operation while both the percentage of damaged groundnuts and the percentage of un-harvested groundnuts increased with increasing speed of operation. This shows that the effective speed for the harvester is 1.6 km/hr.

[V.U. Saakuma, V.I. Umogbai, and T. Bako. Development of a Tractor Mounted Groundnut Harvester. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):41-46]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.07.

 

Keywords: Tractor mounted, Harvester, Groundnuts, Operation speed

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8

Production of Biodiesel Using Colocynthis Citrullus L Oil over Green Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst

 

Obi, Chidi1, Agha, Inya Inya2

 

1Physical Chemistry Unit, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

2Chemistry Department, Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, Ebonyi State.

zarasexcom@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The production and characterization of biodiesel fuel properties obtained via transesterification over green solid heterogeneous catalyst with Colocynthis citrullus L oil was investigated. The oil was extracted from the melon seeds using normal hexane via soxhlet extractor. The oil obtained was characterized for specific gravity, viscosity, moisture content, free fatty acid (FFA), acid, iodine, peroxide and saponification values respectively. The biodiesel was synthesized homogeneously using a three-necked round bottom flask at 333 K and the feedstock ratio of catalyst to methanol to oil is 3:10:10. The biodiesel produced was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point, American Petroleum Index (API), aniline point and diesel index respectively. The oil obtained gave a yield of 53% and the values of the various physicochemical properties are given as specific gravity (0.91 g/cm3), viscosity (36.00 mm2/sec), FFA (1.70 mg KOH/g), acid (3.40 mg KOH/g), iodine (120.00 g/100g), peroxide (8.00 mmol O2/g) and saponification (191.00 mg KOH/g) respectively. These values were within recommended limits of American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D6751). The saponification value obtained showed that the oil contained a reasonable proportion of fatty acids. The result revealed that biodiesel produced showed the following properties in the value of viscosity (1.025 mm2/sec), specific gravity (0.83 g/cm3), API (40.00oC), flash point (65oC), aniline point (87oC) and diesel index (66.40) respectively. The result showed that the properties of biodiesel produced were relatively close to the ASTM D6751. This study has shown that green solid catalyst (kaolin clay) can be used in the production of quality biodiesel which is an alternative to fossil fuel.

[Obi C, Agha II. Production of Biodiesel Using Colocynthis Citrullus L Oil over Green Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):47-52]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.08.

 

Keywords: Biodiesel, kaolin clay; Colocynthis citrullus oil; characterization; heterogeneous catalyst

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9

Results Of Research On Space Physics

 

Gangadhara Rao Irlapati

 

H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Email ID: scientistgangadhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Space physics is the study of plasma as they occur naturally in the earths upper atmosphere. As such, it encompasses every thing above earth’s atmosphere, upto the edge of the solar system. Space physics is a fundamental part of the study of space weather. I have conducted many researches on the space physics, and invented some related discoveries & inventions which may also be useful in understanding the extent of the use of space physics.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results Of Research On Space Physics. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):53-87]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.09.

 

Keywords: Universe, A new hypothetical model of cosmology

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10

Implementation And Relative Effectiveness Of The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund In Nigeria.

 

Oluwatusin, Femi Michael

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Credit is regarded as a catalyst that boosts the use of other factors of production and makes under-used capacities functional for increased production. The study examined the implementation and relative effectiveness of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the south western part of Nigeria. Both primary and secondary data were used for this research work. The primary data were collected with a well- structured questionnaire from the randomly selected 160 beneficiaries of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) in the study area. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the data collected. The study subjected the primary data collected to three functional forms (Linear, Semi-log and Exponential) and the lead equation was again selected taken into consideration the econometrics and economics theory criteria. The study found out that the majority of the beneficiaries (69%) applied for loans above N50000 while 70 percent (N 1.7billion) of the loans guaranteed in the study area went to the male farmers. Very large percentage (98.8%) of the loans guaranteed went to individual category. The mean age of the beneficiaries was 42 years. The study further revealed that 86 percent (majority) of the beneficiaries were married while 75 percent of the respondents had formal education. The mean household size was 9 while the mean farming experience was 15 years. The majority (90%) of the beneficiaries went for short term loans. The majority (86%) of those that benefited from the guaranteed loans were crop farmers. Linear functional form was chosen as the lead equation and the main determinants of the amount of loan requested for by the beneficiaries were farmer’s age, farmer’s income, farming experience, and farm size. It was recommended that more should be done by the Scheme to empower the farming community in the study area through cooperative societies and informal groups.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Implementation And Relative Effectiveness Of The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):88-95]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.10.

 

Keywords: Credit, guarantee, farmers, implementation, fund

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11

Sensitivity analyzes turbocharging variables for optimum engine performance

 

Mohammad Hasan Shojaee Fard1, Azadeh Sajedin2, Abolfazl Khalkhali3

 

1Professor of mechanical engineering, mhshf@ iust.ac.ir

2PhD student of automotive engineering, azadeh.sajedin@gmail.com

3Associate professor of automotive engineering, ab_khalkhali@iust.ac.ir

 

Abstract: One dimensional model for a four cylinder V type turbocharged CNG engine has been developed and studied in detail using GT-POWER software [1]. The sensitivity analysis for a wide variety of parameters such as BMEP, BSFC, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger speed and compressor efficiency at different intake and exhaust of turbocharger unit conditions has been carried out for a specified engine with certain valve timings, injection timing and compression ratio at different engine speeds. For validation purposes the results are compared with experimental data available where 5 percent error has been achieved. The results obtained could be accurately used to predict and optimize a set of favorable performance conditions during SI engine development process and turbocharger selection also improved matching of parameters. GT-Power is a very powerful tool for simulating complete engines. However care must be taken when analyzing the results. The code only uses one direction and time, meaning that the flow will always be uniform in the cross sections. Whereas in many parts of the real engine the flow field is three dimensional and far from uniform in the cross-sections.

[Mohammad Hasan Shojaee Fard, Azadeh Sajedin, Abolfazl Khalkhali. Sensitivity analyzes turbocharging variables for optimum engine performance. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):96-102]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.11.

 

Key words: turbocharger, sensitive analyze, SI engine

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12

A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India.

 

Raushani Raj*, Surendra S. Parihar and Roushan K. Thakur

 

Department of Biotechnology, I.A.S.C.A, ITM University, Gwalior, (Madhya Pradesh), India.

E-mail: roushni.raz112@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was aimed at assessing the ground water quality characteristics of Gwalior City. A comprehensive physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was conducted after the ground water samples were collected from different sampling locations. The study was carried out by collecting four ground water samples (two bore wells and two municipal supply water) during January-March 2012. The results were compared with Standards prescribed by WHO and ISI-10500-91. The parameters include temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total alkalinity (TA), Chlorides (Cl-), Total hardness (TH), Dissolved oxygen(DO), Total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) and Bacterial count (MPN/100 mg/l coliforms). The observation of the study strongly suggest that water of Gwalior region is of very high TDS and needs to be lowered down within prescribed limits before using it for drinking purposes. The present work is primary attempt to examine the water quality of various potable water resources in and around Gwalior City of M.P., India.

[Raushani Raj, Surendra S. Parihar and Roushan K. Thakur. A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India. N Y Sci J 2016;9(9):103-108]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys090916.12.

 

Keywords: - Ground Water, MPN, Microbiological, Physico-chemical analysis, TPC

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 3, 2016. 

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