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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 92); October 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Enhanced Antioxidation Properties Of Some Local Spices (afromomum melegueta, pipper guineense, allium sativum and monodora myristica) On Characteristics Of Palm Oil Consumed In Nigeria.

 

Osu Charles I.1* and E.C. Ogoko2

 

1Department Of Pure And Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria.

2Department Of Chemistry, National Open University Of Nigeria, 14 – 16 Ahmadu Bello Way. P.M.B. 80067, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: Phone: +2348037783246; E-mail: charsike@yahoo.com; Charles.osu@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: This study revealed the effect antioxidants in the local food additives (afromomum melegueta, pipper guineense, allium sativum and monodora myristica ) on the characteristics of palm oil consumed in Nigeria. Also, the effect of contact time of the extracts from the local spices with the palm oil was investigated. The acid value was found to be significantly lower in the four samples treated with the extracts. The acid values ranged from 2.635 to 3.317 mg KOH/g. Free fatty acid (FFA) of oil before and after addition of extracts from the spices used revealed that FFA was found to be significantly higher in oil before addition of the extracts. Sample with allium sativum extract had the lowest free fatty acid (1.334 % oleic acid). The values for the effect of contact time ranged from 163.28 to 207.57 mgKOH/g, SV and 13.81 to 14.25 g/100g, IV for sample treated with afromomum melegueta extract; 194.83 to 159.09 mgKOH/g, SV and 12.877 to 14.205 g/100g, IV for oil treated with pipper guineense extract; 209.68 to 166.38 mgKOH/g, SV and 13.063 to 13.866 g/100g, IV for oil treated with allium sativum extract; 192.07 to 160.29 mgKOH/g, SV and 12.88 to 14.386 g/100g g/100g, IV for oil treated monodora myristica extract. The values of PV, FFA and AV increase as contact time increases from 0 to 28 days. The values ranged from 4.90 to 9.80 meg/kg, PV; 1.556 to 2.88 % oleic acid, FFA and 3.096 to 5.73 mg KOH/g, AV for oil treated with afromomum melegueta extract; 4.98 to 9.95 meg/kg, PV; 1.417 to 3.54 % oleic acid, FFA and 2.820 to 7.44 mg KOH/g, AV for oil treated with pipper guineense extract; 4.95 to 9.90 meg/kg, PV; 1.334 to 3.19 % oleic acid, FFA and 2.655 to 6.35 mg KOH/g, AV for oil sample treated with allium sativum extract (table 4); 4.90 to 9.82 meg/kg, PV; 1.528 to 3.65 % oleic acid, FFA and 3.041 to 7.28 mg KOH/g, AV for oil treated with momodora myristica extract. The increase in contact time on addition of the extracts from the different local spices with the palm oil did not retard the development of rancidity.

[Osu, Charles I. and E.C. Ogoko. Enhanced Antioxidation Properties Of Some Local Spices (afromomum melegueta, pipper guineense, allium sativum and monodora myristica) On Characteristics Of Palm Oil Consumed In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):1-7]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.01.

 

Keywords: Antioxidation, local spices, palm oil, contact time.

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2

Inseparable Claims and Its Legal Effects

 

Ali Nasiri

 

Department of law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran.

 

Abstract: A claim that is under investigation in law court, May be indivisible claim. An indivisible claim is an exception of the real of divisibility of claims. It’s a claim that due to the single reason and various complainants and called or because of comprehension, veness of the claim request can not disport into different sections. indivisible claims and sentences have special features and don’t let claim and sentence to be divided into different parts. in these claims, the success of one group of called and defeat of others is not possible. and all of them either win or condemn. For example, claim of invalidation of official document, claim of proving parentage, and case of marriage dissolution can be mentioned. Legal consequences of indivisible claim on suppression of judgment is that, when the claim is in divisible, judgment will be generally suppressed, and it must not be heard in the restoration of claim of some called. Also, complainant in this case should generally quit his claim. Lastly, one of definite principles in civil procedure is applying the sentence to someone who hasn’t been present in steps or the section that lead to the issuance of judgment (sentence), this applying only take place in a endive, sable claim That has led to issuance of judgment.

[Ali Nasiri. Inseparable Claims and Its Legal Effects. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):8-11]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.02.

 

Key words: claim, indivisible, kinds, civil procedure, indivisible sentences, legal consequences

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Identification of Factors that Affect Crop Productivity in the Traditional Rain-fed Sector of Sudan

 

Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello*, Eissa Mohamed Mahmoud **and Abd Latief M. Osman***

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan;

** Freelance Consultant of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Khartoum, Sudan,

*** Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Blue Nile University, Sudan.

Corresponding Author’s Email: raoufbello@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the factors affecting crop productivity in the Blue Nile State, Sudan. From four localities, 200 representative samples were randomly selected. The data were collected by the use of pre-tested interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of responds. Pearson correlation coefficients and regression was also adopted to indicate positive or negative association of some variables. The results revealed that the main limiting factors of crop productivity are the use of unimproved varieties, untreated seeds, delayed sowing date, inadequate measures of weeds and pests control, and limited financial capability to conduct the agricultural operations correctly. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that the current area of sorghum has a positive association with the previous year of sorghum price; yield and area cultivated. The study recommended some interventions to improve crop productivity and production in the studied area.

[Bello AS, Mahmoud EM, Osman AM, Identification of Factors that Affect Crop Productivity in the Traditional Rain-fed Sector of Sudan. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):12-18]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.03.

 

Key wards: Crop productivity; traditional rain-fed sector; Blue Nile State; Sudan

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Gene Library

 

Ma Hongbao, PhD

 

Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A gene library is a collection of gene clones that represents the genetic material of an organism. There are different types of gene libraries, including cDNA libraries, genomic libraries and randomized mutant libraries. The applications of these libraries depend on the source of the original DNA fragments. Generally in a gene library each DNA fragment is uniquely inserted into a cloning vector and the pool of recombinant DNA molecules is then transferred into a population of bacteria or yeast such that each organism contains on average one construct. As the population of organisms is grown in culture, the DNA molecules contained within them are copied and propagated.

[Ma Hongbao. Gene Library. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):19-23]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.04.

 

Keywords: gene; library; clone; organism; DNA; molecule; copy

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Evaluating the Effect of Internal Marketing (IM) on Competitive Advantage through Mediation Customer Satisfaction in MELI Bank Branches of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz branches Study)

 

Manoochehr Ebadi*, Ghanbar Amirnezhad**

 

*Department of Business Management, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

**Department of Management, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, iran

 

Abstract: With the Appearance of a Competitive Economy, Concepts Such as Customer Orientation, Customer Focus and Customer Satisfaction Considered Foundation of Business, and Those Organizations That Does Not Pay Attention to it, Removed From The Market. Internal Marketing Activities through Employees Influence and Motivate (Internal Customers) Lead to Customer Satisfaction and Organizational Competitiveness. The Main Purpose This Study Is to Investigate the Effect Interanl Marketing (Organizational Vision, Reward System, Staff development) on Competitive Advantage with Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction. Statistical Population of This Study Is 374 Staff of MELI Bank Branches of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz Metropolis Study). Using of Simple Random Sampling Method, and With Using krejcie and Morgan Table, 245 of them were Chosen. In Total, 245 Questionnaires Were Distribute And The 235 Number Questionnaires Were Collected From The Respondents. In Order to Measure the Research Variables Was Used three Questionnaires Contains: Internal Marketing, Customer Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage. Data Analysis On Two Levels: Descriptive And Inferential Statistics With Using Statistical Software SPSS And Lisrrl Done. Research Findings Show That Internal Marketing Has Positive and Significant Effect on Customer Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage; Also Findings Show That Internal Marketing Has Positive and Significant Impact on Competitive Advantage through Mediating Role of Customer Saris faction in MELI Bank Branches of Khuzestan Province-Ahvaz.

[Manoochehr Ebadi, Ghanbar Amirnezhad. Evaluating the Effect of Internal Marketing (IM) on Competitive Advantage through Mediation Customer Satisfaction in MELI Bank Branches of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz branches Study). N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):24-29]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.05.

 

Keywords: Internal Marketing (IM), Customer Satisfaction, Competitive Advantage MELI Bank Branches of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz branches Study)

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Modernized technology to address freshwater problem solutions

 

Jun Hwan Kim

 

Sardis Secondary School, Chilliwack, BC V2R 2Z6, Canada

junhwankim99@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the perspective, upon the general reference scenario (GSS), the situation in the world becomes even more alarming when it’s a reasonably possible to speak about the catastrophe with fresh water on a global scale. Indeed, according to this scenario, by 2025, 40% of the world's population, or 3.1 billion, will have a critical situation with water (Kexp more than 60%) [10; p. 397]. The problem of increasing freshwater scarcity with favorable composition is a recognized problem of international importance [1; p. 132].

[Jun Hwan Kim. Modernized technology to address freshwater problem solutions. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):30-33]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.06.

 

Keywords: Modernized technology, freshwater

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Peculiarities of speech development in children with visual disorder

 

N.Z. Abidova

 

Senior researcher, Tashkent State Pedagogical University named after Nizami, Tashkent, Uzbekistan,

nilufar1976@list.ru

 

Annotation: The article is recommended for a wide circle of readers, defectologist working in specialized educational establishments and parents of children with visual disorder. The ascertaining study has been conducted to determine the level of speech development.

[N.Z. Abidova. Peculiarities of speech development in children with visual disorder. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):34-36]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.07.

 

Key words: speech development, children with visual disorder, amblyopia, of pronunciation, phonemic development, squint, vocabulary, semantics.

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Assessment of CD163 as a Predictor of Esophageal Varices in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

 

Adel Awad Mostafa1, Mohammed El-Sayed El-Shewi2, Ahmed Mostafa Amin3 and Shaban Hassan Abdel Aziz Alibiary4

 

Prof of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University - Egypt

Lecturer of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University- Egypt

Medical Microbiology and immunology Department, faculty of medicine, Tanta University - Egypt. Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Department, kafr-Elsheikh Liver research center, Kafr-Elsheikh-Egypt.

mohammed.elshewi@fmed.bu.edu.eg Ahmedmicro@yahoo.com shabanalibiary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction and study aim: Portal hypertension is one of the most important complications of liver cirrhosis. Endoscopic screening of all patients with liver cirrhosis would result in a large number of unnecessary additional burdens to endoscopic units. Activation of Kupffer cells is involved in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension. Soluble (s) CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor and a specific marker for macrophage activation in portal hypertension. This study was designed to assess soluble plasma (s) CD163 as noninvasive parameter for detection of esophageal varices in Child A compensated cirrhotic hepatitis C patients. Patients and Methods: This study included 86 subjects among of them 70 (Child A) post hepatitis C compensated cirrhotic patients in whom fibroscan were above 13 Kps (F4) and 16 healthy individuals as a control group who were enrolled in Hepatology Department and outpatient clinic at kafr Elsheikh liver research center at the period from June 2014 to June 2015. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to detect esophageal varices (EVs) and simultaneously serum soluble (s) CD163 measurement by ELISA was assessed in all individuals. Results: There was increase in soluble (s) CD163 in cirrhotic patients with and without esophageal varices, fairly three times more than control groups (10.461.73and 5.470.72 Vs 2.850.33 mg/L) (P value=0.001). In addition, (s) CD163 is nearly doubled in patients with esophageal varices (mean=10.461.73mg/L) than patients without varices (mean=5.470.72mg/L) (p value=0.001). By multivariate analysis of all studied parameters in cirrhotic patients, presence of EVs was associated with a low platelet count ( p=0.02), high body mass index ( p=0.029 ), low hemoglobin (p =0.001), low albumin (p=0.001), increased PV diameter (p =0.002 ), increased spleen size (p=0.001), high Child A score (in A6 than A5) (p =0.001 ), high FIB4 score (p =0.003), high Fibroscan results in (KPs) (p=0.001 ), high serum (S) CD163 level (p =0.001). Conclusion: (s) CD163 as serum marker of portal hypertension could potentially predict the presence of esophageal varices in Child A compensated cirrhotic hepatitis C patients.

[Adel Awad Mostafa, Mohammed El-Sayed El-Shewi, Ahmed Mostafa Amin and Shaban Hassan Abdel Aziz Alibiary. Assessment of CD163 as a Predictor of Esophageal Varices in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):37-47]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.08.

 

Key words: compensated liver cirrhosis, esophageal varices, serum soluble (s) CD 163.

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Review ideas Akhtl in legitimizing the rule of the Umayya

 

Saeed Albo Cord and Dr. Sohad Jaderi

 

Abstract: As we know, "legitimacy" in Spanish religious roots, means legitimate (and "legitimate" means "being religious" and the legitimacy of a thing, its religious faith) and his compliance with the law. But in contemporary political literature legitimacy of a term that refers to the acceptance, recognition and credibility that people are having. Amway and its believers and Andishehgostar system, the amount of algebra were thinking. Various media such as bars and rhetoric, poetry, fictional narratives and sometimes perverse interpretation and interpretation of Quranic verses and traditions, social space Bvd.rhavrd prepared to accept the ideas of deterministic belief in determinism, verification and interpretation of oppression, justifies sin and corruption, silence the crimes and atrocities and even comes with a Bvd.payan their ideas Akhtl currently under review in legitimizing the rule of the Umayyads as the role and influence thoughts and Aqayd Akhtl thoughts on the legitimacy of a regime and corrupt government deals.

[Saeed Albo Cord and Sohad Jaderi. Review ideas Akhtl in legitimizing the rule of the Umayya. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):48-54]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.09.

 

Key words: political poetry, criticism, political legitimacy, religious legitimacy, the Umayyads.

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Effect of polymer seed coating, chemicals and biological agent on storability of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds

 

Basavaraj*, Prashant Kumar Rai*

 

*Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture,

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, (U.P), India.

Basubiradar9@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present storage experiment was conducted at Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Uttar Pradesh during 2015 - 2016 with chickpea cv. Pusa-256 obtained from Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHIATS. The seeds were coated with polymer in combination with fungicide (bavistin 2 g/kg seed), insecticide (imidacloprid @ 2.5 ml/kg seed), bioagent (Pseudomonas florosence @ 10 g/kg seed) and maintained untreated seeds (control) where T1 is polymer coat alone, T2 is polymer + thiram, T3 is polymer + imidacloprid, T4 is polymer + thiram + imidacloprid, T5 is polymer + bavistin + imidacloprid + Pseudomonas florosence and T0 is control. Treated seeds were packed in cloth bag and polythene bag (700 gauge) (factor P1 and P2) at ambient conditions for assessment of seed germination, seedling length, seedling dry matter, seedling vigour indices, moisture content, insect infestation and electrical conductivity where data was subjected to factorial experiment laid out in completely randomized design. The present investigation revealed that the treatment T5 and stored in polythene bag was found to be superior in germination, seedling length, seedling dry matter, seedling vigour indices, and maintained lower moisture content, insect infestation and electrical conductivity as compared to other treatments. However moisture content, insect infestation and electrical conductivity were found in T5.

[Basavaraj, Prashant Kumar Rai. Effect of polymer seed coating, chemicals and biological agent on storability of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):55-60]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.10.

 

Key words: chickpea, germination, polymer, bavistin, imidacloprid, polythene bag, cloth bag

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Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Against Erwinia carotovora. subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables

 

Ijato, J.Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-

Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: Erwinia carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease on variety of crops. Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia amygdalina, Azardirachta indica and Bauhinia monandra were evaluated for their antibacterial effects on the growth of E. carotovora. Hundred grams of powdered leaves of each was mixed with 200ml of distilled cold H2O and left overnight. This was filtered and the filtrate served as extracts. The antibacterial activities of the test plant were determined using agar diffusion method. The effects of cold water leaf extracts of A. indica ranged from 0.55-2.85cm. It was most and least inhibitive at 5%and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.55cm and 2.85cm respectively, followed by J. curcas which had the highest and lowest inhibition at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.52cm and 1.68cm. V. amygdalina mostly reduced the growth of E. carotovora at 5% and 20% by 0.52cm and 0.73cm, followed by M. oleifera which was most antimicrobial on E. carotovora at 5% by 0.12cm while 20% of M. oleifera extracts highly reduced the growth of E. carotovora by 2.27cm. B. monandra was most and least inhibitive at 5% and 20% on E. carotovora by 0.20cm and 1.69cm respectively. The results showed that, the higher the concentration of different aqueous leaf extracts, the higher the inhibitory capacity on E. carotovora.

[Ijato, J.Y. Assessment Of The Antibacterial Activities Of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Against Erwinia carotovora. subsp. A Soft Rot Bacterium Of Vegetables. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):61-63]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.11.

 

Keywords: antibacterial activities, E. carotovora, aqueous leaf extracts

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Gully Erosion And Landslides In Southeastern Nigeria: Causes, Consequences And Control Measures.

 

Boniface C.E. Egbokaa and Akudo Ernest Orji ⃰b

 

a Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria

*b Department of Energy and Petroleum Studies, Novena University, Ogume, P.M.B. 2, Kwale Nigeria

⃰ Corresponding author: Tel., +2348035371235; Email- ernestakudo@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In southeastern Nigeria, soil and gully erosion and landslides are responsible for the widespread destructions of human, animal and plant lives, domestic, industrial and commercial property, transportation and communication systems, degradation of arable lands, contamination of surface and groundwater supplies, isolation of settlements and migration of communities. This account presents some of the results of research and studies of gully erosion and landslides carried out over the years in parts of southeastern States of Abia, Anambra, Enugu, Ebonyi and Imo States. Gully erosion is attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes, with the latter being most prevalent. Gully initiation is the result of localized erosion by surface runoff and soil eluviation associated with rainfall events of high intensity. Erosion is frequently concentrated where the forest cover has been removed for agricultural, urbanization and construction purposes and also at sites of uneven compaction of surface soils through surficial changes and movements. Based on rigorous reviews and research, interactions and personal experiences, the gullying mechanisms and processes were evaluated and the control measures suggested includes: avoiding human induced Soil/gully erosion initiation; public awareness; planting of vegetation on flood plains to be encouraged; laws guiding construction and building codes should be enacted by governments and relevant agencies; construction of special road infrastructure must be emplaced on solid engineering structures for soil and gully erosion control as well as regular maintenance of roads and drainages. Federal and State governments and community leaders should, therefore, inform and engage the inhabitants of the communities within the study area to successfully halt the initiation of gully erosion and landslide. Keywords: Landslide, erosion, environmental disaster, southeastern Nigeria.

[Boniface C.E. Egboka and Akudo Ernest Orji. Gully Erosion And Landslides In Southeastern Nigeria: Causes, Consequences And Control Measures. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):64-76]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.12.

 

Keywords: Gully Erosion; Landslide; Southeastern Nigeria; Cause; Consequence; Control Measure

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A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India.

 

Raushani Raj*, Surendra S. Parihar and Roushan K. Thakur

 

Department of Biotechnology, I.A.S.C.A, ITM University, Gwalior, (Madhya Pradesh), India.

E-mail: roushni.raz112@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was aimed at assessing the ground water quality characteristics of Gwalior City. A comprehensive physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was conducted after the ground water samples were collected from different sampling locations. The study was carried out by collecting four ground water samples (two bore wells and two municipal supply water) during January-March 2012. The results were compared with Standards prescribed by WHO and ISI-10500-91. The parameters include temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, Electrical conductivity(EC), Total alkalinity(TA), Chlorides (Cl-), Total hardness(TH), Dissolved oxygen(DO), Total aerobic microbial count(TAMC) and Bacterial count( MPN/100 mg/l coliforms). The observation of the study strongly suggest that water of Gwalior region is of very high TDS and needs to be lowered down within prescribed limits before using it for drinking purposes. The present work is primary attempt to examine the water quality of various potable water resources in and around Gwalior City of M.P., India.

[Raushani Raj, Surendra S. Parihar and Roushan K. Thakur. A Study on Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Ground Water in Different Locations of Gwalior City (M.P.), India. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):77-82]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.13. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.13.

 

Keywords: - Ground Water, MPN, Microbiological, Physico-chemical analysis, TPC

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Geophysical Logging of a Borehole for Supply of Potable Groundwater at Opuama Community, Warri North L.G.A., Delta State, Nigeria

 

*Ngah, S.A and **Nwankwoala, H.O

 

*Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

**Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The study aims at establishing the geophysical characteristics of subsurface lithologies traversed during the borehole drilling, assessment of the potentiality of any existing aquifer(s) as well as to design the borehole if possible for installation of casings, screens and gravel pack. The Spontaneous Potential (SP) and Resistivity (Short and Long Normal) geophysical methods were adopted. The short spacing of the Resistivity log is useful in locating strata interface while the long one provides better information on the formation lithology (grain sizes) as well as fluids in permeable strata. The resistivity values of the sands where considerably low, an indication of presence of high iron contents and saline water zones. On basis of the information deduced from the geo-electric logs, drill cuttings and review of the geology of the area, the freshwater bearing aquifer occur at depth of about 107 - 116m (350 - 380ft). The well completion could be carried out as designed with installation of screens, casings, rice gravels and cement/bentonite groutings. The rice gravels to be installed shall have grain sizes in the range of 0.25mm – 1.0mm with not more than 10% of the material having a grain size less than 0.50mm. It is recommended that investigations of geophysical logging in the groundwater wells in the Niger Delta be carried out for a better constrained permeability and porosity values determination.

[Ngah, S.A and Nwankwoala, H.O. Geophysical Logging of a Borehole for Supply of Potable Groundwater at Opuama Community, Warri North L.G.A., Delta State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):83-88]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.14.

 

Key Words: Groundwater, Logging, Borehole, Geophysics, Resistivity, Subsurface lithology

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People perception and coping strategies on climate in Dhauladhar area of western Himalaya

 

Attri, P. K., Poonam Thakur & V.K. Santvan

 

IIHS, Himachal Pradesh University, Summerhill, Shimla-5(H.P.) INDIA

Corresponding author: dr_pk@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Climate is the major determinant responsible for fluctuation in agricultural productivity and largely determined the suitability of vegetation in particular area. It alter distribution quality of natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of people of any region. It is generally agreed by the world’s scientific community that future changes in climate are likely to have a profound impact on world’s forests. A warmer climate in the Himalayas will accelerate the hydrological cycle; enhancing rainfall and snowfall events, setting a stage for potential for floods, extent and timing of runoff. Climate change is also likely to affect change in moisture regimes, ground water recharge and droughts. The present work is to understand the impacts of climate change in the four villages of Palampur tehsil present at the base of Dhauladhar range by taking into account people's perception, and to know how and to what extent they are adjusting and/or not adjusting to these changes. This study reveals that it will take a long time for climate change impacts to become evident in this area but definitely people’s perceptions are very much useful to establish the fact that the villages are facing indirect problems in agricultural production and in other livelihood options of shepherds and herdsmen.

[Attri, P. K., Poonam Thakur & V.K. Santvan. People perception and coping strategies on climate in Dhauladhar area of western Himalaya. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):89-95]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.15.

 

Keywords: People; perception; strategy; climate; western Himalaya

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Alkaloids and non-alkaloids identified from Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler medicinal plant leaves

 

1*A.Elaiyaraja, 2G.Chandramohan

 

1*Department of Chemistry, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur 613 503, Tamilnadu, India.

2Department of Chemistry, Jairams Arts and Science College, Karur-3, Tamilnadu, India.

Email: raja_mscchem@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the alkaloid and non-alkaloid compounds present in the Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler medicinal plant leaves. The plant was extracted for various solvents in increasing order of polarity from using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, butanol and methanol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler leaves contains many bioactive chemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, amino acids and phenolic compounds are qualitatively analyzed. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the separation, identification of various classes of phytocomponents present in the various fractions of C.defixum Ker-Gawler leaves using FT-IR, GC-MS, NMR and MASS Spectral techniques.

[ A.Elaiyaraja, G.Chandramohan. Alkaloids and non-alkaloids identified from Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler medicinal plant leaves. N Y Sci J 2016;9(10):95-104]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys091016.16.

 

Keywords: Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler, Phytochemical screening, solvent extraction, Alkaloids, non-alkaloids.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 2, 2016. 

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