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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 10 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 96); February 25, 2017

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Congenital malaria and viral infections among mothers and their new born babies in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 

Chijioke-Nwauche IN1*, Nwauche CA2

 

*Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Email: eleloheisraelify@yahoo.com. Tel: +2348080509050 (*Corresponding author)

**Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Email: jokesnwauche@yahoo.com. Tel: +2348023148155.

 

Abstract: Infectious diseases are of primary concern to public health particularly in pregnancy because of the risk of transmission to the foetus. Several infections have been demonstrated to be transmitted from the mother to the child either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery through the birth canal. Malaria in pregnancy have been implicated in low birth weight, increased infant and maternal mortality. Co-infection of malaria with viral infections predisposes the pregnant woman to greater risk. The study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of malaria and viral infections amongst mothers and their new born babies in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt. Study was conducted in postpartum women in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Venous blood was collected from 103 mothers and from the umbilical cord of their babies. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa and diagnosis of malaria was done by microscopy. Using the sera from the collected blood samples, analyses were done for the presence of HCV and HbsAg antibodies using ELISA techniques while a point of care test was used for the analysis of HIV antibody. Transmission of the infections was evaluated based on the presence of the pathogens in cord blood of the new born babies. Evaluation of the results showed as follows: Malaria parasites were found present in all the mothers (100%), HIV (7.7%), HbsAg (1.9%) and HCV (0.97%) respectively. Transmission for malaria parasite was 96%, HIV (62.5%) and there were no transmission for the HBV and HCV antibodies. Obvious very high transmission of malaria and HIV. There is a great need to enforce PMTCT and IPTp in the study area.

[Chijioke-Nwauche IN, Nwauche CA. Congenital malaria and viral infections among mothers and their new born babies in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):1-5]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.01.

 

Key words: malaria, viral infections, mothers, new-born babies

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Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

 

Fathy Ghamry Abdelrazek1,Ezzat Abd-Elrahman El-Etraby1, Essam Abd-El-Wahed Hassan1, Mohammed Saeid Alshorbagy2 and Ali Hosni Ali1

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

mohammadhosny8@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The systemic inflammatory response has been postulated as having prognostic significance in a wide range of different cancer types. Recently the neutrophilia has been proposed as an easily determinable prognostic factor in cancer patients. Aim: In the present study we are aiming to evaluate the prognostic significance of baseline neutrophilia in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: eighty eight consecutive DLBCL patients will be evaluated prospectively. The prognostic influence of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on 2 years overall and disease free survival will study. Results: Prediction of easily, inexpensive, available (NLR) is associated with poor prognosis of DLBCL. Conclusion: in the present study, we showed that a high (NLR) at diagnosis of DLBCL represents a poor prognostic factor for clinical outcome.

[Fathy Ghamry Abdelrazek, Ezzat Abd-Elrahman El-Etraby, Essam Abd-El-Wahed Hassan, Mohammed Saeid Alshorbagy and Ali Hosni Ali. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):6-10]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.02.

 

Keywords: DLBCL – NLR – prognosis

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Renal vascular changes detected post Ureteroscopy in patients with lower ureteric stones.

 

El Sayed Mohammed Hathout, Mohammed Abdel-Shafy Nasr, Ahmed Mohamed Abo El-Fotouh and Kareem Ashraf Foad

 

Departments of Urology and Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drkaz@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: Color duplex ultrasonography is a safe and an efficient method to evaluate intrarenal hemodynamics that are thought to result from the utilization of Ureteroscopy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal vascular parameter changes accompanied with the use of rigid ureteroscopy as a modality of treatment of patients suffering lower ureteric stones. Patients and methods: Thirty patients with lower ureteric stones not larger than 1 cm in diameter and hydronephrosis not more than grade 1 (otherwise excluded) were prospectively studied via the application of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS). Patients were evaluated via CDUS on the preoperative day, one day postoperative and one month after the ureteroscopy. Parameters studied were the resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the end diastolic velocity (EDV). Changes in these values (∆RI, ∆PI, ∆PSV and ∆EDV) were measured and compared on the first postoperative day and one month after the URS was performed. The degree of hydronephrosis and location of stones in the obstructed kidneys, diameters of both kidneys, and thickness of renal parenchyma were evaluated with gray-scale US preoperatively. Results: There were significant increase in the RI and the PI values on the first postoperative day (9 % increase in the RI and 13.5 % increase in the PI). However, there was no significant increase in these values for the normal non-operated kidneys. In Spearman correlation coefficient analysis, ∆RI was found to be correlated with the parameters: “operative time” and “irrigation fluid volume”. On reassessing Doppler parameters for the operated kidneys after one month duration, both the RI and the PI decreased by 5 % and 8.9 % respectively. There was no significant relation between ∆RI and any of the other evaluated parameters; i.e. age, gender, degree of hydronephrosis and side of URS. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy in itself can cause an increase in the renal vascular resistance leading to a decrease in the renal blood flow as evidenced by increase in the RI on the postoperative day. This measured in RI increased proportionally with the amount of irrigation fluid used and the duration of the Ureteroscopy. However, the increase in the renal vascular parameters was of a temporary nature as RI values returned below the preoperative values for the operated kidneys.

[El Sayed Mohammed Hathout, Mohammed Abdel-Shafy Nasr, Ahmed Mohamed Abo El-Fotouh and Kareem Ashraf Foad. Renal vascular changes detected post Ureteroscopy in patients with lower ureteric stones. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):11-18]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.03.

 

Keywords: Doppler, renal resistive index, rigid ureteroscopy, ultrasonography.

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Implications of Flaviviruses cross-reactivity and vaccination programs on their serodiagnosis

 

Chisom Emmanuel Okechukwu 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 2, 3*, Kabiru Muhammad 1, Clinton Ngwoke Chinedu 1

 

1. Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

3. Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Nigeria.

Correspondence address: eedris888@yahoo.com.com

 

Abstract: Arboviral infections especially those caused by flaviviruses are reemerging, expanding and endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Immunoassays are the most commonly used diagnostic laboratory method because of their low cost and less test turnaround time. However, flaviviruses share epitopes inducing cross-reactive antibodies leading to great difficulty in differentially diagnosing flaviviral infections using serological tests. Considering the availability of yellow fever, west Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus vaccinations and recently, dengue vaccine in some countries, serodiagnosis of flaviviruses could be very complicated. This minireview was aimed at evaluating the complexity of Zika and Dengue serological differential diagnosis in resource limited settings where antigen-based and molecular assays are difficult to execute.

[Chisom Emmanuel Okechukwu, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Kabiru Muhammad, Clinton Ngwoke Chinedu. Implications of Flaviviruses cross-reactivity and vaccination programs on their serodiagnosis. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):19-22]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.04.

 

Keywords: Arbovirus; Laboratory testing; Differential diagnosis; Vaccination

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The Effect of Graded Levels of Spent Brewers’ Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

 

Patricia Fremu Chollom1, Ediga Bede Agbo2, Umaru Dass Doma2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: okojokwu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The rising prices of livestock feeds and the scarcity of conventional proteins and energy concentrates for the formulation of feeds have forced the animal scientists to search for alternative, cheaper and readily available protein and energy sources. Methods: Five experimental diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% spent brewers’ yeast used to replace soya bean were formulated and used to feed broiler chickens for 50 days. Two hundred 14 day old “sayed” broiler chickens were used to determine the growth performance and economics of broiler fed the formulated feeds. The experiments were in a completely randomized design with the five treatments each replicating four times with 40 birds per treatment and 10 birds per replicate. Results: The average live weight of broiler chicken ranged from 1963-2063 g in each dietary group but were not significantly affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). The average daily feed intake was however significantly affected (p <0.05) by the dietary treatment. Feed cost/kg weight gain was lowest at the 20% level of spent yeast replacement (N279.92) and highest at the 10% level of replacement (330.87) but was not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. Conclusion: The results showed that spent brewers’ yeast can be used to replace soya bean as protein source in broiler feeds with no adverse effect on growth performance resulting in reduced cost of feeds which will then translate in cheaper birds for consumers and a higher profit margin for poultry farmers.

[Chollom PF, Agbo EB, Doma UD, Okojokwu OJ. The Effect of Graded Levels of Spent Brewers’ Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens.. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):23-26]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.05.

 

Keywords: Spent Brewers’ yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Broiler, Soya bean, formulated feeds

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Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) in Treatment of Tibial Plateau Fractures

 

El-Mohamady El-Gharibč, Mahmoud Seddik1and Aymen Eweis2

 

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Al-azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Resident of orthopaedic surgery, Kafr Elsheikh General Hospital, Egypt.

aymn872010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tibial plateau fractures involve the proximal tibia in its articular and metaphyseal segments. A series of 20 patients of closed tibial plateau fractures treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using buttress plating have been reviewed after surgery. All the operations were performed using image intensification to aid reduction of the fracture and to guide screw placement. Ten patients had unicondylar fracture, eight of them had isolated fracture lateral condyle, and two patients had isolated fracture medial condyle. Ten patients had bicondylar fractures. Out of 20 patients, 4 had excellent results, 8 had good results,5 patient had a fair result and 3 had bad results. This minimally invasive technique avoids many of the complications of both conservative and operative treatment and will have an expanding role to play in the management of these fractures.

[El-Mohamady El-Gharib, Mahmoud Seddik and Aymen Eweis. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) in Treatment of Tibial Plateau Fractures. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):27-30]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.06.

 

Keywords: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis, tibial plateau, buttress plating

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Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with preterm labor

 

Abd El-moniem Mohamed Zakaria1, Hany Maged Hassan1, Mekky Abd El-moniem Ali2 and Mohamed Ibrahim Soliman3.

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

3Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Helwan general hospital, Egypt.

dr.m.soliman86@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of work: The aim of this work is to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients attending Helwan general hospital and Bab El- Sharya hospital who presented with pre term labor IN 2016. Methods. prospective study of 200 women from those attending the department of obstetrics and gynecology of Helwan and Bab el Sharya hospitals obstetric outpatient clinics at 2016. All these patients had given mid-stream clean catch urine sample for which urine culture for asymptomatic bacteriuria was done as well as antibiotic sensitivity test to know the organism and proper antibiotic to be given. Results: this study showed that 8% of the pregnant women examined had a positive urine culture without any symptoms of UTI. Hence, it is important that pregnant women are screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria at the first antenatal visit. Conclusion: Asymptotic bacteriuria is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infection during pregnancy, the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our locality is high. The significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy lies in its potential to cause acute pyelonephritis, preterm labor and preterm rupture of membranes. Others include anemia, pre-eclampsia, chronic pyelonephritis and even fetal wastage.

[Abd El-moniem Mohamed Zakaria, Hany Maged Hassan, Mekky Abd El-moniem Ali and Mohamed Ibrahim Soliman. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with preterm labor. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):31-35]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.07.

 

Key wards: Asymptotic bacteriuria, preterm labor, pyelonephritis

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Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy

 

Hossam Hassan Abd-ElAziz Ahmed, Mansour Mohamed Abd El khalek and Abduh Elbana

 

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt

Hossam_gi1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a newer approach that may be a safe alternative to traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC) based on retrospective and small prospective studies. As the demand for single-incision surgery may bedriven by patient perceptions of benefits, we designed a retrospective study to compare Single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the traditional 4 port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: patients having symptomatic Cholelithiasis. All cases were selected after fulfilling the criteria of inclusion into the study. Preoperative characteristics and operative data were recorded, including length of stay, Pain scores in recovery and for 48 h and satisfaction with wound appearance at 2 and 4 weeks were reported by patients. Results: The median Total Operative Time was statistically significantly shorter in the TLC group compared to the SPLC group (52 Vs 71 minutes). Only 2 patient (4%) in the SPLC group developed a port-site hernia 6 months after surgery that was treated by mesh repair. Conclusions: SILC is a longer operation but has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay. Recovery and pain scores are not significantly different. There may be an improvement inpatient satisfaction with wound appearance. Both procedures are valid approaches to cholecystectomy.

[Hossam Hassan Abd-ElAziz Ahmed, Mansour Mohamed Abd El khalek and Abduh Elbana. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):36-44]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.08.

 

KeywordsSingle-port; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; standard; laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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The Role of Three Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography for Assessment of Tricuspid Regurgitation after Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty

 

Mohammad Madkour (1), Samy Nouh (2), Ahmad Bakry (3).

 

Professor of Cardiology - Faculty of Medicine - Al-Azhar University (1)

Assistant Professor of Cardiology - Faculty of Medicine - Al-Azhar University (2)

Assistant Lecturer of Cardiology - Faculty of Medicine – South Valley University (3)

ahmedbakry1777@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) and in the majority of cases it is functional. Introduction: It is unclear whether mitral valve (MV) surgery with simultaneous surgical correction of TR would be the better treatment option in patients who are potential candidates for percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV), because MV surgery has the morbidity and mortality related with operation, and regression of TR may result from improvement of pulmonary hypertension after PMBV. Aim of the work: To investigate the effect of PMBV on the tricuspid annulus (TA) and tricuspid regurgitation by three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE). Material and methods: Twenty five patients (M/F=5/20) with rheumatic MS referred for PMBV between October 2014 and October 2016 were included in our study. 3D TEE was done pre PMBV and 48hr post PMBV. For tricuspid valve (TV) analysis, we adapted commercially available software designed for assessing the mitral valve (MVQ software, Philips). TA diameters and area (TAA) were measured at end diastole & end systole at 2 cycles taking their average. TR was assessed by vena contracta area (VC area) measured at mid-systole offline using Philips Qlab. Results: PMBV was successfully completed in all 25 patients with MR post BMV not more than grade II/IV. MVA3D increased significantly post PMBV & was significantly correlated with MVA2D (P value <0.0001). MS increases the RV afterload which causes stress stretching effect over the tricuspid annulus causing it to be dilated, circular and planer. Post PMBV, TA regress in size with better function and starts the way to regain some of its normal geometrical oval saddle shape appearance. PMBV results in alleviating tricuspid regurgitation severity as assessed by TR VC area (P-value = 0.0017). Conclusion: 3D TEE allowed us to examine the TV in great detail. We concluded that tricuspid annulus dimensions and function start to improve and TR starts to regress after PMBV. Recommendations: 3D TEE can be a great tool for a comprehensive assessment of morphology and function of the TV complex. Also, our study supports early intervention in MS patients once indicated prior to the development of significant pulmonary hypertension, right ventricle myocardial dysfunction or significant functional TR.

[Mohammad Madkour, Samy Nouh, Ahmad Bakry. The Role of Three Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography for Assessment of Tricuspid Regurgitation after Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):45-53]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.09.

 

Keywords: Tricuspid regurgitation – Mitral valvuloplasty - 3D echocardiography

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Value of longitudinal indices of the left ventricle in prediction of elevated left ventricular filling pressure in patients with preserved ejection fraction

 

Hatab K., Naguib M., Mustafa A., Al-Habbaa A.

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt

karim.hatab87@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The principal objective of this study is to evaluate the diastolic function by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE) and conventional echocardiographic indicators of diastolic dysfunction to predict invasively measured LVEDP in a patient population with preserved EF (50%). Patients and methods: This study (prospective) included finally 21 patients with preserved EF who underwent elective cardiac catheterization for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease or re-evaluation after coronary intervention. at BAB EL-SHE'RIYA Hospital – Al-Azhar University – Cairo – Egypt, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. At the beginning of the study 30 patients meeting both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria were enrolled then 9 patients were excluded from the study for various causes (3 patients more than mild valve lesion, 3 patients impaired systolic function, 2 had bad echo views and 1 patient had paroxysmal A Fib). Results: LVEDP was measured before coronary angiography was performed in 21 patients with preserved EF (≥50%) referred to elective cardiac catheterization; besides, patients enrolled underwent comprehensive echocardiographic examination before the procedure. In addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters used to evaluate diastolic function LV longitudinal strain and SR, measurements were performed using STE. E/SRIVR significantly correlated with LVEDP. When age-adjusted stepwise linear regression analysis was performed, E/SRIVR values (P 0.017) was independently correlated with LVEDP. Conclusion: When compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters, other longitudinal strain, and SR indices, we suggest that E/SRIVRT is a valuable parameter to evaluate diastolic function in patients with preserved EF.

[Hatab K., Naguib M., Mustafa A., Al-Habbaa A. Value of longitudinal indices of the left ventricle in prediction of elevated left ventricular filling pressure in patients with preserved ejection fraction. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):54-60]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.10.

 

Keywords: Value; longitudinal indice; left ventricle; prediction; elevated left ventricular; filling; pressure; patient; preserved ejection fraction

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Effect of royal jelly and ginger on the histological changes of the testes of cyclophosphamide-treated adult male albino rats

 

Ebada M.A.1, Yossef Y.GA1, Al-Sayed A. Abd-Elrhman2, Fathy M.A2

 

1Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Cyclophosphamide is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties. In spite of its therapeutic importance, a wide range of adverse effects including reproductive toxicity had been demonstrated following cyclophosphamide administration. Objective: Evaluating the possible protective effects of royal jelly and ginger on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular damage in adult male albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty adult male albino rats of an average body weight (250-300 g.) were randomly divided into two groups. One group (five rats) was served as the control group (group1) and other group 2 (fifteen rats) was served as treated group, which was subdivided into 3 equal subgroups (a, b and c). Subgroup (a): consisted of five rats that were treated with cyclophosphamide. Subgroup (b): consisted of five rats that were given royal jelly orally and cyclophosphamide. Subgroup (c): consisted of five rats that were given ginger and cyclophosphamide. The testes were excised and histologicaly prepared for a light and an electron microscopic examination. Results: Light microscopic examination of cyclophosphamide treated adult male albino rat showed that the seminiferous tubules were markedly distorted. Most of the tubules showed many vacuoles. The lumina of the seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatozoa. There was an increase in the amount of interstitial areas that contained some thick walled congested blood vessels. By electron microscopic examination there were marked affection of the cytoplasm of the germinal epithelial cells in the form of degenerated mitochondria, multiple lipid droplets and many empty spaces. Sertoli cells were rested on an irregular thickened basement membrane and its nucleus had an irregular nuclear membrane without nucleolus. Royal jelly had a potent protective effect against the testicular toxicity of the cyclophosphamide and showed a notable effect compared to the effect of ginger. Conclusion: It could be concluded that cyclophosphamide produced testicular histological alterations. Royal jelly has a potent protective effect against the testicular toxicity of this agent and might be clinically useful. The study suggests that ginger has got some recovery role in cyclophosphamide induced testicular damage of rat.

[Ebada M.A., Yossef Y.GA, Al-Sayed A. Abd-Elrhman, Fathy M.A. Effect of royal jelly and ginger on the histological changes of the testes of cyclophosphamide-treated adult male albino rats. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):61-71]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.11.

 

Keywords: Testis - Cyclophosphamide - Royal jelly - Ginger - Albino rat.

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Financial Risk and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from China

 

Anwar Kamal Khan, Zong Yongjian

 

School of Economics & Management, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing 210094, China

Anwarkamal572@gmail.com, zongyounjin@sina.com

 

Abstract: China has reported an unprecedented rise in foreign direct investment (FDI) flow since the country has opened its door to the foreign investors. This FDI inflow has brought a positive and dramatic change in China’s economy. The present study examines whether increased FDI inflow impacts a country’s economic growth and development and whether higher financial risks reduces the FDI inflow. A quantitative data analysis technique, especially SPSS, has been used to obtain data for the analysis of the correlation between the dependent and independent variables. The dataset employed in these study spans from 1970 to 2011. The study results indicate that increased FDI inflow positively impacts the economic growth and development of China. Moreover, the study indicates that financial risks, such as inflation, negatively affect the FDI inflow. The study implication clearly states that China should continue with the economic reforms to attract more FDI because of its perceived role in boosting economic growth and development.

[Anwar Kamal Khan, Zong Yongjian. Financial Risk and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from China. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):72-77]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.12.

 

Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Economic, Development, Financial Risks

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The Significance of Tumor Markers in Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma Assigned for endoscopic surgery

 

Mostafa M. Elsayed1, Ibrahim I. El-Dsoky1, Mohammed F. Ramadan1, Mohammed S. Abdelwahed2, Nabil F.Esmael3, Abdelgawad M.Hadeya1

 

Otorhinolaryngology1, Histopathology2, Clinical Pathology3 Departments; Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt. dr.guda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Inverted papilloma (IP) is a primarily benign lesion that occurs in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Clinical problems include a tendency towards local destruction, recurrence and malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor markers can be helpful in clinical practice to monitor the response to treatment and to indicate recurrent disease mainly in malignant neoplasms. Aim: Measuring of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA1) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as tumor markers in sinonasal inverted papilloma and detection of their significance for early detection of malignant transformation. Methods: Blood samples were collected pre and post-operatively from 30 IP patient for the analysis of serum SCCA1. In addition, nasal biopsies were collected and immunehistochemical analysis was performed for measuring EGFR. Results: There was statistically significant decrease of SCCA levels at 2 days and at 3-5 months postoperatively when compared to preoperative values. In addition, there was statistically significant decrease of SCCA at 3-5 months postoperatively when compared to values at 2 days postoperatively. These data indicated significant decrease of SCCA overtime. EGFR intensity by immunohistochemical staining revealed that there was statistically significant difference between study and control group. Conclusion: SCC antigen is a reliable tumor marker in the management and monitoring of sinonasal IPs. Expression of EGFR can be used for differentiation between benign IP and IP with malignant transformation even in early phases of dysplasia.

[Mostafa M. Elsayed, Ibrahim I. El-Dsoky, Mohammed F. Ramadan, Mohammed S. Abdelwahed, Nabil F. Esmael and Abdelgawad M. Hadeya. The Significance of Tumor Markers in Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma Assigned for endoscopic surgery. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):78-82]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.13.

 

Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma antigen; inverted papilloma; epidermal growth factor receptor; tumor marker.

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Evaluation of macular changes after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery in diabetic patients using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography.

 

Magdy E. Khallaf, Younis E. Abd-Elhafez, Mohamed Z. Eid and Ezz Eldin R. Ezz Eldin.

 

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drezzstar84@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Macular edema (ME) is a major cause of vision loss after cataract surgery in diabetic patients. Proper and early diagnosis of post-cataract complications is of utmost importance. Aim: to evaluate the influence of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on macular thickness and macular changes in the postoperative period in diabetic patients. Patients and methods: This study included 100 eyes of cataractous patients attending the outpatient ophthalmology clinic of Al-Azhar University hospital. The included patients were classified into 2 groups: the first included 50 eyes of diabetic patients with no clinical fund us changes, and the second included 50 eyes of normal patients. All patients were submitted to full history taking, clinical and ophthalmological examination. All were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at one day, one weak, one month, 3 and 6 months. Results: There was significant decrease in study group when compared to control group as regard to preoperative BCVA (0.95±0.12 vs 0.86±0.17 respectively). There was significant improvement of BCVA postoperatively when compared to corresponding preoperative values in both groups, while IOP revealed that, there was no significant difference at 1, 3 and 6 months when compared to corresponding values at 1 week. Postoperative fundus examination revealed that, there was no abnormality detected at 1 week postoperative; while at 1 month, 5 eyes (10.0%) in diabetic group and 3 eyes (6.0%) in non-diabetic group showed lost foveal depression and macular thickening. CSFT (Central Subfield Foveal Thickness) revealed that, there was no significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic groups preoperatively; but at 1, 3 or 6 months postoperatively, there was significant increase of CSFT in diabetic group when compared to non-diabetic group. In addition, there was significant increase of CSFT at 1, 3 and 6 months PO when compared to corresponding preoperative values in each group separately. Conclusion: There is a subclinical increase in central retina thickness in diabetic and non-diabetic patients after uncomplicated phacoemulsification, which may be detected clinically and by FFA also can be quantified by OCT.

[Magdy E. Khallaf, Younis E. Abd-Elhafez, and Mohamed Z, Eid and Ezz Eldin R. Ezz Eldin. Evaluation of macular changes after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery in diabetic patients using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):83-90]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.14.

 

Keywords: cataract, macular edema, optical coherence tomography, angiography

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A Prospective, Randomized Comparison between Ultrasound versus Ultrasound with Nerve Stimulation Guidance for Multiple Injection Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

 

Mostafa Muhammed Sabra, Ali Fotoh Ali El Sayed, Abdalla Elsheikh and Sayed Ahmed Abd El Ali

 

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

icusayedgalal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The axillary brachial plexus block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthesia techniques. The axillary block is an excellent choice of anesthesia technique for elbow, forearm, and hand surgery. The axillary brachial plexus block is popular because of its ease, reliability, and safety. Objective: we sought to assess the efficacy, accuracy and liability of combined peripheral nerve stimulator with ultra-sonography guided peripheral nerve block versus ultrasound guided peripheral nerve block of upper limb using 0.5% bupivacaine with multiple injection technique and the impact of two methods in reducing the rate of conversion to general anesthesia. Patient and methods: this prospective randomized study was carried out on 30ASA grade (I-II-III) adult patients classified into two groups (15 patients ultrasound US group and 15 patients ultrasound and nerve stimulator US&NS group), patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery, including forearm, wrist and hand procedures were prospectively enrolled. All blocks were performed with 20mm bupivacaine 0.5%. In US&NS group, the nerve location was performed with the aid of nerve stimulator using a 22-gauge, 5cm long, short beveled. The nerve stimulator was set with a pulse duration of 0.15ms, a current intensity of 1mA, a frequency of 2Hz. In US group, nerve location was performed using a linear probe, a 21-gauge, 10cm long, short beveled, was inserted and advanced along the longitudinal access of the ultrasound transducer. Results: showed that no statistically difference between the two groups as regard time of onset of sensory block, motor block, onset of analgesia, patient satisfaction, success rate, skin puncture, complications, supplementation of analgesia (fentanyl) and needle redirection. But this study showed that there is statistically significant difference as regard block execution time. Conclusion: this study demonstrates both US and US & NS techniques were effective in anesthesia of upper limb, patients are satisfied, no added benefits in using US & NS over US.

[Mostafa Muhammed Sabra, Ali Fotoh Ali El Sayed, Abdalla Elsheikh and Sayed Ahmed Abd El Ali. A Prospective, Randomized Comparison between Ultrasound versus Ultrasound with Nerve Stimulation Guidance for Multiple Injection Axillary Brachial Plexus Block. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2):91-96]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.15.

 

Keywords: US ultrasound, NS nerve stimulator, Bupivacaine, Axillary block.

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16

Optimizing Water Use Efficiency for Sugar Cane Crop

 

Abdel Reheem, H.A.

 

Water Management Res. Ins., National Water Research Center, Egypt

dr.hassanahmed_999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out at Mallawy Water Requirements Research station – El Minia, Governorate; Egypt Water Management Research Institute – National Water Research Center during seasons 2012 and 2013 seasons. The present research was carried out to study the effect of irrigation system by gated pipes on water use efficiency, yield, saving of water and economic evaluation for sugar can crop (Saccharum officinarum L) and compare it with common conventional cultivation practiced in this region. Four treatments were arranged in a spilt-plot design. Two of them system irrigation by gated pipes and the others planting method (furrows and beds). Results indicated that the planting sugar cane crop by gated pipes in beds leads to an increase in productivity with rate equals 20.42% and to more water saving about by 42.99% per year, decrease both the costs of irrigation by about 45.8 % and the irrigation time by about 45.01% and rising the total irrigation’s efficiency by 75.31%. It also saving water by about 1.310850629 billion m3/area (Average area cultivated by sugar cane in Egypt) compared with the traditional method in this region. The results indicated also from the economic view point that, the gated pipes in beds recorded the highest values of field and crop water use efficiencies (10.26 and 16.06 kg/m3) respectively. The highest values of total income, production, financial benefits (L.E/ area), net return of each and water irrigation (L.E/m3) and economic efficiency were gained with it. Therefore, the economics of irrigation water becomes very important for planting irrigation management project where the over irrigation practices by farmers usually lead to low irrigation efficiency, water logging and high losses of water. It could be recommended to application gated pipes in beds to produce high yield with less amount of water applied under El-Minia province conditions.

[Abdel Reheem, H.A. Optimizing Water Use Efficiency for Sugar Cane Crop. N Y Sci J 2017;10(2): 97-108]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys100217.16.

 

Keywords: Surface irrigation – Development irrigation by gated pipes – Water saving – Irrigation efficiencies - Economic efficiency

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 14, 2017. 

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