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Biomedicine and Nursing
 
ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537; Quarterly
Volume 2 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 7), December 25, 2016. 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

The Influence of Synbiotic on Growth performance and Survival Rate of gray mullet (Mugilcephalus L.) juveniles

 

Zeynab Roohi1*; Javad Ghasemzadeh2; Zoheir Shokouh Saljoghi3, Saeed Shojaei4

 

1- M.Sc. Student, Department of Fisheries, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran

2- Ph.D. of Fisheries Science, Department of Fisheries, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran

3- Ph.D. Student, Department of Fisheries, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

4- Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

*Corresponding author: zeynabroohi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of synbiotic Biomin® IMBO on the growth performance and survival rate of gray mullet (Mugilcephalus L.) juveniles (initial weight 6.27 ± 0.021 g). Basal diets were supplemented with 0(control), 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 g synbiotic per kg-1diet in a totally randomized design trial in triplicate group. At the end of the experiment (45 days), the fingerlings showed significant (P<0.05) increases in final weight gain, weight gain (WG %), specific growth rate (SGR) and hepato somatic index (HSI) at all three experimental treatments. The food conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in comparison with the control treatment. Furthermore, the synbiotic-fed groups showed significantly higher survival rate compared to the control group (P<0.05). The best results obtained by the fish fed 3.0 g synbiotic per kg-1diet. These results reveal that a dietary synbiotic of 3.0 g/kgfed leads to increasing of the growth performance and survival rate as well as improving feeding efficiency in gray mullet juveniles. It seems that the studied synbiotic could serve as a good diet supplement for gray mullet cultures.

[Roohi Z. Ghasemzadeh J. Shokouh Saljoghi Z, Shojaei S. The Influence of Synbiotic on Growth performance and Survival Rate of gray mullet (Mugilcephalus L.) juveniles. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 1-5]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.01.

 

Key word: gray mullet (Mugilcephalus L.), Growth performance and Survival Rate

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2

Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Orchid in Indian Vegetation Flora

 

Dr. Kalaiarasan. A*

 

Centre for Bioscience and Nanoscience Research, Coimbature, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author: Email: myla_kalai@yahoo.com

Mobil no: +91 9943110536, 7092240630.

 

Abstract: Modern generation recently interest in plant-derived food. Mainly many- plants are used as for medicine. It’s used as a plant is food of medicine. Plant extracts have been shown to possess health-care promoting properties. In the present recently investigation Bulbophyllum kaitense plant different extracts from petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous were assessed for their FE-EDTA scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2 radical scavenging, Inhibition of Lipid peroxidation and total Flavonoids activities. The extracts from aqueous and ethanol extract possessed the highest antioxidant activities except for petroleum ether and chloroform. Although ethanolic extracts showed the best performance in the total phenolic content assay it was little effective at retarding the oxidation of FE-EDTA scavenging assay 1.5mg of the ehtanolic extracts were as effective as 265.1 for 1.5mg respectively. Thus both extracts are rich source of alternatives to synthetic substances as food of medicine with antioxidant properties.

[Kalaiarasan A. Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Orchid in Indian VegetationFlora. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 6-14]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.02.

 

Keywords: Bulbophyllum kaitense, FE-EDTA, DPPH, H2O2, Lipid peroxidation and Flavonoids.

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3

The relationship of Psychological Reward and Job Satisfaction among nurses'

 

Olfat A. Salem 1, Manar A. AlAnazi 2

 

1. Department Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Menofyia University, Egypt

2. PSMMC Medical City, KSA

olfatsalem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Good service delivery is a crucial element of the achievement of hospital goals. Given the fact that nurses are one of the largest employee groups in the health care sector, having enough skilled and motivated is critical in order to deliver effective services and improve health outcomes.Aim of the study: The aim was attained by assessing the relationship of psychological reward from head nurse and physician and nurses’ job. Methodology: A quantitative cross -sectional descriptive correlational design using a psychological reward scale and job satisfaction scale as a data collection tool. A convenience sample of 179 registered nurses working in operating theater in tertiary government hospital in Riyadh with 94.21% response rate. Result: The relationships between nurses and physicians showed significant correlation with overall psychological reward.The results of the study suggest that higher rewards and satisfied employees in work organizations play a major role in the promotion of employee job satisfaction. It also leads to higher productivity in organizations. Conclusion & recommendations: the nurses' job satisfaction can be improved by reducing organizational stress and focusing on professional development. Our results illustrate that when nurses feel satisfied from psychological rewards received from the head nurse and physician, they can demonstrate more positive work performance.

[Olfat A. Salem, Manar A. AlAnazi. The relationship of Psychological Reward and Job Satisfaction among nurses'. Biomedicine and Nursing. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 15-20]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.03.

 

Keywords: Nursing, Psychological Reward, Job Satisfaction.

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4

Study Vital Indexes of Geriatric Nursing and its Application in Hospitals

 

Ayoob Faridi

 

MSc in Gerontological nursing, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

ayoobfaridi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is investigation vital indexes of nursing and its application in hospitals. Gerontological nursing is the specialty of nursing pertaining to older adults to support healthy aging, maximum functioning, and quality of life. In this study, the use of aged care services, including basic services and support services for the elderly was questioned. Health variables and sign of nursing abuse were discussed. The findings of this study can bridge the gaps in information on geriatrics and geriatric care. Results showed that elderly people who are restrictions on the motion and more disability in their daily living activities to higher levels of medical care services used. Elderly people who are able to do yard work and housekeeping and personal care are not often suffer from high levels of limitations in physical function. Seniors are often semi-independent or affiliated to require a higher level of surveillance and with individual assistance in planning or are admitted to care centers.

[Ayoob Faridi. Study Vital Indexes of Geriatric Nursing and its Application in Hospitals. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 21-25]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.04.

 

Keywords: Geriatric Nursing, Geriatric care, Older adults, Hospital

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5

Measurement of Disability, Pain and Anxiety in Geriatric Nursing

 

Ayoob Faridi

 

MSc in Gerontological nursing, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

ayoobfaridi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is evaluation three factors of disability, pain and anxiety in geriatric nursing. A complex relationship exists between disability, and functional limitation. Because of their fragile health, elderly individuals often need special care, particularly since a minor health related issue can sometimes spin out of control quickly in the elderly. These conditions, which substantially impact health care spending and quality of life, remain under-addressed in the current system of health care delivery, particularly among old people. Linear regression revealed close associations between depression, pain and anxiety and activity of daily living limitation. Working as a geriatric nurse is often very gratifying and rewarding personally. However, it takes a special type of person to work in this field, and the work can also be frustrating or disheartening at times as well. Research studies have identified the common mental, social, and physical characteristics associated with disability, pain and Anxiety. Throughout all of this, you will also be required to keep accurate patient records and coordinate your care with the recommendations of your patients’ physicians.

[Ayoob Faridi. Measurement of Disability, Pain and Anxiety in Geriatric Nursing. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 26-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.05.

 

Keywords: Geriatric Nursing, Disability, Pain and Anxiety

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6

Prevalence of Cattle Trypanosomosis, Apparent vector density and Associated Risk Factors In Dibate District, Western Ethiopia

 

1*Birhanu Eticha and 2Asmamaw Aki

 

1* Livestock and Fisheris Resource Development Agency, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State P.O. Box 30 Assosa, Ethiopia; brihanueticha12@gmail.com

2Assosa Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box 326, Assosa, Ethiopia; asmamawaki@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in Dibate District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia from October to November, 2016 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle and the prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks and its vector density. Blood samples were collected from (n=384) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) and examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 75/384 (19.53 %) prevalence trypanosomosis was recorded. The infection was caused by T. congolense 49/75 (65.33%), T. vivax 20/75(26.7%), to less extent T. brucei 2/75(2.7%) and mixed infection was found to be 4/75 (5.33%). The infection rate was found statistically significant (P<0.0001) among trypanosome species. Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of parasitaemic animals was lower (20.22% + 3.38) than aparasitaemic animals (25.91 % + 2.29) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.0001). Higher prevalence (34.37 %) of trypanosomosis was registered in poor body conditioned animals when compared with animals with good body condition (12.17%) and the difference was found statistically significant (p<0.0001); moreover, significant difference was registered in age categories of animals, while, non - significant difference was recorded within study sites and age categories of animals (P>0.05). Glossina tachinoides was the only tsetse fly caught and its mean apparent density measured as f/t/d was 3.29. In addition, other mechanical vectors trypanosomes such as stomoxys, haematopota, and tabanids with f/t/d of 0.83, 0.15 and 0.14 were recorded respectively. In conclusion, the result of the current study showed high prevalence and economic importance of trypanosomosis in the study area signaling the need for strategic and participatory approach to mitigate the impacts.

[Birhanu Eticha and Asmamaw Aki. Prevalence of Cattle Trypanosomosis, Apparent vector density and Associated Risk Factors In Dibate District, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 32-39]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.06.

 

Key words: Dibate district, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis, Tsetse fly

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7

Psychiatric/ Mental Health Nursing Course: Students’ Attitudes and Career Choices

 

Asmaa Hafez Afefe Barakat

 

Lecturer of Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

asmaa76_5@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (PMHN) is a therapeutic interpersonal process based on the concept of caring. So, mental health care may be regarded as a paramount to human well-being, family relationships and society. Nonetheless, many evidences refer to the shortage of PMHNs in Egypt and worldwide. This may attribute to the perception of mental health as a stigma in coming societies which negatively affect the nurses’ attitudes toward PMHN and its future career. This study aimed to determine the effect of attending PMHN course on student’s attitudes and their career choice in the Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University. A Pre-post test experimental design was used. The sample of this study consisted of 128 Bachelor nursing students (4th year) who had attended in PMHN Course. Two tools were used for data collection. First; questionnaire was designed to depict the demographic characteristics including gender, age, and residence, marital status, place of clinical area. Second; questionnaire was developed to assess students' attitude toward PMHN and identify factors affecting their carrier choice regarding Psychiatric Mental/ Health field. Results of this study revealed that most of the nursing students have positive attitudes with regard to the PMHN. As well, the study indicated significant changes in the students’ attitudes toward mental illness and PMHN career after the completion of the course theory and practice. Conclusion: Most of studied nursing students have positive attitudes and attraction to the PMHN after completion of the PMHN course. Recommendation: career guidance sessions should be provided for the nursing students through graduations ceremonies or orientations to assist them to make decisions regarding their future careers.

[Asmaa Hafez Afefe Barakat. Psychiatric/ Mental Health Nursing Course: Students’ Attitudes and Career Choices. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 40-47]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.07.

 

Key words: Nursing students, attitude, Psychiatric/ Mental Health Nursing, PMHN course, career.

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8

Epidemiology of bovine Trypanosomosis in Kamashi District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia: Prevalence, Vector density and associated risks

 

1*Asmamaw Aki, 1Shimelis Tikuye, 2Teshome kifele, 1Birhanu Eticha and 3Yesharg Abebe

 

2 Livestock and Fisheries resource development agency, P.O.Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia

1*, 2 Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Assosa, Ethiopia; email: asmamawaki@gmail.com; Telephone: +251 922232353

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in Kamashi district of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, western Ethiopia between April and May, 2015 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis, prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks and its vector density. Blood samples collected from (n= 413) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 37 (8.96%) prevalence was recorded. The infection was caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense (73%), Trypanosoma vivax 5/37 (13.5%), to less extent by Trypanosoma brucei 1 (2.7%), mixed infection with T. congolense and T. vivax 2 (5.4%), and T. congolense and T. brucei 2 (5.4%). The infection rate was statistically significant among difference trypanosome species (P<0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of parasitaemic animals was lower (26.89% + 7.51) than aparasitaemic animals (30.12% + 6.53) and the variation was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Higher prevalence (25.93%) was registered in poor body conditioned animals when compared with medium (8.65%) and good body conditioned animals (6.32%) and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Similarly, prevalence of trypanosomosis was not statistically significant across study sites, among age categories and between sex groups (P> 0.05). G. tachinoides was the only tsetse fly caught and its mean apparent density measured as f/t/d was 2.68. In addition, other mechanical vectors such as stomoxys, tabanids and haematopota with f/t/d of 2.84, 1.54 and 0.92 were recorded respectively. Therefore, the result of the present finding shows moderately high prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study sites indicating the need for strategic and participatory integrated approach to control the vector and to minimize the impact of the disease in the study district.

[Asmamaw Aki, Shimelis Tikuye, Teshome kifele, Birhanu Eticha and Yesharg Abebe. Epidemiology of bovine Trypanosomosis in Kamashi District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia: Prevalence, Vector density and associated risks. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 48-54]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.08.

 

Key words: Kamashi district, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis, tsetse fly

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9

Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Orchid in Indian Vegetation Flora

 

Dr. Kalaiarasan. A*

 

Centre for Bioscience and Nanoscience Research, Coimbature, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author: Email – myla_kalai@yahoo.com

Mobil no: +91 9943110536, 7092240630.

 

Abstract: Modern generation recently interest in plant-derived food. Mainly many- plants are used as for medicine. It’s used as a plant is food of medicine. Plant extracts have been shown to possess health-care promoting properties. In the present recently investigation Bulbophyllum kaitense plant different extracts from petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous were assessed for their FE-EDTA scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2 radical scavenging, Inhibition of Lipid peroxidation and total Flavonoids activities. The extracts from aqueous and ethanol extract possessed the highest antioxidant activities except for petroleum ether and chloroform. Although ethanolic extracts showed the best performance in the total phenolic content assay it was little effective at retarding the oxidation of FE-EDTA scavenging assay 1.5mg of the ehtanolic extracts were as effective as 265.1 for 1.5mg respectively. Thus both extracts are rich source of alternatives to synthetic substances as food of medicine with antioxidant properties.

[Kalaiarasan A. Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Orchid in Indian Vegetation Flora. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 55-63]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.02.

 

Keywords: Bulbophyllum kaitense, FE-EDTA, DPPH, H2O2, Lipid peroxidation and Flavonoids.

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10

Influence of Stik, Kinetin and Vitamin K3 on Rooting, Regeneration and Polarity of Stem Cuttings of Geranium Sps.

 

P S Chauhan1, Chhavi Chadda2 & S S Singh3

 

1,2 Tree Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, HNBGU Campus Badsahithaul Tehri, Tehri Garhwal (UK) -249199 (INDIA). Email: drpschauhan17@gmail.com

3 Department of Forestry, Wild life & Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghashidas vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (Chattisgarh)-495009 (INDIA). Email: sssingh_redifmail.com

 

Abstract The influence of Stik, Kinetin and Vit.K3 at various concentrations was studied on the rooting and shoots growth behavior of Geranium stem cuttings. Treated cuttings have been transferred to polythene bags. Initially small red color of protuberances appeared from the buds in all cuttings after six days of potting. Lower concentration of all applied exogenous hormones was found more effective to enhance the sprouting, shoot growth and rooting behavior of treated cuttings in comparison to higher concentration. Poor results have been observed under the treatment of inverted cuttings for different parameters. Results revealed significant effects on different parameters. Highest sprouting percentage has been recorded under the treatment of Vit.K3 200ppm in comparison to control. Stik100ppm stimulated the growth rate of lateral branches in all the potted cuttings. Higher concentration showed inhibitory effects for different parameters in comparison to control. Rooting behaviour of all potted cutting was found significant and maximum number of secondary roots was noticed under the treatment of inverted cuttings.

[P S Chauhan, Chhavi Chadda & S S Singh. Influence of Stik, Kinetin and Vitamin K3 on Rooting, Regeneration and Polarity of Stem Cuttings of Geranium Sps. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4):64-71]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.10.

 

Keywords, Geranium, growth regulators, polarity.

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11

The Impact of Psychological Reward on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction

 

Olfat A. Salem1, Manar A. AlAnazi2

 

1Associate prof. Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, King Saud University, KSA and Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt

2BSN, SN PSMMC Medical City

 

Abstract: A descriptive study examined the impact of psychological rewards on nurses’ job satisfaction.; employed a quantitative cross -sectional descriptive / correlational design using a psychological reward scale and job satisfaction scale. A convenience sample of 179 registered nurses working in operating theater in tertiary government hospital in Riyadh were engaged, with 94.21% response rate. Relationships between nurses and physicians showed a significant correlation with overall psychological empowerment. The aim was attained by assessing the impact of psychological reward from head nurse on nurses’ job satisfaction; assessing the impact of psychological reward from physician on nurses job satisfaction; establishing whether there is a relationship between psychological rewards and job satisfaction; and determining the relationship between demographic characteristic of nurses with psychological nurses satisfaction. The results of the study suggest that higher rewards and satisfied employees in work organizations play a major role in the promotion of employee job satisfaction. It also leads to higher productivity in organizations. From the results, the nurses' job satisfaction can be improved by reducing organizational stress and focusing on professional development. Our results illustrate that when nurses feel satisfied from psychological rewards received from the head nurse and physician, they can demonstrate more positive work performance.

[Olfat A. Salem, Manar A. AlAnazi. The Impact of Psychological Reward on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4):72-78]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.11.

 

Key words: Nursing, Psychological Reward, Job Satisfaction

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12

An Assessment on the Participation of Diabetic Person on Regular Physical Activity with reference to University of Gondar Hospital

 

Samuel Gashaw, Abeje kumilachew, Dawit Alemu

 

College of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Sport Science, Woldia University, Ethiopia, P.O. Box. 400

abejekumlachew@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Back ground; Regular physical activity participation is consider a crucial component of disease management for individuals with diabetes but the volume of evidences indicating most people with diabetes do not engage in physical activity. In a regular and sustained manner, to address this it is important to develop the participation to establish as fundamental to good health for individuals with diabetes and can affect progression and outcome of diabetes. Objective; addressed under this study was focused on an assessing the participation of diabetic patient on regular physical activity with reference to university of Gondar hospital, the study was aimed at pointing out the participation diabetic patient with in a regular physical activity. In university of Gondar hospital diabetic care persons identify the participation and major problem of diabetic patient on engagement in regular physical activity were theoretical bases basis which guided the overall study. Methods; for the collection of the required data, primary data (i.e. structured questionnaires and structured interview) were used. The respondents have been all the attended purposively and the total number of respondents were 133 this indicate that all diabetic patient available at that follow up day. Result: the gathered data were analyzed using simple table, frequency & percentage with regard to participation on regular physical activity. The results obtained from the respondents revealed that majority of diabetic patient are not participate in regular physical activity. Conclusion; As the factor influencing the participation are compared the most influential factor affecting engagement of diabetic patient on regular physical activity was the decision and giving knowledge about pre diabetes care provided by university of Gondar hospital workers.

[Samuel Gashaw, Abeje kumilachew, Dawit Alemu. An Assessment on the Participation of Diabetic Person on Regular Physical Activity with reference to University of Gondar Hospital. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4): 79-85]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.12.

 

Key words: diabetes, physical activity, exercise.

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13

Review On Antibody As A Drug Of Choice

 

Kumsisa Mideksa, Beshatu Ferede and Lama Yimer

 

Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box: 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: During the last 20 years, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. The modification of antibodies is of major interest since changes in their functionality and physico-chemical properties will broaden their application area. The features that make antibodies attractive drug candidates are high target specificity and their organization into distinct structural and functional domains. Antibody therapy has an increasing number of applications in which it is possible to use inexpensive sources of animal antibodies, such as bovine colostral antibodies and egg yolk antibodies. A powerful way to fight infections in our days will be to use immune system as complement or replacement to antibiotics. The immune system and microorganisms have coexisted for millions of years and microorganisms have not become resistant towards them. But, its use is less than expected value still in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, it is better if therapeutic and prophylactic antibodies are considered rather than antibiotics.

[Kumsisa Mideksa, Beshatu Ferede and Lama Yimer. Review On Antibody As A Drug Of Choice. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4):86-]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.13.

 

Key words:  Antibiotics, Antibody, Antigen, Immunity.

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Prevalence of Cattle Trypanosomosis, Apparent vector density and Associated Risk Factors In Dibate District, Western Ethiopia

 

1*Birhanu Eticha and 2Asmamaw Aki

 

1* Livestock and Fisheris Resource Development Agency, Benishngul Gumuz Regionl State P.O.Box 30 Assosa, Ethiopia;brihanueticha12@gmail.com

2Assosa Regional veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O.Box 326, Assosa, Ethiopia; asmamawaki@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in Dibate District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia from October to November, 2016 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle and the prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks and its vector density. Blood samples were collected from (n=384) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) and examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 75/384 (19.53 %) prevalence trypanosomosis was recorded. The infection was caused by T. congolense 49/75 (65.33%), T. vivax 20/75(26.7%), to less extent T. brucei 2/75(2.7%) and mixed infection was found to be 4/75 (5.33%). The infection rate was found statistically significant (P<0.0001) among trypanosome species. Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of parasitaemic animals was lower (20.22% + 3.38) than aparasitaemic animals (25.91 % + 2.29) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.0001). Higher prevalence (34.37 %) of trypanosomosis was registered in poor body conditioned animals when compared with animals with good body condition (12.17%) and the difference was found statistically significant (p<0.0001); moreover, significant difference was registered in age categories of animals, while, non - significant difference was recorded within study sites and age categories of animals (P>0.05). Glossina tachinoides was the only tsetse fly caught and its mean apparent density measured as f/t/d was 3.29. In addition, other mechanical vectors trypanosomes such as stomoxys, haematopota, and tabanids with f/t/d of 0.83, 0.15 and 0.14 were recorded respectively. In conclusion, the result of the current study showed high prevalence and economic importance of trypanosomosis in the study area signaling the need for strategic and participatory approach to mitigate the impacts.

[Birhanu Eticha and Asmamaw Aki. Prevalence of Cattle Trypanosomosis, Apparent vector density and Associated Risk Factors In Dibate District, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(4):97-103]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020416.14.

 

Key words: Dibate district, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis, Tsetse fly

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The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 10, 2016. 

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