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Biomedicine and Nursing
ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); doi:10.7537; Quarterly
Volume 3 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 10), 25, 2017. 
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers 

 

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 6, 2017. 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Outbreak Investigation and Sero-Type Identification of FMD in Selected Zones of Amhara Region

 

Zeru Assefa1, Bereket Molla2, Yibeltal Muhie2, Awol Mohammed1

 

1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box. 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia

2 Lecturer at Jigjiga University College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box. 1020. Jigjiga, Ethiopia

Zerua1272@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-footed animals and it is one of the most economically important diseases of livestock. A cross sectional study was conducted on investigation of FMD outbreak from November 2011 to April 2012 in selected districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 430 animals were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for foot and mouth diseases respectively. Of which, 122 (28.75%) manifested clinical signs and lesions suggestive of FMD, and 47 (10.93%) were sero-positive. From a total of 3419 animals observed and recorded on a designed format in five districts, 963 (28.16%) were infected, and 39 (1.6%) died during outbreaks of FMD. Epidemiological investigations revealed that the morbidity rate of the disease was 1.6% in Legambo districts, whereas the mortality rate was <2% in all districts. Furthermore, the mortality and case fatality rates were relatively higher, 1.6% and 6.06% in calves than the other age groups, respectively. From a total of 16 bovine epithelial tissue-cultured samples, all showed cytopatic effect for foot and mouth diseases virus, in which 16 samples had serotype O and high incidence of FMD outbreak in different districts of Amhara region. Generally the result of the present study showed that FMD is an important cattle disease in the study area. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied which could involve regulation of transboundary animal movement and vaccination using the circulating virus strain.

[Zeru Assefa, Bereket Molla, Yibeltal Muhie, Awol Mohammed. Outbreak Investigation and Sero-Type Identification of FMD in Selected Zones of Amhara Region. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3):1-13]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.01.

 

Keywords: case fatality rate, cytopathic effect, foot and mouth diseases, morbidity rate, Mortality rate, outbreak, Serotype

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Review on Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia

 

Wale Firew, Kalkidan Alemayehu

 

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, Mekelle, P.O. Box 2084, Ethiopia

walextensay@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Bovine Tuberculosis is a contagious, bacterial disease of both animals and humans. It is a chronic infectious disease caused by M. bovis, characterized by progressive development of granulomas in tissues and organs. This disease is a significant zoonosis that spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of un-pasteurized milk. BTB has been widely distributed throughout the world and it has been a cause for great economic loss in animal production. In developed countries, eradication programs have reduced or eliminated tuberculosis in cattle, and human disease is now rare; however Bovine tuberculosis is still common in less developed countries, and severe economic losses can occur from livestock deaths and trade restrictions. In developing countries, TB is the most frequent opportunistic disease associated with HIV infection. Ethiopia is one of the African countries where tuberculosis is wide spread in both humans and cattle mainly due to culture of drinking un-pasteurized raw milk.

[Kalkidan A., Wale F. Review on Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 14-21]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.02.

 

Keywords: Bovine Tuberculosis; M. bovis; zoonosis; bovine; milk; pasteurization

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Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Vector Density in Dale Wabera District, Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

 

Desta Mengesha1, Girma Kebede1, Tilahun Zenebe2, Zelalem Abera1, Tadele Kabeta1

 

1Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

Email- girmakebede27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trypanosomosis is a widely spread protozoan disease in domestic livestock that causes a significant negative impact on economic growth in many parts of the world particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Bovine trypanosomosis is one of the most prevalent and important disease in Ethiopia limiting livestock productivity and agricultural development. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted in Dale Wabera district of Oromia Regional State from November 2015 to June 2016 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis and its vector density. Blood sample was collected in capillary tubes from 620 randomly selected animals through puncturing their ear vein by lancet. Buffy coat technique was used to determine prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in the study area. From a total 620 examined blood sample, 44(7.1%) animals were found positive. The prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in female was 11 (4.6%) and in male 33 (8.6%) with a statistical significant difference of (P=0.020, X2=3.670, CI= 0.9736—3.698), similarly, the prevalence in young animals were 7 (3.95%), middle 29 (9.63%), and adult 8 (5.65%) without a statistical significant difference (P=0.107, X2 =6.10, CI= 0.769—1.812). The prevalence of the disease that was recorded in poor 29(61.39%), medium 10(3.61%) and good 5(6.67%) body condition score with statically significant variation (P=0.005, X2 =10.766, CI = 0.732326—0.90477). However, the mean PCV value recorded between parasitaemic and aparasitemic animals were 19.51 and 27.78 respectively, with highly statically significant difference (P=0.000, X2 =30.718, CI=0.316—0.2533). In this study the most frequently identified trypanosome species were T. congolense 32 (72.72%) followed by T. vivax 8 (18.18%) and mixed infection (T. vivax and T. congolense) 4 (9.09%). The entomological surveys were conducted using 60 traps, 12, 12, 36 ENGU, Biconical and Monopryamidal traps respectively on each PAs. AS a result, Glossina pallidipes, G. m. submorsitans, G. tachynoides and G. fuscipes fuscipes were the tsetse fly species identified in the study area along with other biting flies like Stomoxys and Tabanus. The mean apparent density of tsetse fly was higher (19.7) than biting fly (0.6) in the study area. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the livestock in study area was found still with the challenge of this disease. Therefore, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of trypanosomosis infection and its vectors.

[Desta Mengesha, Girma Kebede, Tilahun Zenebe, Zelalem Abera, Tadele Kabeta. Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Vector Density in Dale Wabera District, Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 22-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.03.

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Trypanosomosis, Buffy coat technique, Vectors, fly per trap per day, Bovine, Dale Wabera district, Ethiopia.

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Review On Foot And Mouth Disease

 

Ahmed Umer1, 2, 3, Awol Mohammed1, 2, 3, Zeru Assefa1, 2, 3

 

1 School of veterinary medicine, Wello University, P.O. Box. 1145, wello, Ethiopia

2 Lecturer at Wello University school of Veterinary Medicine, Wello University, P.O. Box. 1145. Wello, Ethiopia

3 Bahir Dar University, college of Agriculture and environmental science, Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box. 5501. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Zerua1272@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases of mammals and has a great potential for causing severe economic loss in susceptible cloven hoofed animals. It causes production losses, high mortality in young animals, and is a major constraint to international trade in live animals and their products. There are seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV), namely, O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1. Within this serotypes there are also a number of subtypes of the virus. Infection with one serotype does not confer immunity against another. Even if the frequency of outbreaks and the distribution of serotypes are not uniform, the disease has a global distribution. Serotype O, A and C viruses have had the widest distribution and have been responsible for many outbreaks in Europe, America, Asia and Africa. FMDV can be spread either by direct or indirect contact. Further spread between cattle is more likely to be by airborne means. Clinical signs can vary from mild to severe, and fatalities may occur, especially in young animals. Typical cases of FMD are characterized by a vesicular condition of the feet, buccal mucosa and, in females, the mammary glands. FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema. Laboratory diagnosis of any suspected FMD case is therefore important. The control of FMD depends on prevention of the introduction of virus, prevention of infection of stock and the prevention of spread of the virus from infected animals. Although inactivated FMD vaccines have been available for decades, there is little or no cross-protection across serotypes and subtypes, requiring vaccines that are matched to circulating field strains. Therefore there should be production of safe and inexpensive vaccine that is easy to deliver and also capable of inducing lifelong immunity against multiple serotypes and subtypes.

[Umer A, Mohammed A, Assefa Z. Review On Foot And Mouth Disease. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 32-41]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.04.

 

Keywords: Foot and Mouth Disease, outbreak, Serotype, Vaccination

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5

Haematological Effects of Methanolic Root and Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli in Wistar Rat

 

Udeme Jude Ogoloma1, Mathew Wegu2 and Bennie N. Abbey 3

 

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

2 & 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

demyjay13@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The haematopoietic system which is an important index of physiological and pathological status of man and animals is one of the prime targets for toxic compounds due to the fact that all foreign compounds are distributed in the body via the blood stream. This study was undertaken to determine the phytochemical composition of dried leaves and roots of Thaumatococcus danielli and their effect on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Phytochemical analysis using GC-FID revealed that kaempferol was higher in leaf (18.75ug/g) than root (9.55ug/g). Tannin was higher in root (10.39ug/g) than leaf (8.93ug/g), while phenol was higher in leaf (6.66ug/g) than root (3.96ug/g). Saponin, rutin, phytate and catechin contents were within same range in both leaf and root. A total of 226 albino rats of weight between 180 to 220g were used for toxicity studies for 4 weeks. The LD50 for leaf and root was 330mg/kg body weight (bw) and 250mg/kgbw respectively, upon intraperitoneal administration. Haematological result showed some alteration in red blood cells, white blood cells and its differentials but no significant effect (P<0.05) on haemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets concentrations. Phytochemical analyses showed significant concentration of potential phytochemicals which are of health benefit to human beings. But, sub-acute administration of leaf and root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli caused noticeable alterations in haematological parameters. Thus, caution should be applied when using this plant therapeutically at medium and high dose concentrations. It is recommended that chronic toxicity studies for duration of at least 60 days be designed to explicitly define some observed alterations in haematological parameters.

[Ogoloma, U.J., Wegu, M. and B. N. Abbey. Haematological Effects of Methanolic Root and Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli in Wistar Rat. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 42-55]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.05.

 

Keywords: haematopoietic, Thaumatococcus danielli, haemoglobin, Wistar rats, phytochemical

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The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 6, 2017. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net, nbmeditor@gmail.com or contact with author(s) directly.

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