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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

Volume 2 - Issue 3, Cumulated 9, March 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Design and Simulation of a New Bevel Multi-Speed Gearbox for Automatic Gearboxes
 
Majid Yaghoubi 1*, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi 1
 1. Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran 
yaghoub@ut.ac.ir*, mohtaseb@ut.ac.ir
 
Abstract: In this paper, a new mechanism was developed as a gearbox for power transmission between concentric shafts. With this approach, reduction ratios range from 10:1 to 200:1 for single-stage reducers, and also ratios of millions to one are possible for single-stage. This mechanism is very cheaper than planetary gears. The mechanism consists of one drive shaft and one driven shaft, conical gears which one of them is fixed and the others are driven. In this mechanism, with attention to the type of design, despite very small occupied space, by combination several ratios bevel gear can use as a gearbox. We first present the kinematics diagrams and then the equations of motion. Simulation results using Visual Nastran, Autodesk Inventor Dynamic, and COSMOS Motion software with three different input rotational speeds showed that this mechanism can have high reduction ratio. Finally, tension analysis of the mechanism using ANSYS workbench software showed that the highest tension occurred in the pinion gear No. 2. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):1-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Key words: Kinematics diagram, reduced velocity, Visual Nastran, power transmission, gears

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.01

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2

`A study on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among patients attending some public hospitals in Adamawa State, Nigeria
 
Dunah, C.S., * De, N. and Adamu, M.T.
Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, nanditamicrobio@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: A total of three hundred stool specimens were collected from patients with complains of stomach pain (some of them with accompanied diarrhea) attending Federal Medical Centre, Yola; General Hospital, Mubi and General Hospital, Numan in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The specimens were cultured on Sorbitol MacConkey agar medium and 280 isolates were obtained (47 colonies were colorless whereas 233 isolates were pink in color). Biochemical tests (IMViC and sugar utilization tests) revealed that all the isolates were strains of E. coli but the pink colonies utilized sorbitol,,mannitol, glucose and arabinose whereas the colorless colonies did not utilize sorbitol. The 47 presumptive E. coli O157:H7 isolates (colorless colonies on SMAC medium) did not grow on Cellobiose MacConkey Agar (CMAC) medium revealing the fact that none of them were isolates of E. hermannii. These 47 isolates were subjected to serological test. Eleven finally emerged seropositive E. coli 0157:H7 signifying 3.7% infection rate among the studied population. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, colistin and chloramphenicol (diameter of zone 2.8-7.0 mm) at 25 g/ml concentration. Twenty three percent of isolates collected from bloody stool samples were seropositive for E. coli O157:H7 signifying the fact that there is a relationship between bloody stool and infection. There is also a relationship between sex and infection at p<0.05. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):8-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.02

Keywords: SMAC, CMAC, E.coli O157:H7, serotype, E. hermannii

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3

Calculated linear regression equations of motion K+ & Na+ ions and compare moving process these elements in corn roots
 
Tayeb Saki Nejad1*, Abdolmahdi Bakhshande2, Ashraf jazayeri3
 1- Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch
2- Professor Department of Physiology, Ramin Agriculture University
3- Assistant Professor Department of biology, Shahid Chamran University
*Corresponding Arthur: Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: This research in research farm of Islamic Azad University, branch Ahvaz Iran in the years 2006 and 2007 were performed. Research measuring 3 different depths in the roots of corn: (A = 0 - 20, B = 20 - 40, C = 40 - 60 Cm). Root sampling method of trench digging Tuesday soil depth and applied water stress in different period of plant growing split plot design with 4 replications of was. Linear regression equation of potassium movement in the depth of process A, y =-0.506X +2.38 showed severe discharge and transfer element potassium in various quantities have been irrigated. In other words, imposing severe water stress, ion transfer and discharge was more that equation slope (m =- 0.506) trend Go shows the discharge and transfer. Linear regression equation in the depth of B, with y = 0. 268x +1.79 indicates that the process of gathering more ions that transfer of this phenomenon in the top of this element from the lower root (the depth of C) to the top and the absorption of these elements is water stress conditions. Depth c element assembly process is very much needed due to plant water stress conditions, this element set is osmotic pressure, ion transfer process of gathering and deep C and B and C, especially in the height of the highest accumulation process and the accumulation of sodium ions was the transfer process in both the height and depth A very small majority of sodium absorption in the root C accumulation in deep to find and apply severe water stress increased the accumulation of positive slope of regression line equation y = 0.09x-. 005, that showed increased sodium. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):15-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.03

Key Words: Linear regression equation, K+ & Na+, corn root

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4

Long term inhaled corticosteroids in childhood asthma: Impact on growth and adrenocorticol function
 
Nayera Elmorsi Hassan, Mehrevan M. Abd El-moniem* and Ahmed Shaalan**.
Prof. of biological anthropology, **Researcher assistant, Biological
Anthropological Department, National Research Center (NRC).
*Researcher in Medical Biochemistry Department, NRC, Giza, Egypt.
E-mail: sunrisemoh@yahoo.com
Abstract: Inhaled corticosteroids have a marked effect on both the immediate and the long-term aims of asthma therapy. This study aims to assess safety and efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in childhood asthma through studying the effect of its long term use on growth and serum cortisol level. This study included 60 children (40 boys and 23 girls), aged 3 -10 years, did not receive systemic corticosteroids and not suffering from any other systemic chronic diseases.The children were classified into group1 (30 asthmatic patients on ICS) and group 2 (33 asthmatic patients not received ICS). All children were subjected to full clinical examination, radiological studies, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, sitting height, ; triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness, mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences ) and laboratory investigation includes serum cortisol. Then, the body mass index was calculated. The results showed that there is no significant difference in anthropometric measurements and serum cortisol level between the two groups; these results support the safety of ICS on growth. Moreover, we found that the height of group 2 (children not on ICS) are shorter than group 1 (patient on ICS). In conclusion: Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are the most effective controller therapy, and are therefore the recommended treatment for asthma for children. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):23-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.04

Key Words: Asthmatic children- anthropometric measurement- cortisol level.

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5

Energy content of Kerr black hole emitting non thermal radiation or scalar radiation
 
Manjunath. R. (Reader in physics)
#16, 8th Main road, Karnataka, India
Shivanagar, Rajajinagar
Bangalore-560010, Karnataka, India. manjunathr1988@yahoo.in
 
Abstract: The rate of loss of mass of Kerr blackhole in the form of non thermal hawking radiation or scalar radiation is termed as Kerr black hole evaporation. It is shown that the loss in mass of Kerr blackhole has adhverse effects on its basic characteristics .The mathematical equation for calculation of total energy content of Kerr blackhole emitting non thermal radiation or scalar radiation accounts for change in its angular momentum,change in its time period of rotation and its spin parameter . The above expressions was developed based on basic concepts of Kerr blackhole, rotational mechanics and blackhole thermodynamics. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):36-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.05

Keywords: Spin parameter,Speed of light in vaccum, Angular velocity, Angular momentum, Surface gravity, Time period of rotation.

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6

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Is There a Link?
 
Amal Shawky Mohamed Bakir a, Nadia Abdel Aaty Abdel Kader b, Sherif Sadek Shabana c
a: Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
b: Lecturer of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
c: Lecturer of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
 
Abstract: Background: Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease can overlap. Whether irritable bowel syndrome can hide an organic disorder as inflammatory bowel disease is still questionable. We aimed to estimate the frequency of detection of inflammatory bowel disease in Egyptian patients with clinically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: We prospectively included 90 patients with clinically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome according to Rome III criteria. For all included patients, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, stool analysis and stool culture were done. Besides these laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography and colonoscopy with colonic biopsies were performed. Results: Inflammatory bowel disease was detected in 18.9% among the included patients. While irritable bowel syndrome was confirmed in 57.8%, no significant difference between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients as regard the age, gender and symptomatology such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and constipation. A highly significant difference was found regarding the used laboratory tests, ultrasonographic and colonic examinations between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients. Conclusion: A considerable percentage of inflammatory bowel disease patients could be detected among patients with clinically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. Laboratory tests and ultrasonographic examination can help primarily to discriminate the two conditions although colonoscopy with colonic biopsy remains the gold standard in diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):44-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.06

Key Words: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Rome criteria

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7

Quality of Hand-dug Wells in Selected Locations in Lagos Coastal Aquifer, Nigeria
 
 Adetoyinbo Adedeji 1 Adebo Babatunde 1, 2
 
Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, +234, Nigeria1
Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, +234, Nigeria2
festy_debo@yahoo.com
 
ABSTRACT: Thirty water samples where collected from hand dug wells in Six different locations in the study areas. These include: Ikeja, Lagos Island, Ajah, Victoria Island, Eti- Osa and Yaba. The chloride concentrations of all the samples were acquired and then compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for chloride content in drinking water. We selected hand dug well because it is a common source of drinking water in the area under consideration. Results show that the the average chloride concentrations in all the samples collected in all the six locations are above the WHO value of 250mg/l (value recommended for safe drinking water) with Ajah having the highest Chloride concentration of 606.68mg/l and Ikeja with the least value of 255.37mg/l. This indicates that the water in the considered areas are not safe for drinking. Chloride concentration in the Lagos coastal aquifer may become equal to that at the source at some infinitestimal time and this portends a great danger to the use of groundwater for domestic purposes. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):51-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.07

Keywords: Salinity, Chloride concentration, Coastal aquifers, Water samples

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8

Unlock the Taiji Bagua photo for a better future service
 
 SUN Chun-wu
 Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province Electric Power Group 3
West Lake in Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China Town, 59, Tel: 0514 1 82,822,538 Zip 225008
 E-mail: yzscw@163.com; Blog: http://yzscw.blog.163.com
 
Abstract: China's unique ancient Taiji Bagua map does have a very macro Austrian philosophy, it is also tapping temple of modern science's door. As the age-old for today's people to say, is still a fascinating mystery: What it is inspired by what and how they create out of it? Taiji Bagua map are those effects? Creating it to whether it is for what purpose? [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):55-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.08

Keywords: Bagua Chart diagrams the role of the source function

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9

Effect of Gender Equity in Poverty Alleviation
 
Fodeba Daboh
International Peace and Conflict Resolution, Arcadia University, Glenside PA, USA. fdaboh@arcadia.edu
 
Abstract: Poverty has been and continues to be the world’s most challenging pandemic of our time. Disparity at every level by and large hasn’t been a thing of the past. This paper is an attempt to underscore the shortcomings of women in general in eradicating poverty to that of their male counterpart. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):61-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.09

Keywords: Gender, poverty, development, heifer, women empowerment

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10

In the Name of Global War on Terror
 
Fodeba Daboh
 International Peace and Confliction, Arcadia University, Glenside PA, USA.
fdaboh@Arcadia.Edu or dabofodeba@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The Geneva Convention that stipulates that all enemies when captured as prisoners should be treated with dignity doesn’t seem to hold water in the case of the global war of terror battles by the United States since September 11, 2001. The growing rifts between the United Nations mandates and that of the United States continue to be debated by expert in International human rights law. The practical violations of international law in the name of global war on terror are what the piece aim to draw attention to. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):67-70]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.10

Keywords: terrorism, human rights, international law, United Nations, security council, mandates

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11

THE EFFECTS OF FISH POND TYPES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON FISH HEALTH IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
THILZA I.B.1, MUHAMMAD T.2, KIGIR E.S.3, MOSES D.G.4, KWAHGE A.V.1 OKWOR G.O.5, UNDIANDEYE J.U.5
1. DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, P.M.B 1069, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
2. WHO NATIONAL POLIO LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
3. DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY ANATOMY, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, P.M.B 1069, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
4. NATIONAL VETERINARY RESEACH INSTITUTE, VOM, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA.
5. DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY AND PARASITIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, P.M.B 1069, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
thilzathilzathilza@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT: Fish performs all their body functions in water. The quality of the water in which fish are contained is therefore very important to their livelihood. In the present study, some physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, alkalinity, PH, turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbondioxide, nitrites, ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, chromium, iron, copper, zinc and total water hardness content of five farms aquaculture ponds each for plastic, concrete and earthen ponds types on the first days of water change/just after toping of pond with water for earthen pond types and on the last days of water change /just before toping of pond with water for earthen pond types was analysed for assessment. The studies were undertaken from the month of January to March, 2009 during which the physico-chemical parameters were analysed and compared with the aquaculture water quality standard of Kumar (2004). The temperature values remained within the standard values in the all the aquaculture pond types. PH values of the aquaculture ponds ranges from 4.7-6.8 as against the standard water quality i.e 6.5-8.0. Turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved carbondioxide, nitrites, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, alkalinity contents increased on the last days of water change/just before toping with water for earthen pond types in the aquaculture ponds while dissolved oxygen, heavy metals and total water hardness contents shows a decreased in their values for all the aquaculture pond types on the last days of water change/just before toping pond with water for earthen pond types. The stocking density, rate of feeding, frequency of water changes had effect on the water quality parameter and consequently growth rate of the fishes. The variation in the physic-chemical parameters of the aquaculture ponds above or below standard values has potential effects on the health and productivity of aquaculture. The study indicates that the pond water quality of the plastic and to a lesser extent concrete pond pose lesser threat to the livelihood of the fish as compared to the earthen pond types due to the management practices on the farms although the constant change of water in the plastic and concrete pond types increases the chances of heavy metals being absorbed in the tissues of fishes causing health threat to both the fish and consumers of fish. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):71-78]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.11

KEY WORDS: management practices, physico-chemical water qualities, fish, health

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12

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Sulphidation pressmud Composted pressmud and Vermicomposted pressmud
 
Namita Joshi* and Sonal Sharma
Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya,
Gurukul Kangri, Harudwar, Uttarankhand, India. drnamitaenv@gmail.com
 
Abstract: In India, Sugar industry with 400 sugar mills ranks as the second major agro-industry in the country. Pressmud a by-product of sugar-mill is produced at 30-35 Kg per ton of cane crushed. Production of sulphidation and carbonation pressmud is estimated to be 3% and 7% respectively of the quantity of cane crushed in a sugar factory following sulphidation and carbonation process respectively. Present study was undertaken to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of raw pressmud, it’s compost prepared by using thermophillic bacteria and it’s vermicompost which is prepared by using species Eisenia foetida. while comparing physical and chemical characteristics, it was found that vermicompost have lower temperature, water holding, pH and carbon content but higher electrical conductivity, available phosphorus and moisture content as compared to raw pressmud and it’s compost. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):79-82]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.12

Keywords: Sulphidatiopn pressmud, compost and vermicompost, physical and chemical charecterstics. 

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13

Caesalpinia bonducella F - An Overview
 
Komal Moon*, S. S. Khadabadi **, U.A. Deokate ***, S.L. Deore ****
* Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA. komal.moon@gmail.com
** Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA. khadbadi@yahoo.com, 09370159421
*** Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA. deokate@yahoo.com, 09423853597
**** Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA. sharudeore_2@yahoo.com, 09766577646
 
ABSTRACT: Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Caesalpinia bonducella (syn: Caesalpinia Crista Linn.) has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain various Alkaloids, Glycosides, Terpenoids and Saponins. It has been reported as anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-filarial, anti-tumor, anxiolytic, immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, activity. This review attempts to encompass the available literature on Caesalpinia bonducella with respect to its pharmacognostic characters, chemical constituents, summary of its various pharmacological activities and traditional uses. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):83-90]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.13

Keywords: Caesalpinia bonducella. Pharmacology, Traditional Uses, Review

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14

 
Lagenaria siceraria: Phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies
 
Meenal S. kubde*, S. S. Khadabadi **, I. A. Farooqui **, S. L. Deore ****
* Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.
** Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.
*** Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.
**** Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.
Email- sharudeore_2@yahoo.com, Contact No. 09766577646
 
ABSTRACT: Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Lagenaria siceraria has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. The plants contain tri terpenoid, cucurbitacins, flavones, C-glycosides beta glycosides 1, vitamin B, and a fair source of ascorbic acid in fruits. The edible portion contains thiamine, riboflavin, niacin. The oil obtained from seed contains free fatty acids. The fruit is rich in pectin 2. The plant contains saponin and fatty oil 3. It has been reported as Cardio tonic, Hepato protective, Immunomodulatory, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial and Diuretic properties. The current study is therefore carried out to provide requisite phytochemical and pharmacological detail about the plant. The plant is cultivated in different parts of India on a small scale at present. However, systematic information on different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):91-98]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.14

Key words: Lagenaria siceraria, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological action.

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15

Design and Simulation of a New Flexible Constant Velocity Mechanism for Transmission of power between Parallel Shafts
 
Majid Yaghoubi*, E. Mahmoodi, M. Omid, Seyed, Saeid Mohtasebi
Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. yaghoub@ut.ac.ir*, esmahmoodi@ut.ac.ir, omid@ut.ac.ir, mohtaseb@ut.ac.ir,
 
Abstract: This paper presents a new mechanism for transmission of power between parallel shafts for adjusting height of farm or construction machineries in more gages. The mechanism consists of a drive shaft, 3 quad transmitter links, 8 connecting links and driven shaft. Advantage of this mechanism is that the velocity ratio between input and output shafts remains constant for all movements. Simulation results using software packages showed that this mechanism could transmit constant velocity ratio at all parallel movements between the shafts. Finally, tension analysis of the mechanism at 2000 rpm and input shaft torque of 8000 N.m,, showed that the highest tension occurs in the shafts and the main components of mechanism have high load capacities in comparison with their dimensions. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):99-103]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.15

Key words: Shaft, Power transmission, mechanisms, Constant velocity, Tension analysis, Simulation

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16

Growth Parameters, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broilers Fed Mixture of Sun-dried Cassava Tuber Meal, Dried Brewers’ Grains and Palm oil
 
* Chukwuka, O. K, Udedibie, A. B. I., Okeudo, N. J., Aladi, N. O., Esonu, B. O., Iheshiulor, O. O.M., and Omede, A. A.
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Imo State Nigeria. okwy2k5@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the value of the mixture of sun-dried cassava tuber meal (C), dried brewers’ grains (B) and palm oil (P) (CBP-mix) based diets with a view to determining: its optimal dietary maize replacement level(s) in broiler finisher and pig diets; its effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finisher broilers and pigs. Sun–dried cassava tuber meal (C), dried brewers’ grains (B) and palm oil (P) were mixed at the ratio of 6:3:1 respectively to produce a compound feedstuff referred to as CBP-mix which had a crude protein content of 9.84%, ME value of 3.48Mcal/kg and CF content of 8.27%. Anak broiler finishers were fed diets containing 0%, 50%, and 100% CBP-mix substitution levels for maize, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. A significant increase in feed intake was observed as the level of CBP-mix in broiler finisher diets increased (P < 0.05). Broilers fed 100% maize replacement diet recorded significantly (P < 0.05) lower average daily weight gain than broilers finished on the 50% and 0% maize replacement diets. However, average daily weight gain of broilers fed the 0% and 50% maize replacement diets were similar (P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences (P < 0.05). No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in dressing percentage and yield of economically important carcass components at the end of the experiment when examined as percentage of liveweight. The abdominal fat, organ weight and organoleptic characteristics did not show any significant differences (P > 0.05). The result on feed cost analysis showed that total feed cost and feed cost per weight gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the CBP-mix substitution levels for maize increased. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(3):104-110]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.16

Key words: Dried brewers’ grains, sun-dried cassava tuber meal, palm oil, broilers, growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality

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17

First Observation on shrimp fishery using brackish water fern, Acrostichum aureum traps in a tropical lagoon, south-western Nigeria
 
* Babatunde Eniola Emmanuel
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria. moneteni@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Observation on Shrimp fishery using brackish water fern, Acrostichum aureum traps in a tropical lagoon, south-western Nigeria was examined between June 2004 and May 2005. It was recorded that the fishery of prawn in the lagoon was confined to the rainy season as a reflection of the abundance of the prawns during this season, which itself is due to in-migration from the many fresh water streams emptying into the lagoon. The trap is cheap to construct, with only N 1,200 ninety – sixty traps was constructed. Macrobrachium spp (fresh water prawns) are spatially distributed in the lagoon based on the shelter nature of the area. The species observed in the traps were Macrobrachium vollenhoevenii, Macrobrachion macrobrachion, Penaeus notialis and Batanga lebritonis. Macrobrachium were more concentrated at Ago–Egun (90kg) and the least concentration were recorded at University of Lagos water front (70.1kg). The occurrence and distribution of prawn in Lagos lagoon were likely to be influenced mainly by hydrology and salinity. The traps were effective because the prawns went under it to feed on the algae and other periphyton encrusting them. The traps were observed to last for just 2 months before they started decaying and sinking vertically in the water column. However, the effectiveness of Acrostichum aureum traps around Ago –Egun and Ikorodu indicates that the species may have preference for areas with influx of organic matter from home chores. The market prices are high compared with meat or fish in the same market. For instance, at the time of this study, while a kilogram of prawn was sold between N410 and N450, meat price averaged (N300-N350) and fish prices stood at N250–N300 per kilogram. Thus weight of the prawn fetched more money (>30 % greater) than fish. These high prices encourage regular and active Macrobrachium fishing in Lagos lagoon. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(3):111-115]. (ISSN:1553-9873). 

doi:10.7537/marsroj020310.17

Keywords: Acrostichum aureum, trap, shrimp, Lagos lagoon, Macrobrachium spp

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