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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

Volume 2 - Issue 9, Cumulated 15, September 9, 2010, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Assessment Of Top Soil Quality In The Vicinity Of Subsided Area In Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, Jharkhand

 

Arvind Kumar Rai1 Biswajit Paul 2 Gurdeep Singh3

Research Scholar1, Assistant Professor2, Professor& Head3

Department of Environmental Science &Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Email: arvind_dese@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Coal mining is the major mining activity performed in the India. There are two types of methods applied for mining such as opencast mining and underground mining. Both produce huge amount of wastes, especially while performing the opencast mining activities. Opencast project involved displacement of large amount of overburden to excavate the valuable mineral. In mining areas the soils are affected by various activities such as blasting, drilling and quantity of explosives used. This paper presents the results of the studied carried out on top soil (0-15cm) quality parameters of Jharia coalfields. It has been observed that the soil quality in subsided areas have relatively low pH, low moisture content and high conductivity. The present study, helped to reveal the extent top soil quality in subsided areas and its results are very vital for planning the rehabilitation programmed of Jharia coalfield. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.01

KEY WORDS Opencast project, Overburden materials, Subsided areas.

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2

Assessment Of Land Use Cover Changes Using Ndvi And Dem In Puer And Simao Counties, Yunnan Province, China

 

1Diallo Yacouba, 1Hu Guangdao, 2Wen Xingping

 

  1. Institute for mathematics geosciences and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, P.R. CHINA

 2. Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093, Yunnan, P.R. CHINA

yacdial2005@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Change detection is the technique, which is used for the assessment of resources, where multi-date images are compared to find out the type and amount of change have occurred. The various applications of change detection are in agricultural, hydrological, forestry, environmental and ecological field. The rapid growth of Puer-Simao area and its agricultural area have probably resulted very rapidly and have had an unfavorable effect on the environment and therefore multi-temporal Landsat TM imagery for assessment land cover change has proven to be the best tool in this study. The performance of image classifiers that utilize only the remote sensing data may deteriorate, especially in mountainous regions, payable to the presence of shadows. In our study, a multisource classification approach to map land cover in Puer_Simao counties with high mountain peaks having elevations up to 2800 m above mean sea level has been adopted. Remote sensing data from Landsat TM image along with NDVI and DEM data layers have been used to perform multi-source classification using Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The change detection method used was NDVI differencing. From the results the forest or shrub land and Barren land cover types have decreased by about 6% and 23% from 1990 to 1999 respectively, while agricultural land, built-up and water areas have increased by about 19%, 4 % and 7% respectively. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):7-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.02

 

Keywords: agricultural; hydrological; forestry; environmental; ecological; Puer-Simao

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3

Kinetics Of Biogas Potential From Animal And Domestic Waste

 

*L.C. Ngozi-Olehi2, A.A. Ayuk1, E.E. Oguzie1, E.N. Ejike1, B.C. Ijioma2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri. Nigeria.

2 Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. Nigeria.

bleijioma@yahoo.com; mrs_ngoziolehi@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract:This paper focuses on the following options from the view point of the Kyoto protocol energy use from cow and poultry droppings as well as domestic waste. Biogas potential was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated to study the effect of varied conditions of pH, and temperature. Gas volumetric technique was employed for the kinetic study. Significant influence of pH on the amount of biogas generated from each system was observed. Gas yield from all systems was maximal in the pH range 6 – 8 (neutral/near neutral) and minimal at acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 9) environments. Temperature influenced several output parameters in the biogas production process. Anaerobic digestion reaction was observed to have followed a first order kinetics as closely related values were obtained from the rate constant. The trend of activation energy (Ea) (Cow dung > Poultry > Domestic) corroborates the incubation period observed in cow dung and poultry dropping before gas production. The activation enthalpies vary in the same manner as activation energies; the enthalpies of activation were higher in cow dung and poultry droppings than in domestic waste. The results show that maximum gas production was obtained at a temperature of 50oC. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):17-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.03

 

Keywords; Animal and domestic waste, biogas potential, greenhouse gas emission, pH, temperature

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4

Plants used in the treatment of joint diseases (rheumatism, arthritis, gout and lumbago) in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, India

 

Harish Singh, G. Krishna and P.K. Baske

Central Botanical Laboratory, Botanical Survey of India, Howrah (W. B.), 711 103, India

harish_bsi@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: During the ethnobotanical survey of Mayurbhanj district about 380 uses of plants have been recorded for various purposes. Of these, 23 plants belonging to 22 genera and 18 families are being used in the treatment of joint diseases (rheumatism, arthritis, gout and lumbago) by the tribal and non-tribal people of the district. These plants are arranged alphabetically with their family, local name(s), locality (ies), and method of preparation and mode of uses for the treatment of rheumatism with collection number(s). [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):22-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.04

 

Keywords: Joint diseases; Rheumatism; Arthritis; Gout; Lumbago; Mayurbhanj district, Odisha

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5

 A Study on Antimicrobial Property of Phenol Tolerant Bacteria Isolated From Indian Mangrove Forest

 

S. Silambarasan, V. Hari Prasad, R. Balaji and Jayanthi Abraham*

 

School of BioSciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil nadu.

 * jayanthi.abraham@gmail.com

First author: Mr. S.Silambarasan, M.Sc., School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632 014. Tamil Nadu, India

Co author: Mr. V. Hari Prasad, M.Sc., School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632 014. Tamil Nadu, India.

Co author: Mr. R. Balaji, M.Sc., School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632 014. Tamil Nadu, India.

Corresponding author: Dr. Jayanthi Abraham, M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor (Senior), School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University,Vellore- 632 014. Tamil Nadu, India. Email: jayanthi.abraham@gmail.com, Mobile: +91- 9843580709

 

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to screen for phenol tolerant bacteria and analyse its antimicrobial activity. The soil samples were collected from Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem situated along the southeast coast of South India. Phenols are one of the most widely distributed classes of chlorinated chemicals in the environment. For cleanup of large areas of phenol contaminated environments, bioremediation seems to be a promising approach. Four phenol tolerant bacterial species were isolated. In the presence of high concentration of phenol, both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were found to tolerate higher concentration of phenol during this study on phenol degradation. From the four Bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa was selected and tested for its antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. The antibiotic extraction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae but against Vibrio cholerae no zone of inhibition was noticed. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):27-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.05

 

Key words: antimicrobial activity; bacterial isolates; mangrove soil; phenol tolerant

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6

Urban-Rural Differential In Teaching And Learning Of Geography In Ahiazu Mbaise And Owerri Municipal Council In Imo State

 

DR. (MRS.) M. N. OBASI

DEPT. OF GEOGRAPHY ALVAN IKOKU FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, OWERRI

Email: nwachukwucu2005@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: The all important need for self-reliance and technology in Nigeria calls for teachers to meet the requirement of the new national policy on Education. The concern of this study is therefore focused on the problems of Geography education in Nigeria. It examines the rural-urban variables affecting the teaching and learning of geography in Imo State. The sample for the study comprises ten schools, five each from rural and urban areas. Structured questionnaires were distributed to school principals and Geography teachers of the sampled schools and contingency analysis employed to test for the significant differences. The major findings of the study include the following. That one consistent indicator of differences in schools certificate geography achievement is school location. That the urban environment tends to be capable of raising and reinforcing children’s cognitive behaviour more than rural environment. That difference in the supply and availability of geography teachers both in the right quantity and quality Geography equipment, library and text books create differences in the teaching and learning of geography in the rural and urban schools. Finally, that given the necessary qualified staff and equipment, students in the rural schools will perform equally well as those in the urban schools. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):33-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.06

 

Keywords: technology; urban schools

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7

Bacteria Prevalence On The Environmental Labour Wards As The Causes Of Nosocomial Infections In General Hospital Umuguma And Umezuruike Hospital Owerri, In Imo State, Nigeria.

 

1Ijioma B.C Ph.D 2 Kalu I. G. 1Nwachukwu C.U Ph.D

1Department of Biology Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State,

2Department of Biotechnology Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State.

nwachukwucu2005@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This study was on the isolation and identification of bacteria prevalent on the environmental labour wards of General hospital Umuguma and Umezuruike hospital, Owerri, Imo State of Nigeria. In carrying out the research, samples were collected from the floor, bed rails, walls, mattresses, malting touch and baby beds using sterilized swab stick that is moistened with peptone water. Appropriate media, agar and reagents were used to culture the micro-organism for 24 hours. The organisms were isolated and it was observed that staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species, pseudomonas acruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella acrogens, and Micrococcus species were predominant in descending order of prevalence. These bacteria are therefore factually suggested to be the major cause of Nosocomial infections in the environmental labour wards of the named hospitals. Recommendations such as keeping hand clean by washing thoroughly with soap and water, or using alcohol base were made for the effective control and reduction of the said infections in the hospitals. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):45-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.07

 

Key words: Bacteria, Nosocomial, Labour ward, Pseudomonas acruginosa, General hospital

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8

Evaluation Of Ganga Water For Drinking Purpose By Water Quality Index At Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

 

 

Avnish Chauhan* and Suman Singh

*Dept. of Applied Sciences and Humanities, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, UP, India-244001.

Research Officer, Pramhans Sanstha (N.G.O.), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Corresponding authors: avnishchauhan_phd@aol.in, avnishchauhan_in@yahoo.com sumansingh_in@aol.in

 

Abstract: The present study was intended to calculate water quality index (WQI) for National river (Ganga) of India at Rishikesh for drinking, recreation and other purpose by using eight water quality parameters, turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, Free CO2, TS, TSS and TDS. Ganga Action Plan program launched by Government of India in April 1985 in order to reduce the pollution load on the river Ganga, but it failed to decrease the pollution level in the river, after spending more than 9 billion rupees over a period of 15 years. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):53-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.08

 

Key words: WQI, DO, BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS

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9

Expression Of Fas/Apo-1(Cd95) In Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Abdelgwad T*, El-Sayed IH**, Al-Rabat A*, Badra G*** and Abdelhafeez N*

* Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, **Molecular Biology Department, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Minofiya University, ***Internal Medicine Department, National Institute of Liver, Minofyia University.

E-mail: ibrahimelsayed@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic tumor and one of the most common cancers worldwide. Apoptosis and the Fas system are believed to be involved in the process of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Fas-expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are important antitumor effector cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 16 patients with HCC and 17 patients with liver cirrhosis and Fas expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results were compared with normal control volunteers. The results showed that the Fas mean was significantly higher in patients with HCC compared with liver cirrhosis patients and normal controls (52.0917.7% vs. 16.6810.21 vs. 14.197.25%, respectively). In conclusion, the elevated blood levels of Fas have been observed in patients with hepatocellular cancer, indicating a significant role in liver cancer tumorigenesis. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):62-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.09

 

KEYWORDS: Fas, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), flow cytometry, liver cirrhosis

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10

Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Berseem Hay By Corn Silage On Performance Of Growing Rabbits

Gaafar, H.M.A.; A.I.A. Abd El-Lateif and Salwa B. Abd El-Hady

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Nadi El-Said Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

E-mail: dr.gaafar@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Two experiments were done to study the effect of partial replacement of berseem hay by corn silage on the performance of growing rabbits. In the first one, 8 mature male NZW rabbits with an average body weight of 2.5 kg and 8 months old were used to determine digestibility coefficients and nutritive values of berseem hay (BH) and corn silage (CS). In the second one, 30 NZW growing rabbits of 60 days of age were used in a complete randomized design experiment with three treatments. The first group fed commercial rabbit diet including 40% BH (control diet), while in the other two groups 50 or 100% of BH was replaced by CS throughout the 70 days of experiment. Results of the first experiment indicated that the contents of OM, EE and NFE were higher, but the contents of DM, CP and CF were lower in corn silage (CS) compared with berseem hay (BH). The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, EE and NFE and the contents of TDN and DE were significantly higher (P<0.05), but the CP and CF digestibilities and DCP content was significantly lower (P<0.05) for CS than BH. In the second experiment, the contents of OM, EE and NFE increased, but the contents of DM, CP and CF decreased with increasing the level of replacing BH by CS. The digestibilities of DM, OM, EE and NFE and TDN and DE values and TVFA's concentration increased significantly (P<0.05), but CP and CF digestibilities and DCP value, pH value and NH3-N concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of replacing BH by CS. The final body weight, total and daily weight gain, the total and net revenue and net revenue improvement increased significantly (P<0.05), however, average daily and total DM intake, feed cost and feed cost per kg gain decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of replacing BH by CS. The amount of DM required per kg gain was significantly lower (P<0.05) for diets contained 50 and 100% CS compared with commercial rabbit diet. The slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat weight and percentage and EE percentage increased significantly (P<0.05), but the percentages of DM, CP and ash decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of replacing BH by CS. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):68-74]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.10

 

Key words: NZW rabbits, corn silage, digestibility, body weight gain, economic efficiency and carcass traits

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11

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Shallow and Deep Aquifers: A Case Study

 

Navneet Kumar

 

Department of Applied Science, College of Engineering, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India

navkchem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system. The groundwater resources are being utilized for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is growing concern on deterioration of groundwater quality due to geogenic and anthropogenic activities. Groundwater, being a fragile must be carefully managed to maintain its purity within standard limits. So, quality assessment and management are to be carried out hand-in-hand to have a pollution free environment and for a sustainable use. In order to assess the quality for consumption by human beings and for use in agriculture, the groundwater from the shallow aquifers and deep aquifers. Spatial distribution of pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), fluoride, total iron, chloride (Cl&) and electrical conductivity (EC) content of groundwater samples collected from the shallow and deep aquifers of Dhampur tahsil area, Bijnor district, Uttar Pradesh, India. In the Dhampur tahsil area, the shallow aquifers that supply water to dugwells of the catchments area of study have poor water quality than those of the borewells from the deep aquifers. Result shows the groundwater of both aquifers is found to be alkaline in nature with an average EC value of less than 300S/cm. The total iron content is found to be more than 0.5 mg/L in certain areas of the region. For the shallow aquifers the observed maximum TDS was 827.34 mg/L and 562.14 mg/L for the deep aquifers. In general, the concentration of EC and TDS in the groundwater of the shallow and deep aquifers reveals the shorter groundwater-rock-contact time. The chloride content is observed in both the aquifers invariably. The fluoride contents in both aquifers were found to be within the permissible limits. This makes the groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in the catchments area of study is found to be severely polluted and moderately polluted in deep aquifers. The level of pollution is maximum in shallow aquifers and unfit for human consumption. The study involved evaluation of groundwater quality both in shallow and deep aquifers in April 2007. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(9):75-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020910.11

 

Key words: Groundwater quality; deep aquifers; pollution; severely

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