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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

Volume 2 - Issue 10, Cumulated 16, October 1, 2010, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Manuscripts are welcome to send to: editor@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes: Both Had No Singularity at All New Edition

====Part 1Black Holes==== May.-2010

 

Black Holes: The Final Gravitational Collapse Of The Event Horizon Of Any BHs In Nature Would Only Contract To Planck Particle mp = Mbm = 10-5g And Disintegrate in Planck Era, But Impossibly Contract To Singularity Of Infinite Density.

 

Dongsheng Zhang 张洞生 Email: ZhangDS12@hotmail.com

Graduated in 1957 From Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

【Abstract】: In this article, author doesn’t propose any hypothesis and any supplementary condition, may derive out directly “the finally gravitational contraction of any black holes (BH) could impossibly become singularity, but Planck particles mp = Mbm and disappear in Planck Era”. That result is got from Hawking laws about BH and other classical formulas together. The superiority of author’s method is to apply a group of formulas only to research the changes of physical parameters on the event horizon (EH) of any BHs, regardless of the complicated state and structure inside BHs. Thus, the final contracted result of EH of BHs could only become Planck particle mp = Mbm (minimum BH), but not singularity. Since the final collapse of EH of BH with its all mass (Mb) had to become mp, if there were little BHs inside, it could certainly contract to mp in advance. The fundamental defect of the General Theory of Relativity Equation (EGTR) is that, any particles in EGTR has no thermodynamic action to resist the gravitational collapse, it would certainly lead to occurrence of singularity. On the contrary, Hawking formulas of BH were built on the foundation of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, the heat pressure could resist the gravitational collapse forever.

 According to above explanations and analyses, an important formula will be got as below:

 mss Mb = hC/8πG =1.18710-10g2 (1d)

 In above formula (1d), mss is the mass of Hawking quantum radiation (HQR) on the EH, Mb is the mass of whole BH. mssMb is a constant. From (1d), in the real universe, Mb ≠ 0, and, mss ≠ 0, the smaller Mb is, the bigger mss can be. According to axiom of any part ≦the whole, at the limited condition, mss = Mb = (1.18710-10g2)1/2. Thus, Mb is impossible become a singularity.

 mss = Mb = Mbm = (hC/8πG)1/2 = mp =1.09 10-5g (1f)

 Formula (1f) is the best important. correct and final conclusion in this article got by author. It clearly shows that, the final gravitational collapse of any BH would become Planck particle mp, and explode in Planck Era, but not continuously go to singularity of infinite density. Many new concepts and laws in this article are all the further developments to Hawking theory about BHs. In science, the simplest is the best. The demonstrations in this article is the simplest, whether it is good or bad will remain to reader’s comments.

[Dongsheng Zhang. The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes: Both Had No Singularity at All - Part 1Black Holes. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.01

 

Key words】。black holes (BH); singularity; star-formed Schwarzschild (gravitational) black holes: Planck particle--mp; Planck Era; Hawking quantum radiation (HQR); General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE); minimum BH-- Mbm

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2

The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes:

 Both Had No Singularity at All

 ====Part 2: Our Universe Didn’t Come From Singularity====

Our Universe Was Originated From Planck Era, Not From Singularity Or The Big Bang Of Singularity . Just The Birth And Combinations Of Very Large Amount Of Minimum BHs Mbm = mp = 1.0910-5g Created Our Universe And Its Continuous Expansion Until The Present.

Dongsheng Zhang 张洞生 Email: ZhangDS12@hotmail.com;

Graduated in 1957 From Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

 

Abstract】。In this article, based on some general laws of astronomy, physics and many classical theories, the calculated results can prove that our present expansive Universe was impossibly born from Singularity or from the Big Bang of Singularity but from the Big Crunch of pre-universe in Plank Era. According to the principle of time symmetry, suppose before the birth of our universe, there could be a final Big Crunch of pre-universe. Once the final Big Crunch of pre-universe reached to Planck Era, i.e. time t ≤ [k1 (2Gκ)/C5]2/3 (3c), t = - 0.5563 10-43s and temperature T = 0.7341032k, every Planck particle (mp) simultaneously reached 3 states: 1. Reached Planck Era; 2. The gravitational linkage between the closest particles broke off and the collapse stopped at the state of no gravity; 3. Every particle (mp) at that moment would exactly become a minimum gravitational black hole (Mbm = mp =1.0910--5g)Just those 3 states could effectively stop pre-universe continuously collapse to singularity, and let all Mbm explode in Planck Era. The strongest explosions of every Mbm in whole pre-universe synchronously formed a so-called the Big Bang. After that, the new and bigger Mbmn = 2Mbm of longer lifetime could certainly occurrence due to decrease in density and temperature caused by the Big Bang. Newborn 2Mbm became the embryos of our present universe. It was the process of genesis of our present Universe. The collisions and combinations of all newborn Mbmn = 2Mbm would create an “Original Inflation”, and form the present expansion of our universe. The whole process changed from the disappearance of old pre-universe to the genesis of new universe in Plank’s Era was not reversible. Other important conclusions got in this article are those: Our universe has been a real universal black hole (UBH), which accords with all laws of general black holes (BH); Hubble law is just the expansive law of our universe to plunder energy-matters outside; the new and simple explanations and demonstrations to ” Original Inflation”, etc.

[Dongsheng Zhang. The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes Both Had No Singularity at All - Part 2: Our Universe Didn’t Come From Singularity. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):11-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.02

Key words. the genesis of our universe; singularity; the Big Bang; black holes (BH); cosmology; minimum gravitational black holes (Mbm); Original Inflation; Planck Era; Planck particle (mp); Hawking quantum radiations (HQR)

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Phytochemical Screening of Pleurotus tuberregium (SING) Grown on Different Substrates

 

Onuoha C.I. , Obi-Adumanya G.A. and Ezeibekwe, I. O

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

onuohaci@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (Sing) were grown on four different substrates namely: humus soil, mixture of Sawdust and humus soil, sawdust and shreds of the wood of Treculia africana. The quantity and quality of the fruit bodies produced were measured using the following parameters: number of fruit bodies produced, height of fruit bodies, fresh weight, dry weight, diameter of pileus and length of the stipe. Sawdust which served as the control was better growth medium in terms of length of stipe, number of fruit bodies and height of mushroom. The fruit bodies from a mixture of sawdust and humus soil were better in terms of fresh and dry weight while humus soil alone produced fruit bodies with wider pileus diameter. The wood shreds of Treculia africana did not support the growth of the mushroom. The phytochemical composition of the sclerotium and fruit bodies from the different substrates showed that the sclerotium had more flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols than the fruit bodies from the different substrates. There was no significant difference between the alkaloid, tannin, saponin and phenolic composition of the fruit bodies from the different substrates. There was, however, a significant difference at P 0.05 between the flavonoid content of fruit bodies from humus soil, sawdust and those from a mixture of humus soil and sawdust.

[Onuoha C.I., Obi-Adumanya G.A. and Ezeibekwe, I. O. Phytochemical Screening of Pleurotus tuberregium (SING) Grown on Different Substrates. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):23-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.03

 

Key words: Phytochemical, Screening, Pleurotus tuberregium, Substrates.

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Obstacles of Political Party Development in Iran

Hossien Asayeseh

Department of Politics & Government, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

h.asayesh@yahoo.com

Dr. Adlina Ab Halim

Department of Government & Civilization studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

adlina@putra.upm.edu.my

Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

Department of Politics & Government, University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

nosrat2007@yahoo.com

Abstract: The political party is a means of connecting the political process with society and it helps to improve the political system. Oldness of political party development in Iran reaches almost a century but political parties could not have an important role in Iranian political system. This paper looks at obstacles of political party development in Iran and describes obstacles such as; fund, electoral system, political culture, Rentier state, power centralization, civil society and separation between elite groups and masses. In this article we examine how these hindrances impede of party development process in Iran.

[Hossien Asayeseh, Adlina Ab Halim, Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei. Obstacles of Political Party Development in Iran. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):28-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.04

Keywords: Political Party, Iran, fund, civil society, political culture, electoral system

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5

Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Friesian Cows Under Different Feeding System

 

Gaafar, H.M.A.; A.M.A. Mohi El-Din and K.F.A. El-Riedy

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

E-mail: dr.gaafar@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Thirty multiparous lactating cows weighing 450 to 500 kg used after calving and divided into three similar groups according to body weight and milk production (10 each). Cows fed R1 were grazed on fresh berseem throughout the day and little amount of rice straw, those fed R2 were fed on concentrate feed mixture and rice straw and grazing of fresh berseem for 6 hours, while those fed R3 were fed on concentrate feed mixture, rice straw, fresh berseem and corn silage. Results showed that the contents of CP, CF and ash were higher with grazing berseem only (R1), while EE and NFE contents were higher with feeding ration contained corn silage (R3). Cows fed R3 showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest digestibility coefficients of all nutrients and TDN value followed by those fed R2, while those fed R1 had the lowest values. However, cows fed R1 had the significantly (P<0.05) the highest DCP value followed by those fed R2, while those fed R3 had the lowest value. The intakes of DM, TDN and DCP were significantly higher (P<0.05) for cows fed R2 and R3 than that of cows fed R1. Milk yield for cows fed R2 and R3 increased by 2.20 and 2.62 kg / day or 16.01 and 19.07% compared with R1, respectively. The corresponding values for 4% FCM were 1.61 and 2.22 kg / day or 13.11 and 17.96%, respectively. Cows fed R1 showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest content of fat in milk. However, those fed R3 had significantly (P<0.05) the highest milk protein, lactose, solids not fat and total solids contents. Moreover, the yields of fat, protein, lactose, solids not fat and total solids in milk were significantly higher (P<0.05) fed R2 and R3 than those fed R1. The amounts of DM per kg 4% FCM was significantly higher (P<0.05) for R2 and R3 than R1. However, the amount of TDN per kg 4% FCM was higher fed R3 followed by R2, but those fed R1 had the lowest value, but there was opposite trend for DCP (P<0.05). Average daily feed cost, feed cost per kg 4% FCM and output of 4% FCM yield were significantly higher (P<0.05) fed R2 and R3 compared to R1. However, economic efficiency was significantly higher (P<0.05) fed R1 than that of R2 and R3. Cows fed R2 revealed the better reproductive performance, which recorded significantly (P<0.05) the fewer days to first estrus and service, service period, days open and calving interval, the lowest service per conception and the highest conception rate followed by those fed R3, however those fed R1 had the opposite trends.

[Gaafar, H.M.A.; A.M.A. Mohi El-Din and K.F.A. El-Riedy. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Friesian Cows Under Different Feeding System. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):33-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.05

 

Key words: Friesian cows, grazing fresh berseem, productive and reproductive performance

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6

The Financial Obstacles of Women’s Political Participation in Iran

 

Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

Department of Politics & Government, University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia. nosrat2007@yahoo.com

Dr. Ku Hasnita Ku Samsu

Lecturer in Department of Government & Civilization studies (Universiti Putra Malaysia) UPM

hasnita@putra.upm.edu.my

Hossien Asayeseh

Department of Politics & Government, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

h.asayesh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article studies the financial obstacles of women’s political participation in Iran. This study examines how structural factors (occupation and income) act as obstacles to women's participation in top political positions in Iran. A qualitative research method is used in the paper and the primary data are collected mainly through in-depth interview with five informants by using purposive technique. The findings of the article suggested that inadequate financial recourses act as the structural obstacles of Iranian women in top political positions.

[Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei, Ku Hasnita Ku Samsu, Hossien Asayeseh. The Financial Obstacles of Women’s Political Participation in Iran. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):41-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.06

 

Keywords political participation, women, Iran, financial obstacles

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7

Physico - Chemical Properties of Fly ash and Soil from TISCO Power Plant, Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

 

Arvind Kumar Rai*, Biswajit Paul,** and Gurdeep Singh***

Research Scholar* Associate Professor** Professor and Head***

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering. Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

 E mail: arvind_dese@rediffmail.com

 

 

Abstract: Thermal power plants produce enormous quantities of fly ash as a by- product of combustion of coal. The high ash content (30 -50%) of the coal in India makes disposal problem more complex. The enormous quantities of fly ash occupy vast tract of land area, as well as adversely affects for its storage and disposal problem. Its fine particles, if not managed well by nature of lightlessness, can become airborne easily in surrounding areas. Thus generation of huge quantity of fly ash poses serious environmental problems. Hence, it has become crucial that large scale utilization of fly ash in plantation or agriculture process, rather than dumping it anywhere. For this purpose, physico - chemical properties of fly ash and local soil from TISCO power plant, Jamadoba was carried out and analyzed for Specific gravity, Moisture content, Bulk density, Porosity, Water holding capacity, Lime reactivity, Organic carbon, Cation exchange capacity, Available nitrogen, pH, and Electrical conductivity. The detailed physical and chemical studies carried out on fly ash and soil of TISCO power plant has opened up a new prospect for their utilization in agriculture, plantation and vegetation purpose.

[Arvind Kumar Rai, Biswajit Paul, and Gurdeep Singh. Physico - Chemical Properties of Fly ash and Soil from TISCO Power Plant, Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):50-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.07

 

Key Words: Coal, Thermal power plants, Fly ash, Cation exchange capacity, Organic carbon

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8

An Approach to River Water Quality Management through Correlation Study among Various Water Quality Parameters

 

Navneet Kumar

Department of Applied Science, College of Engineering, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India

navkchem@gmail.com

 

Abstract : Water the most vital source for all kinds of life on this planet is also the resource, adversely affected both qualitatively and quantitatively by all kinds of human activities on land, in air or in water. To find an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for eight data points of Gagan river water of different sites at Moradabad was performed. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O. standards revealed that water of study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of river water is found to be significantly correlated with ten parameters out of fifteen water quality parameters studied and it is moderately correlated with other four parameters. It may be suggested that the Gagan river water quality at Moradabad can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. Present study may be treated one stop forward towards the water quality management.

[Navneet Kumar. An Approach to River Water Quality Management through Correlation Study among Various Water Quality Parameters. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):58-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.08

 

Kew words: Water quality parameters; regression equations; correlation; water quality management

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9

The Pure Adamite race - A new theory of the Adamite pure race and the other types of human beings

 

Dr.M.F.A.Alrazak, MBCHB, FRCS

theintelligenthybrid@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The Theories and Hypothesis that explained the origin of human being did not find the complete evolutionary sequence of linkage to the modern Human. Not a single theory related to the origin of human being had explained the leap in the cognitive, behavior, abstract and reasoning peculiar to human beings. The theories related to origin of human had also not explained the dramatic change and the disorder in behavior or behavior that is close to non Adamite in some human being. The dramatic change in behavior that could happened in one of the twin, one or more offspring in same family or in human being in certain region which had resemblance of behaviors of the Human being of the same age, up ringing, circumstance that could be observed in other regions of the world. The related theories of origin of human being also could not explain why there are individual set up for the high and pure Adamite behavior that reject any behavior that contradict consciousness. On the other hand we see the opposite in the non Adamite behaviors and in between these two, their will be the inevitable and countless range of the mixed behavior of Adamite and non Adamite. The Human race is divided into three: 1-The Adamite, descendant from Adam, the carrier of the Pure Human beings genes. 2-The intelligent Hybrid, The carrier of Adamite and non Adamite Genes. 3-The Non Adamite The carrier of the Homosapiens Genes which descended through the evolutionary process.

[M.F.A. Alrazak, MBCHB, FRCS. The Pure Adamite race - A new theory of the Adamite pure race and the other types of human beings. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):64-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.09

 

Key Words: Human, race, Adamite, pure Genes, evolution, behavior, Genes, ASPM, Mesopotamia, Enma Elish, Adapa, Adam, Behavior, creation, scriptures, chromosomes, Sumerian, Homosapiens

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Biochemical, Clinicophathlogical And Microbial Changes In Clarias Gariepinus Exposed To Pesticide Malathion And Climate Change

 

Mona S. Zaki(1); Susan O. Mostafa (2);Soad Nasr (3) Nagwa S. Ata (4), Isis M Awad (5)

(1) Dept. of Hydrobiology, N.R.C.

(2,5) Dept. of Biochemistry, N.R.C.

(3) Dept. of Parasitology, N.R.C.

(4) Dept. of Microbiology, N.R.C.

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: The effect of Malathion on Biochemical changes in Clarias gariepinus (cat fish) after exposure to Malathion 4.5 mg/l for 98 hours and high temperature 30◦. The obtained results showed significant increase in cooper, sodium, cortisol, urea as well as ALT and AST. It was concluded that Malathion produces metabolic stress, cell damage with malfunction of haemopoeitic system. The microbiological examination revealed presence of E-coli, Acromonas Sp, Vibrio. We can conclude that in fish reared on low CHO diet there was hyperglycemia due to increase in insulin and cortisol hormone. (Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was observed in fish in 38H and 98H treatment of Malathion. The hemogram shows increase in MCV and decrease of HB%, PCV and RBC's count. There is decrease in IgM. There was petichial haemorage in some part of skin, ascites and erosion due to complications of bacterial infections and there is vertebral column curvature syndrome.

[Mona S. Zaki; Susan O. Mostafa; Soad Nasr; Nagwa S. Ata. Biochemical, Clinicophathlogical And Microbial Changes In Clarias Gariepinus Exposed To Pesticide Malathion And Climate Change. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):70-76]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.10

 

Key Words: Malathion Biochemical changes, Haematological changes, Microbial changes, IgM

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[Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):77-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.11

 withdrawn

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Effect Of Supplementing Methionine In Clarias Gariepinus Fry Diet

 

OVIE S. O. and EZE S

stella_ovie@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Hatchery bred fry of C. gariepinus (0.440.04) were stocked in eighteen 54L glass aquaria. Six diets (45% crude protein) consisting of a basal diet (1.81g methionine/100g protein),a reference (3.12g methionine/100g protein) and others having graded levels of crystalline methionine (2.87g, 2.97g, 3.00g and 3.07g/100g protein). Each diet was fed to three aquaria twice daily (8.00 – 18.00hrs) for 56 days. The mean weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly influenced by the level of methionine (P<0.05). Second order polynomial regression analysis showed that the requirement of C. gariepinus for methionine is 2.97g/100g protein. Carcass protein showed an increase above that of the initial fish stocked before feeding commenced. The percentage lipid also increased except for the fish fed 3.07g methionine/100g protein.

[OVIE S. O. and EZE S. Effect Of Supplementing Methionine In Clarias Gariepinus Fry Diet. Report and Opinion 2010;2(10):84-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj021010.12

 

Keywords: hatchery; aquaria; methionine; crystalline; lipid

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