Report and Opinion
3 - Issue 2, Cumulated 20, February 1, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873
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Titles / Authors
Efficacy of antimicrobial effect of
Venonia amygdalina and Tridax procumbens
in vitro control of tomato (Lycopersicum
esculentum) post harvest fruit rot
James Yeni, 2ijadunola John Ademola And
Aladejimokun Adeniran Olusanya
of Plant Science, Faculty of Science. University of Ado –Ekiti,
College of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Research and
Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria.
of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science, Rufus Giwa
Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
The antimicrobial effects of extracts of Venonia amygdalina
and Tridax procumbens were determined on rot causing
fungi. In the present study, the pathogenic fungi isolated from
the infected tomato fruit parts and identified based on
morphological and cultural characters were: Aspergillus
Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporum,
Geotrichum candidium. Two different extractive
solvents (water and ethanol) were used; aqueous concentrations
of 80 and 60% as well as ethanol concentration of 30 and 20%
were used in this study. All the plant extracts, both aqueous
and ethanol showed significant reduction of mycelia growth of
isolated pathogens. In aqueous extract, 80% of both Venonia
amygdalina and Tridax procumbens had high
inhibitory effect of 49.20% against Geotrichum candidium
and 53.30% against Aspergillus niger respectively than
60% aqueous concentration of the test plant extracts, while in
ethanolic extract, 30% ethanol extract of Venonia
amygdalina and Tridax procumbens inhibited up
to 65.20 and72.20% against Fusarium oxysporum
respectively more than 20% ethanolic extracts. Higher
concentration of both aqueous and ethanol favoured higher
mycelia growth reduction. Plant extracts are accessible for
controlling phyto diseases, non hazardous, eco-friendly, low
cost and non-pollutant.
[Ijato James Yeni, ijadunola John Ademola And
Aladejimokun Adeniran Olusanya. Efficacy of antimicrobial
effect of Venonia amygdalina and Tridax
procumbens in vitro control of tomato (Lycopersicum
esculentum) post harvest fruit rot. Report and
Opinion 2011;3(2):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
amygdalina, tomato fruit rot, Tridax
procumbens and biological control
Periodic Discharge of Eggs of Ascaridia galli
in Faeces of Experimentally Infected Native Domestic Fowls (Gallus
J.N.N. Onyirioha, Ph.D
Dept. of Biology Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education,
Owerri, Imo State
While our native poultry may look apparently healthy, they are
subjects to infections with helminthes of various classes
including intestinal worms, of which Ascaridia galli
is most frequent parasite. Production can be limited by
inadequate information on the sources of worm infestation and
measure to minimize the disseminations. An investigation was
therefore carried out on the daily periodic discharge of eggs of
A. galli in faeces of host over 72hours. It was observed
that the ascarids discharged of eggs in the faeces of host was
in numbers that vary with different hours of the day,
irrespective of the type of faeces, that is, solid or watery
faeces, 70% of the egg production assumed to had occurred during
the day time in active feeding period. Measures have been put in
place to control worm infestation among poultry birds, but in
the poultry birds here it is being advocated by the present
findings that the chickens’ droppings be promptly removed
(9.00am and 6.00am) so as to avoid contamination of poultry
feeds with faeces of high concentration of eggs of A. galli.
[J. N. N. Onyirioha. Periodic Discharge of Eggs of
Ascaridia galli in Faeces of Experimentally Infected Native
Domestic Fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):6-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Keywords: Eggs, Ascaridia galli, poultry feeding, period
Low Hatchability in Eggs and the Effect of Lactobacillus
Acidophilus on Controlling of Salmonella Typhimurium and
Fyrouz A. M.1;
Hassan Eman R.2 and Rabiee Nagwa S.*2
Department of Parasytology and Animal Disease, National Research
center, Dokki Giza, Egypt
of poultry disease, National Research center, Dokki Giza, Egypt
Trials of isolation of different bacterial strains were done on
1025 samples taken from dead in shell embryos constituting 7
kinds of chicken breeds (Matroh, Dandarawy Fayoumi, Dokki, 4, G.
Montaza, Hawarra, and Mandara). Infertile eggs and hatcheries
(Dust, waters fluffs sampls also 90 blood samples were collected
from 3 kinds of chicken breeds (Fayoumi, Matroh, and Dokki 4),
for measuring specific antibody to M. gallisepticum (M.G.) by Enzyme linked immune sorbet assay (ELISA). The most
predominant bacteria isolated were Pr.mirabillis and S.
typhimurium using of Lactobacillus acidophilus in controlling of
Proteus Mirabilis and S. typhimurium infection in one day old
chicks was studied, the treatment was under taken at different
doses routes of inoculation and course to infected chicks. The
criteria used for judgment of therapeutic effect were bacterial
reisolation from internal organs of dead chicks and rate of
mortalities. Orally administration of lactobacillus
acidophilus (0.5ml of 3x108 cfu/ml) with
S.typhimurium and lactobacillus acidophilus with Pr.mirabillis
(0.5 ml of 1x106 CFU/ml), for two successive days
gave the best results with low mortality rates than subcutaneous
A. M.; Hassan Eman R. and Rabiee Nagwa S. Studies on
Pathogens Causing Low Hatchability in Eggs and the Effect of
Lactobacillus Acidophilus on Controlling of Salmonella
Typhimurium and Proteus. Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):8-13].
Pathogens; Hatchability; Egg; Lactobacillus Acidophilus;
Salmonella Typhimurium; Proteus; subcutaneous inoculation;
Enzyme linked immune sorbet assay (ELISA)
study of fixed drug eruption
Abd El Fattah Seleit,
Mohamed Ahmed Basha, Nansy Youssef
Asaad , Ola Ahmed Amin
of Dermatology and Andrology* and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine
Background: Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a common drug induced
dermatosis that can be caused by a variety of drugs. Although
effector and regulatory T cells play a role in progression and
resolution of FDE, little in vivo data exist regarding T cell
dynamics in its pathogenesis. Objectives: To through
light on the immunopathogenesis of FDE through studying the
participation of CD8+, CD4+ T cells and HLA-DR antigen in the
pathogenesis of lesions. The role of serum Ca was studied.
Patients and methods: Thirty skin biopsy specimens from FDE skin
lesions were used (16 active lesions& 14 healed lesions). Thirty
biopsy specimens from thirty age and sex matched healthy
subjects were used as a control group. Histopathological
examination of hematoxylin& eosin-stained sections included
analysis and scoring of histopathological parameters was done.
Expression of CD4, CD8 and HLA-DR antigens was examined
immunohistochemically. Blood samples were collected from
patients and control subjects for assesment of serum calcium.
Results: Active lesions showed
interface dermatitis and dermal inflammatory infiltrate.
Positive immunostaining was observed in both epidermis and
dermis for HLA-DR, CD4 and CD8 antigens. Healed lesions showed
epidermal atrophy and dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Positive
immunostaining was observed in both epidermis and dermis for HLA-DR,
CD4 and CD8 antigens. Such results were absent in control
sections. Both total and ionized Ca2+ were significantly lower
in patients than control subjects.
Conclusions: Activation of T cells residing in resting
FDE lesions by ingestion of the causative drug results in
epidermal injury possibly through the production of IFN-γ.
Abd El Fattah Seleit,
Mohamed Ahmed Basha, Nansy Youssef
Asaad, Ola Ahmed Amin.
Immunopathologic study of fixed drug eruption.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):14-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
FDE, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, IFN-γ
Effect of Device Scaling for Low Power Environment
Vijay Kumar Sharma
Department of Electronics & Communication, College of
Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, U.P. (India),
MOS ICs have met the world’s growing needs for electronic
devices for computing, communication, entertainment, automotive,
and other applications with steady improvements in cost, speed,
and power consumption. Such steady improvements in turn
stimulate and enable new applications and fuel the growth of IC
Microelectronics has grown tremendously in the past three
decades because of the consistent scaling of CMOS technology. This reduction in size
has enabled very dense transistors
chips that have improved speed, functionality, and power
compared to their predecessors.
To achieve an optimal design, tradeoff exists
between power and performance at each
stage of the design. Therefore the designer must understand the
sources of power consumption and make these tradeoffs.
[Vijay Kumar Sharma. Effect of Device Scaling for Low Power
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):24-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Scaling, Leakage, low Power, MOS
Assessments of the
volume and disposal methods of spent engine oil generated in
Nekede mechanic village, Owerri, Nigeria
Angela C. Udebuani1, Chidiogo G. Okoli2,
Ifeanyi C. Okoli3, Harriet C. Nwigwe1 and
Patrick T. E. Ozoh1
of Biotechnology, Federal
of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri,
of Environmental Technology, Federal
of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri,
of Animal Science and Technology, Federal
of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri,
Studies were carried out to investigate the volume and
disposal methods of spent automobile engine oil generated at
Nekede Mechanic Village in Owerri, Imo State Nigeria, between
February and June 2008, in order to establish the presence
pollution problem as result of inappropriate disposal of spent
engine oil in the study area. The study utilized structured
questionnaire, personal interviews and field observations
generate relevant data on the Mechanic village. Results obtained
showed that over 1.4 million liters of spent engine oil was
produced annually in the village. About 60% of the mechanics
disposed spent engine oil on the soil, within their immediate
environment, while others used it for other purposes, such as
pest control, sharpening of blades and reuse in heavy trucks
among others. Another 88.3% of mechanics were ignorant of
environmental impact of inappropriate spent engine oil disposal.
The study concluded that there is poor spent engine oil poor
disposal attitudes of among the automobile mechanics and that
such a practice may lead to serious hydrocarbon pollution at the
Nekede mechanic village.
[Angela C. Udebuani, Chidiogo G. Okoli, Ifeanyi C. Okoli,
Harriet C. Nwigwe and Patrick T. E. Ozoh
Assessments of the volume and disposal methods of spent engine
oil generated in Nekede mechanic village, Owerri, Nigeria.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):31-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Engine oil, hydrocarbons, automobile, mechanics, Nigeria
Radiological Impact Survey Of Sites Around Two Cement Producing
Factories: Wapco And Purechem, Ewekoro, Southwestern, Nigeria
O. Olukorede, 2Ewumi T. Olubunmi
of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
of Physics, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Soil samples were collected around WAPCO at Ewekoro and PURECHEM
at Onigbedu, which are both cement producing factories in Ogun
State, Nigeria. The natural radioactivity concentrations are the
mean absorbed doses of 40K, 238U and
232Th at various selected locations were determined. The
mean radionuclides concentration of 40K, 238U
and 232Th were 141.6
9.7 and 31.3
11.1 Bq/l for WAPCO factory at selected sites. Also these values
7.6 and 31.2
11.7 Bq/l respectively in the same order for PURECHEM factory at
selected locations. The survey revealed that the radiation doses
due to natural radio nuclides in the environment under
investigation are very low and insignificant to cause any
serious health problems to the people living in the area.
[Adewole O. Olukorede, Ewumi T. Olubunmi. Radiological Impact
Survey Of Sites Around Two Cement Producing Factories: Wapco And
Purechem, Ewekoro, Southwestern, Nigeria.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):37-41]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Radioactivity concentration, mean absorbed dose, Gamma
spectrometer, Ionizing radiation
Impact of air quality on physiological attributes
of certain plants.
Namita Joshi and Meha Bora
Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul
Mahavidhyalaya, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidhyalaya, Haridwar,
The ambient air quality monitoring was carried along the NH -
58 through Haridwar and other 3 traffic intersection of the
city. The maximum concentration of SO2 (17.64µg/m3),
NOx (23.46 µg/m3) and SPM (398 µg/m3)
was found at site IV during the study period December 2009 to
March 2010. The study also examined the dust interception
efficiency and air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of 8 plant
species by using four biochemical parameters; relative water
content, leaf pH, ascorbic content and total chlorophyll. The
results showed that combining variety of these parameters give
more reliable results than those of individual parameter.
Maximum dust interception was done by Psidium gujava
and species Ficus religiosa has highest air pollution
tolerance index. The study indicated that ambient air
pollution has negative impact on physiological characteristics
Joshi and Meha Bora. Impact of air quality on physiological
attributes of certain plants.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):42-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Keywords: Air pollution index, ambient air, ascorbic
acid, total chlorophyll
A Study On Using Jasmine Oil As A Breaking Bud Dormancy For
Flame Seedless Grapevines
Gehan H. Sabry; Hanaa A. El-Helw and Ansam S. Abd El-Rahman
Viticulture Dept., Hort. Res. Institute.,
Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt
This study was carried out for two successive seasons
(2009&2010) in a private vineyards located at Cairo – Alexandria
desert rode, 58 km from Cairo-Egypt; to study the use of Jasmine
oil as a breaking bud dormancy agent for Flame Seedless
grapevines. The chosen vines were 5 years old, grown in a sandy
loam soil, spaced at 2x3m a part, irrigated by the drip
irrigation system, canes were pruned and trellised by the
Spanish Parron system. Eight treatments were applied as follows:
Three concentrations of Jasmine oil at 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3% were
sprayed alone or combined with 3% Dormex in addition to spraying
5% Dormex and control (untreated vines). The results showed that
spraying with all Jasmine oil concentrations either solely or in
combination with 3%Dormex in comparison with control improved
percentage of bud burst and good yield with high bunch quality.
The combination treatment of 0.2% Jasmine oil + Dormex 3% gave
the best results equally to those obtained by dormex 5%, which
was applied early, uniform and high percentage of bud burst and
resulted in the greatest yield and its components as well as the
best physical properties of bunches and berries and ensured the
best vegetative growth parameters.
H. Sabry; Hanaa A. El-Helw and Ansam S. Abd El-Rahman. A
Study On Using Jasmine Oil As A Breaking Bud Dormancy For Flame
Seedless Grapevines. Report and Opinion
2011;3(2):48-56]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Jasmine oil, Spanish Parron system, Dormex.
Coordination Committee: A Prospective Multi-stakeholder
Landscape Level Conservation and Development in Nepal
Deepak Bahadur Chand1, Nabin Raj Joshi2
and Bhawana Kapkoti3
1 Western Terai
Landscape Complex Project (WTLCP), Nepal.
2 Department of
Forestry and Environmental Science, Kumaun University, Nainital,
Ballavh Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development,
scrutinize the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat in
the role of multi-stakeholder forums for Landscape Level
Conservation and Development (LLCD) in Nepal, drawing on the
experience of author, reviewed of study reports and SWOT
analysis from three districts, in the Mid-Western and
Far-Western Development Regions of Nepal. It argues that
District Forest Coordination Committee has the prospective to
ensure joint cooperation and coordination in the planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of Landscape Level
Conservation and Development through transparency and trust
building. Clear cut guidelines detailing roles, responsibilities
and institutional set-up among the stakeholders and their
effective enforcement are the keys to its success. This requires
widening the scope of DFCC to encompass institutions working for
various land uses that extends beyond district boundary at the
landscape level for better coordination, communication and
Bahadur Chand, Nabin Raj Joshi and Bhawana Kapkoti.
Forest Coordination Committee: A Prospective Multi-stakeholder
Landscape Level Conservation and Development in Nepal.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(2):57-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Landscape level conservation and development, land use,
biodiversity conservation and development criteria, district
forest coordination committee
The manuscripts in this issue
were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from
December 6, 2010.
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