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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

 

Volume 3 - Issue 3, Cumulated 21, March 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873

 

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: sciencepub@gmail.com

CONTENTS  

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Titles / Authors

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[Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.01

Withdrawn

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Assessing Criteria of empowering rural women in developing countries

  

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women’s financial self-reliance has many social & economic influence as it made them self-sufficiency, it changes economic behavior and it makes women independent, it will be effective in economic development in family & society , it also improve the women’s roles in society and it causes self-confidence in women , it builds family strength and it causes to respect the women rights more than before and women will become equal with men in all their rights, of course we won’t have patriarchy in the family . The women’s empowerment in the rural society will increase because of all the aspects of rural women’s self-reliance and their position will be confirmed.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing Criteria of empowering rural women in developing countries. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):11-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.02

 

Keywords: rural women, empowerment

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SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO FISH FARMING INTEGRATION AND IMPEDIMENTS TO THE ACCEPTABILITY OF FISH CULTURED FED WITH MAGGOTS IN ABEOKUTA ZONE OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

 

OLAOYE, O. J.1; I. A. AKINTAYO2; M. A. ADEKOYA3; F. B. AJE4 and 4BAMIDELE, N. A.

 Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre1

University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

olaoyejacob@yahoo.co.nz/08030609566

Nigeria Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research2

Victoria Inland, Lagos State, Nigeria

hagabiola@yahoo.com

Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Technology3

University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

munawarm11@yahoo.com

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management4

University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

aquafishgood@yahoo.com

Corresponding Author: aquafishgood@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the Socio-economic constraints to integrated fish farming and impediments to the acceptability of fish cultured fed with maggot in Abeokuta zone of Ogun State. Four blocks out of six blocks were studied namely: Ilugun, Olorunda, Wasimi, and Ifo. Primary data were obtained from 120 fish farmers with structured interview schedule which were selected using purposive and convenience sampling techniques and the return rate was 83.3%. The result reveals that majority (73%) of the fish farmers are male, 63% are in the active age distribution of 41 – 50 years, tertiary education (66%) while 95% are in the bracket of 1 – 10 years business experience, married (77%) and 70% are Christians. 83% are not members of co-operatives society and the annual income of many (40%) are above N100, 000. The study confirmed that lack of enough capital, access to extension services and unavailability of high quality fingerlings was their major constraints faced by integrated fish farmers. Most of the farmers engaged in integrated fish farming made profit and obtained their information from multimedia approach of communication. Therefore, the public opinions on fish fed with maggot are irritated to consumers (90%), 36% of the fish farmers said that maggot should be used to compliment with other feeds while 13% said that it was cheaper than any other feeds and (85%) of the farmers believed that fish cultured with maggot from pigs manure will not be acceptable to some people based on religion beliefs and fear of disease invasion. There was significant association between the socio-economics characteristics of the fish farmers and the level of constraints faced in integrated fish farming.

[OLAOYE, O. J.; I. A. AKINTAYO; M. A. ADEKOYA; F. B. AJE and BAMIDELE, N. A. Socio-Economic Constraints to Fish Farming Integration And Impediments to the Acceptability of Fish Cultured Fed with Maggots in Abeokuta Zone of Ogun State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):16-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.03

 

Key words: Socio-economic, Integrated Fish Farming, Fish Cultured, Maggots

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Effect of declining socio-economic condition on HIV pandemic among adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

 

Akinduti P.A1 and Oladeinde O.O2

 1. Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo

University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State. P.O. Box 73, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. niyiakinduti@yahoo.com

2. State Action Committee on AIDS (SACA), Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: Effect of declining socio-economic conditions which have encouraged HIV prevalence, reducing capacities for personal and social achievement, and increasing uncertain future among the adolescents was studied in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The study was designed as descriptive cross-sectional study among adolescents age 15-25 using structured quantitative and qualitative questionnaire to investigate the adolescents' sexual behaviour has a major cause of HIV/AIDS and declining socio-economic condition as motivating factor that prone many adolescents into sex business and contraction of HIV/AIDS.  60.0% of the respondents are male and 40.0% female of mean age 21.5+4. 81.3% were single, 16.3% were married and 2.5% were already divorced or separated from their spouse. 58.8% have had sexual encounter with 37.5% agreed to have use condom for sex while 40.0% of them have gone for the routine HIV screening test but only 1.25% was tested positive. Their attitudinal relationship with HIV+ people by means of social activities as hug, live, eat, sleep, sharing bed, bath and toilet, kiss and use of exercise equipment is significant, suggesting discrimination and stigmatization to HIV positive individuals. (X2 = 36.149, df = 1, p < 0.000). 51.3% got daily income less than #500, majority of 89.8% are not satisfied with their income, while 7.5% agreed that they could give out their body to raise fund for their economic sustenance. It is evident that lack of education, poverty, unemployment, instability of government policy on HIV control and poor socio-economic condition limit young people’s choices and vulnerabilities to HIV and other STDs.  Social and economic development strategies for poverty reduction are necessary and should be geared towards reducing inequalities, and generation of employment opportunities.

[Akinduti P.A and Oladeinde O.O. Effect of declining socio-economic condition on HIV pandemic among adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):30-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.04

 

Keywords: HIV, socio-economic, sex, pandemic, poverty

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Study of Leakage Power, Controlled by Input Vector Technique

 

Vijay Kumar Sharma

 Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.)-India

vijay.buland@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the scaling of MOS devices requires use of ultra-thin gate oxides to maintain a reasonable short channel effect. Such thin oxides give rise to high electric fields, resulting in considerable direct tunneling current. For CMOS devices with thicker oxides, the major leakage mechanism is sub-threshold current, which increases due to the short channel effect. Hence, circuit techniques used to control sub-threshold leakage need to be reinvestigated to evaluate their effectiveness in improving the overall leakage current. The “transistor stacking” technique is proven to be extremely effective in lowering sub-threshold leakage in the standby-mode of operation of a circuit. This paper presents to determine the input vector that minimizes leakage current of nanometer CMOS circuits during sleep mode considering stack effect.

[Vijay Kumar Sharma. Study of Leakage Power, Controlled by Input Vector Technique. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):40-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.05

 

Keywords: Nanometer CMOS, Leakage Power, Sub-threshold Leakage Current, Stacking

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Improving education through online Learning

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In its original form, teachers using distance education traveled to remote sites and taught a class, or corresponded with students through mail, telephone, or fax machine. Individualized study has been a method of reaching the remote student for some time. Detailed course instructions are sent to the learner who performs the assigned tasks and returns the completed work to the teacher for evaluation and reassignment if necessary. rural women take different responsibility and roles such as producers of crops , ranching and keeping poultry , children education , housekeeping , supervising family economy and managing it , collecting firewood , weaving carpet , so illiterate women who haven’t possibility to utilize mass media properly too , wouldn’t able to do their duties and roles and also wouldn’t be affective to develop rural societies . So importance of education is very critical for rural women especially extensional educations. Approximately in most UN reports, women has been considered as greatest deprived group at human societies, while at global level, about two third of all affairs is done by women. But only one third of all recorded affairs relates to women. And also just 1% of proceeds of estates and assets of world belong to women and two third of illiterates of world are women, however they form 50% of workforce at agriculture part and they produce half of foods at all over the world.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi  and Mohammad Abedi]. Improving education through online Learning. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):44-]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.06

 

Keywords: education, online Learning

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Rural women empowerment and its relationship with rural development

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications. Different technologies have different capabilities and limitations, and effective implementation will depend on matching technological capabilities to education needs. rural women take different responsibility and roles such as producers of crops , ranching and keeping poultry , children education , housekeeping , supervising family economy and managing it , collecting firewood , weaving carpet , so illiterate women who haven’t possibility to utilize mass media properly too , wouldn’t able to do their duties and roles and also wouldn’t be affective to develop rural societies . So importance of education is very critical for rural women especially extensional educations. Approximately in most UN reports, women has been considered as greatest deprived group at human societies, while at global level, about two third of all affairs is done by women. But only one third of all recorded affairs relates to women. And also just 1% of proceeds of estates and assets of world belong to women and two third of illiterates of world are women, however they form 50% of workforce at agriculture part and they produce half of foods at all over the world.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi  and Mohammad Abedi]. Rural women empowerment and its relationship with rural development. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):49-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.07

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, rural development

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A Comparative Study on the Moral Judgment Level Among Asian Students

 

1Peter Ma Salva, 2He - Jason Huang, 3Chun – Tsai Lin

1Institute of Accounts, Business and Finance, Far Eastern University, Nicanor Reyes Street, Sampaloc 1008, Manila, Philippines

2Department of Business Management, National Sun Yat-sen University

70 Lien-hai Road, Kushan District, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC

3General Education Center, Cheng Shiu University.

840 Chen Chin Road, Niao Song District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, ROC

Emails: peithesalva@yahoo.com, jhuang1011@gmail.com, capital789@yahoo.com.tw

 

ABSTRACT: Integrity is a lot like the weather: everyone talks about it, but no one knows what to do about it (Carter, 1996).  Indeed, Integrity is frequently seen in management literature and is on the rise.  However, the confusion on this term remains as observed by Palanski (2007):  First, little agreement in the literature on the meaning of integrity (Becker, 1998; Parry and Proctor-Thomson, 2002).  Integrity is frequently vaguely defined and often overlaps with other terms as morality, ethics, conscientiousness, honesty, and trustworthiness (Lowe et al.,2004).  Second, in spite of its popularity as a normative descriptor, there is actually little extant theory about integrity in the management literature.  The confusion and disagreement about the term likely contribute to the third problem:  relatively few empirical studies concerning integrity.  This exploratory study attempts to identify the moral judgment level of today’s youth using multidimensional scales developed by (Nunnally,1969; Churchill, 1979; and Campbell and Fiske 1959).  Normative philosophies shall be employed to test their significance.  Normative philosophies are idealization and accordingly make stronger statements about what ought to be rather what actually is (Reidenbach and Robin, 1990).    However, in most cases what is does not really conforms to what ought to be?  Questionnaires shall be distributed to senior students who are in the areas of Accountancy, Business, Arts and Sciences, Engineering, and Nursing.  Data gathered shall be analyzed using statistical methods.  A significant contribution of this paper is to provide a prelude on the current moral judgment level of the youth.

[Peter Ma Salva, He - Jason Huang, Chun – Tsai Lin]. A Comparative Study on the Moral Judgment Level Among Asian Students. Report and Opinion 2011;3(3):55-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.08

 

Keywords:  Moral Integrity, Moral Judgment and Values

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 10, 2011. 
All comments are welcome: sciencepub@gmail.com

 

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doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.01

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.02

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.03

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.04

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.05

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.06

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.07

doi:10.7537/marsroj030311.08

 

 

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