Report and Opinion
3 - Issue 5, Cumulated 23, May 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873
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Titles / Authors
Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria.
Chikaire, J., Nnadi,
F.N, and Nwakwasi, R.N
Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural, Technology, Federal
University of Technology, Owerri.
agriculture, as an adaptation strategy to climate change and
variability, is a concrete and promising option for rural
communities and has additional potential as a mitigation
strategy. Adaptation and mitigation based on organic agriculture
can build on well-established practice because organic
agriculture is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of
use in several climate zones under a wide range of specific
local conditions. This research work entitled organic
agriculture and climate change Adaptation and Mitigation is a
short review of the importance of organic agriculture as
strategy for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The study
reveals the organic farming practices of the respondents as
opposed to the conventional agriculture. The financial
requirements of organic agriculture on adaptation or mitigation
strategy are low. Because of use of traditional or indigenous
knowledge, farmers spend less and practice crop rotation, use
organic and compost manures and others. The study made use of
structured questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 140
respondents were used for the study and data analyzed using
descriptive statistics. The study reveals the plenty benefits
of organic agriculture as a climate change adaptation and
mitigation strategy such as avoidance of nutrient loss, lower N2O
emissions, lower CO2 and lesser CO2
emissions respectively. It was recommended that agricultural
policy at all levels incorporate organic farming as a strategy
for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N, and Nwakwasi, R.N, Organic Agriculture Practices
for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Ohaji Area of
Imo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):1-6]. (ISSN:
Adaptation, climate change, mitigation, organic agriculture,
Influencing Agricultural Land-Use Conflicts in Ohaji Area of Imo
J., **Atala, T.K., **Akpoko, J.G. and *Nnadi F.N.
*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of
**Institute of Agricultural Research Ahmadu Bello University,
Agriculture and land are inseparable. Land is an important
resource and a factor of production to the extent that without
land, there can be no agricultural growth or development. Land
conflicts have brought unprecedented problems and hardships to
many inhabitants of Ohaji in Ohaji/Egbema Local Government Area
and indeed Nigeria as a whole. This study is an investigative
research which seeks to identify the factors leading to land use
conflicts and effects of such conflicts on livelihood and
agriculture. The sample size was made up of 140 household heads
randomly selected from a list of 1400 households obtained from
the village, heads. The major instrument for collection of data
for the study was questionnaire. Oral discussions were held with
opinion leaders and title holders in the area. The tools of
analysis used were descriptive statistics. The study revealed
that various land tenure systems exist in the area; purchase,
inheritance, pledge, rent and allocation. The study also
revealed the various factors influencing land use conflicts in
the area such as trespass (failure to respect farm boundaries),
reclaiming ownership, contested boundaries, and disrespect for
culture. These results to violent clashes leading to loss of
lives and property, thereby reducing investment in agriculture.
It is recommended that government should established a Land Use
Policy and Administration Commission to be charged with the
responsibility of generating, managing, and updating information
on land use and system of land tenure in Nigeria.
J., Atala, T.K., Akpoko, J.G. and Nnadi F.N.
Influencing Agricultural Land-Use Conflicts in Ohaji Area of
Imo State, Nigeria.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):7-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
land tenure, land conflict, land use, agriculture
Development of Market Supply chain for
Picrorhiza kurrooa and Saussurea costus in the
district Chamoli of the Uttarakhand state,
India: a case study
V. K. Bisht, A. S. Kathait, J. S. Negi, A. K. Bhandari and C. S.
Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal, Gopeshwar–246
401, Uttarakhand, India
In recent years the demand for medicinal and aromatic plants has
been grown rapidly because of accelerated local, national and
international interest on herbal products. Due to continued
unsustainable collection and increasing market demand, numerous
plant species are on verge of the extinction. High risks,
transaction costs and lack of trust among chain actors prevent
producers from taking up cultivation of medicinal plants.
Present study explained the steps followed by the “ANKUR” a non
government organisation (NGO), which played a key role in
coordinating and mobilizing the Government Department and other
Institutions in the Chamoli District to help privileged farmers
link up with reliable markets for raw material and market
high-value medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs).
Royle ex Benth. and Saussurea costus L., the high value medicinal plants,
was the focus of the case study. As a result of such activity,
the farmers substantially interested in promotion and
cultivation of these MAPs, and hence, improving their
livelihood. Therefore, this case study is a step-by-step
explanation how this NGO helped farmers to overcome these
constraints and how the supply chain for
S. costus were established in the Ghat block of
the District Chamoli, Uttarakhand.
[V. K. Bisht, A. S. Kathait, J.
S. Negi, A. K. Bhandari and C. S. Rana. Development of Market
Supply chain for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Saussurea
costus in the district Chamoli of the Uttarakhand state,
India: a case study.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):14-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Picrorhiza kurrooa, Saussurea costus, supply
chain, medicinal plants, Ghat
Credits for Rural
Women in Iran
Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2Khatereh
siyar and 3 Abbas Emami
Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran
Women’s agriculture activities in
villages of Iran in three sections of recent history of rural
improvement have been affected by developmental factors. Before
land reforms, according to conventional laws in Iran, women were
kept apart from having farm lands. According to customs, if
farmer was farming in farm system and also if he had large farms
so he must used his family workforce (especially woman
workforce), but if it was small, he used to work at other’s
fields for wage. In many cases, women had to work at other
parts. Before land reforms and because of being traditional of
instruments and production tools, using women’s roles was often
in conservation and harvesting. While cultivating, most of
picking cotton, was done by women, exclusively. In same period
(before 1962), women roles was remarkable in cultivating rice.
While plowing and preparing fields, they took part in third time
trowel, also they had significant role in preparing natural
Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and
Abbas Emami. Credits
for Rural Women in Iran. Report and Opinion
2011;3(5):18-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
women, rural, credit, empowerment
Criteria of rural women
empowerment in developing countries
Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2
Abbas Emami and 3 Mehdi
Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran
difference at levels of policy making, investing and receiving
salary for equal activity, are universal phenomena. extent of
women’s participation at economic activities, extent of women’s
activity at economic activities, is confirmation on lack of
adequate attention to women’s affair and their added value,
because rural women work alongside men, at all levels of
producing agriculture crops and livestock products and generally
all affairs, and also spend their little leisure time for
handicrafts such as rugs and carpets and etc. so it is necessary
to establish self acknowledgement fields , directing women’s
economic and social ability and programming to attract their
participation at different activities(Saadi
and Arab Mazar, 2005) . At rural area, women have more
significant role on family economy and inside activities and
cause economic prosperity of society. yet , women couldn’t gain
their real position as active citizens who have talent for
participation at economic , politic , social and cultural arena
at most countries , especially developing country , and still
their activities in economic calculations aren’t considered ,
and they be considered as intangible workforce . Disappointing
estimation about number of active rural women and underestimate
about extent of their participation at economic activities is
confirmation on lack of adequate attention to women’s affairs
and their added value.
Nikbakhsh, , Abbas Emami
and Mehdi Nazarpour.
Criteria of rural women empowerment in developing countries.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):23-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
empowerment, rural women
Rural women's financial
self-reliance and its Economic effects
Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2Khatereh
siyar and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour
Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran
World Health Organization estimated that women work 2times more
than men averagely. In United Nation researches, except
Australia, Canada and US, women in all countries work more hours
than men. But major problem here is that, work means everything
that leading to financial income. So, in government statistics,
women are considered as unemployed and few of female employees
are counted as productive and employed forces. In India, in one
survey, and according to this perspective (Financial income)
this result emerged that only 34% of women (compare to 63% of
men) is counted as workforces of society. While if we also
consider doing services and home productions and preparing
family needs , as productive activities ( without leading to
Financial income) , we would find different results and value of
this deprived group of society , will be clear to us. By
considering work and home productions in India, these results
emerged: 75% of women are working compared with 64% of men
(compared to 34% versus 64% of pervious statistics). Also in
another survey in Nepal villages and according to financial
income criterion, just 20% of women are working, while by
considering home production criterion, women’s share of
workforce, reached to 53%. By the way researches show that women
have basic role in economics of family.
Nikbakhsh, Khatereh siyar
and Mehdi Nazarpour. Rural
women's financial self-reliance and its Economic effects.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):28-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
rural women, financial self-reliance
Indigenous Knowledge for Climate Change Mitigation and
Adaptation in Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa
Chikaire, J. and Nnadi, F.N.
Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and
Federal University of Technology Owerri.
Higher temperatures, more variable precipitation and changes in
the frequency and severity of extreme climate events will have
significant consequences on food production and food security.
The frequency of heat stress, drought, and flooding are also
expected to increase, even though they cannot be modeled
satisfactorily with current climate models. All of these will
undoubtedly have adverse effects on crops and agricultural
productivity over and above the effects due to changes in mean
variables alone. The impacts of climate change on agriculture
are likely to be regionally distinct and highly heterogeneous
spatially requiring sophisticated understanding of causes and
effects and careful design and dissemination of appropriate
responses. Adaptation measures are needed urgently to reduce the
adverse impacts of climate change, facilitated by concerted
action and strategic planning. As a major source of greenhouse
gas emissions, agriculture also has much untapped potential to
reduce emissions through reduced deforestation and changes in
land use and agricultural practices. This is where indigenous
knowledge comes in to play as a key to climate change mitigation
and adaptation. African communities and farmers have always
coped with changing environments. They have the knowledge and
practices to cope with adverse environments and shocks. The
enhancement of indigenous capacity is key to the empowerment of
local communities and their effective participation in the
development process. This paper thus highlights some indigenous
mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been practiced in
Africa, and the benefits of integrating indigenous knowledge
into formal climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
Incorporating indigenous knowledge into climate change policies
can lead to the development of effective adaptation strategies
that are cost-effective, participatory and sustainable.
[Chikaire, J. and Nnadi, F.N..Indigenous
Knowledge for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in
Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):32-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Climate change, mitigation, adaptation, agriculture,
Adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions onto Activated Carbon
derived from Agricultural Waste.
Musah Monday*, Birnin-yauri Umar
Abubakar1., Faruk Umar Zaki1, Itodo
of Chemistry, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria.
1. Department of Pure and Applied
Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
2. Department of Chemistry,
Kebbi State University of Science and Technology,Aleiro,Nigeria
Phone Number: +2348034064331
adsorption of Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions from
aqueous solutions by batch process onto activated carbon
prepared from palm kernel shell was studied. The influence of
contact time was experimentally verified. Optimum adsorption of
85.61% and 79.34% were obtained for Ni2+ and Zn2+
ions. Three kinetic models: pseudo first-order, pseudo
second-order and elovich models were used to analyse the
adsorption process. Sum of square of error was also calculated
to compare the fitness of pseudo first-order and pseudo
second-order kinetics. Results showed that the adsorption
mechanism in the sorbate/adsorbent system follow a pseudo
[Musah Monday, Birnin-yauri Umar Abubakar, Faruk Umar Zaki, Itodo Adams Udoji. Adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II)
ions onto Activated Carbon derived from Agricultural Waste.
Opinion 2011;3(5):41-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Activated carbon, adsorption, palm kernel shell, heavy metals,
Use of SMS based alerts and applications in e-Governance service
Dr. M.K. Sharma1
and Rajeev Kumar2
Professor and Head
Department of Computer
Science, Amrapali Institute of
Management & Computer Applications, Haldwani (Uttarakhand)
Professor Computer Science Department college of
As the number of mobile users growing day by day in India and
the good sign is that this is also growing in rural parts of
India also .For a mobile user Short message service (SMS) now become one of the most preferred communication medium . Local
authorities in many countries are using SMS services also to
deliver e-Governance services to their citizen. In this paper we
have collected some currently available SMS based e-Governance
and other popular services as a model and suggested the use of
SMS based services or alerts to offer some services in the area
of agriculture, health, education. Due to many times mobile
phone users over Internet users in India and adequate
established infrastructures it is easier to offer some of the
e-Governance services to a large number of people by SMS at a
cheap rate rather than using Internet. This paper also
represents a comparative study to show how SMS based
e-Governance services offer model can fulfill most of the
services that Internet based e-Governance can offer. Through SMS
based e-Governance services people can be notified immediately
about healthcare, natural disasters, tax services, education
information and can also participate in voting, auctions and
many other activities. This paper concludes by listing
opportunities and challenges regarding SMS based e-Governance
services implementation in India.
[Dr. M.K. Sharma and Rajeev Kumar. Use of SMS based alerts and
applications in e-Governance service Model.
Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):46-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
e- Governance, Hospitality, Agriculture and SMS based Service
The Effect of
Storage Conditions on the Proximate and Rheological Properties
of Soup Thickener Brachystegia enrycoma (Achi)
Nwosu J. N.,
Ogueke, C. C., Owuamanam, C. I. and Onuegbu, N.
Department of Food
Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri
P.M.B. 1526, Owerri,
Imo State, Nigeria
The effect of
storage conditions on the proximate and rheological properties
of ‘Achi’ (Brachystegia enrycoma), was studied for 12
weeks while analyses were carried out at 4 weekly intervals. The
seed was subjected to five different storage conditions namely
refrigeration, ambient, fire place (Ngiga), plastic, and
mud pot. The proximate composition values of ‘Achi’ decreased
under all the storage condition after 12 weeks of storage except
for moisture that increased at ambient and carbohydrates that
also increased as a result of decrease in the other values.
Rheological analysis showed a significant decrease (p≤0.05) for
viscosity, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming and
emulsifying capacities, swelling index, wettability and
solubility as the storage time increased from I to 12 weeks.
Also there was no significant difference (p³0.05)
in gelation, and bulk density as storage time increased from I
week to 12 weeks.
[Nwosu J. N., Ogueke,
C. C., Owuamanam, C. I. and Onuegbu, N. The Effect of Storage
Conditions on the Proximate and Rheological Properties of Soup
Thickener Brachystegia enrycoma (Achi). Report and
Opinion 2011;3(5):52-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Rheological properties, storage conditions
Seminal plasma oxidant–antioxidant imbalance is a dominant
feature of primary idiopathic infertile male smokers
Sherif El-Kannishy,(Ph.D)(1); Soma Sh
Abd El Gawad,(M.D)(2); Ibrahim Abdelaal,(M.D)(2);
Abdelhamid A Metwaly,(M.D) (3) and Tarek A
Toxicology - Emergency Hospital, (2) Clinical
Pathology Dept., (3) Internal Medicine Dept. and
(4) Obstetrics & Gynecology Dept., Faculty of Medicine,
Mansoura University, Egypt.
Background: Although, reactive oxygen species may induce
defective semen quality, some authors denied such association.
Objectives: To assess seminal plasma oxidant –
antioxidant status in tobacco smoking men. Patients and
methods: Semen samples were obtained from: (a) 30
tobacco smoker married men
and (b) 30 strict
non-smoker married men. Half of each group was primary
infertile. Their semen samples presented nonleuko
and nonhemo-cytospermia. After liquifaction, semen samples were
analyzed for: (i) convential semen parameters by a computer
assisted semen analyzer. ii) Seminal plasma oxidant-antioxidant
status including: the lipid peroxidation (LPO) index [malondialdehyde
(MDA)], and various antioxidants [α tocopherol, vitamin C,
superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH)].
Results: In seminal plasma, mean MDA concentration
was significantly higher in fertile or infertile tobacco smokers
than the corresponding of the non-smokers (p<0.001) but more
marked in the infertile cases. Enhanced LPO of sperm plasma
membranes induced decrease of sperm motility and viability %.
Whereas, the antioxidants α tocopherol, ascorbic acid, SOD and
GSH concentrations in seminal plasma were significantly
decreased in infertile or fertile smokers than the corresponding
in the nonsmokers (P<0.01) but more in the infertile cases.
There were significant negative correlations of basic semen
parameters in cigarette smokers with the seminal plasma MDA
concentrations and significant positive correlations between
sperm motility and viability% and different seminal plasma
antioxidant levels. Conclusion: Insufficient
scavenging antioxidants in seminal plasma of chronic heavy
smoking men could underly the deleterious spermatozoal quality
and function defects and consequently male infertility.
[Sherif El-Kannishy; Soma Sh Abd El Gawad; Ibrahim Abdelaal, Abdelhamid
A Metwaly and Tarek A Shokeir: Seminal plasma
oxidant–antioxidant imbalance is a dominant feature of primary
idiopathic infertile male smokers. Report and Opinion
2011;3(5):59-65]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Reactive oxygen species, Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdhyde,
Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione.
An approach towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem
Hari Om Sharan1, Rajeev Kumar1 and Vikas
Science Department College of Engineering
Teerthanker Mhaveer University, Moradabad.(India)
Science Department, IET, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh,
DNA Computing is an alternative method for computations. It is
based on the observation that in general it is possible to
design of series of biochemical experiments involving DNA
molecules which is equivalent to processing information encoded
in these molecules. Cook’s Theorem tells that
if one algorithm for an NP-complete or an NP-hard problem will
be developed, then other problems will be solved by means of
reduction to that problem. The minimum vertex cover problem is a
classic graph optimization problem and has been shown to be
NP-Complete. In this paper, we propose a DNA algorithm for
solving the minimum vertex-cover problem.
[Hari Om Sharan, Rajeev Kumar and Vikas Solanki.
An approach towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem.
Report and Opinion
2011;3(5):66-68]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
DNA Computing; NP-complete problems; NP-hard problems; Minimum
Vertex Cover Problem; Cook’s Theorem.
PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION: A TOOL IN COLLABORATIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION
IWU R.U, AZORO A V., ONOJA A. I and CHINAKA .A.
Department of Biology, Alvan
College of Education,
Corresponding Email Address:
All over the world Parents Teachers Association (PTA) is seen as
a potent factor in the achievement of objectives for uplifting
science education. Parents’ involvement in educational policies
promotes a healthy and consistent learning environment by
establishing mutual goals between parents and teachers and
developing activities that bridge the home and the school.
Parents – teachers programmes actively engage parents and
teachers through a variety of activities that enable them
participate actively in decision making, strict implementation
of the curriculum and instilling of discipline in students.
These activities have gone a long way in increasing students’
success in science subjects. The study suggested among other
things: involvement of parents and teachers in decision making
in the school, supplying information about children’s progress
to parents regularly and organization of conferences for PTA
[IWU R.U, AZORO A V., ONOJA A. I and CHINAKA .A,
PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION: A TOOL IN COLLABORATIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION. Report and Opinion. Report
and Opinion 2011;3(5):69-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Parents, Teachers, Association and Science Education.
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