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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

 

Volume 3 - Issue 5, Cumulated 23, May 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Organic Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria.

 

Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N, and Nwakwasi, R.N

 

Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural, Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

email: bankausta@ yahoo.com; nflorentus@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Organic agriculture, as an adaptation strategy to climate change and variability, is a concrete and promising option for rural communities and has additional potential as a mitigation strategy. Adaptation and mitigation based on organic agriculture can build on well-established practice because organic agriculture is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of use in several climate zones under a wide range of specific local conditions. This research work entitled organic agriculture and climate change Adaptation and Mitigation is a short review of the importance of organic agriculture as strategy for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The study reveals the organic farming practices of the respondents as opposed to the conventional agriculture. The financial requirements of organic agriculture on adaptation or mitigation strategy are low. Because of use of traditional or indigenous knowledge, farmers spend less and practice crop rotation, use organic and compost manures and others. The study made use of structured questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 140 respondents were used for the study and data analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study reveals the plenty benefits of organic agriculture as a climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy such as avoidance of nutrient loss, lower N2O emissions, lower CO2 and lesser CO2 emissions respectively. It was recommended that agricultural policy at all levels incorporate organic farming as a strategy for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F.N, and Nwakwasi, R.N, Organic Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.01

 

Key Words: Adaptation, climate change, mitigation, organic agriculture, vulnerability

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2

Factors Influencing Agricultural Land-Use Conflicts in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria

 

*Chikaire, J., **Atala, T.K., **Akpoko, J.G. and *Nnadi F.N.

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology Owerri.

**Institute of Agricultural Research Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

e-mail: bankausta@yahoo.com, nflorentus@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Agriculture and land are inseparable. Land is an important resource and a factor of production to the extent that without land, there can be no agricultural growth or development. Land conflicts have brought unprecedented problems and hardships to many inhabitants of Ohaji in Ohaji/Egbema Local Government Area and indeed Nigeria as a whole. This study is an investigative research which seeks to identify the factors leading to land use conflicts and effects of such conflicts on livelihood and agriculture. The sample size was made up of 140 household heads randomly selected from a list of 1400 households obtained from the village, heads. The major instrument for collection of data for the study was questionnaire. Oral discussions were held with opinion leaders and title holders in the area. The tools of analysis used were descriptive statistics. The study revealed that various land tenure systems exist in the area; purchase, inheritance, pledge, rent and allocation. The study also revealed the various factors influencing land use conflicts in the area such as trespass (failure to respect farm boundaries), reclaiming ownership, contested boundaries, and disrespect for culture. These results to violent clashes leading to loss of lives and property, thereby reducing investment in agriculture. It is recommended that government should established a Land Use Policy and Administration Commission to be charged with the responsibility of generating, managing, and updating information on land use and system of land tenure in Nigeria.

[Chikaire, J., Atala, T.K., Akpoko, J.G. and Nnadi F.N. Factors Influencing Agricultural Land-Use Conflicts in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):7-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.02

 

Keywords: land tenure, land conflict, land use, agriculture

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Development of Market Supply chain for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Saussurea costus in the district Chamoli of the Uttarakhand state, India: a case study

 

V. K. Bisht, A. S. Kathait, J. S. Negi, A. K. Bhandari and C. S. Rana

 

Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal, Gopeshwar–246 401, Uttarakhand, India

vksbisht@gmail.com, negijs1981@yahoo.co.in, arjunskathait@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In recent years the demand for medicinal and aromatic plants has been grown rapidly because of accelerated local, national and international interest on herbal products. Due to continued unsustainable collection and increasing market demand, numerous plant species are on verge of the extinction. High risks, transaction costs and lack of trust among chain actors prevent producers from taking up cultivation of medicinal plants. Present study explained the steps followed by the “ANKUR” a non government organisation (NGO), which played a key role in coordinating and mobilizing the Government Department and other Institutions in the Chamoli District to help privileged farmers link up with reliable markets for raw material and market high-value medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. and Saussurea costus L., the high value medicinal plants, was the focus of the case study. As a result of such activity, the farmers substantially interested in promotion and cultivation of these MAPs, and hence, improving their livelihood. Therefore, this case study is a step-by-step explanation how this NGO helped farmers to overcome these constraints and how the supply chain for P. kurrooa and S. costus were established in the Ghat block of the District Chamoli, Uttarakhand.

[V. K. Bisht, A. S. Kathait, J. S. Negi, A. K. Bhandari and C. S. Rana. Development of Market Supply chain for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Saussurea costus in the district Chamoli of the Uttarakhand state, India: a case study. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):14-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.03

 

Key Words: Picrorhiza kurrooa, Saussurea costus, supply chain, medicinal plants, Ghat

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4

Credits for Rural Women in Iran

 

1 Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2Khatereh siyar and 3 Abbas Emami

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women’s agriculture activities in villages of Iran in three sections of recent history of rural improvement have been affected by developmental factors. Before land reforms, according to conventional laws in Iran, women were kept apart from having farm lands. According to customs, if farmer was farming in farm system and also if he had large farms so he must used his family workforce (especially woman workforce), but if it was small, he used to work at other’s fields for wage. In many cases, women had to work at other parts. Before land reforms and because of being traditional of instruments and production tools, using women’s roles was often in conservation and harvesting. While cultivating, most of picking cotton, was done by women, exclusively. In same period (before 1962), women roles was remarkable in cultivating rice. While plowing and preparing fields, they took part in third time trowel, also they had significant role in preparing natural fertilizer.

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and Abbas Emami. Credits for Rural Women in Iran. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):18-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.04

Keywords: women, rural, credit, empowerment

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5

Criteria of rural women empowerment in developing countries

 

1 Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2 Abbas Emami and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: difference at levels of policy making, investing and receiving salary for equal activity, are universal phenomena. extent of women’s participation at economic activities, extent of women’s activity at economic activities, is confirmation on lack of adequate attention to women’s affair and their added value, because rural women work alongside men, at all levels of producing agriculture crops and livestock products and generally all affairs, and also spend their little leisure time for handicrafts such as rugs and carpets and etc. so it is necessary to establish self acknowledgement fields , directing women’s economic and social ability and programming to attract their participation at different activities(Saadi and Arab Mazar, 2005) . At rural area, women have more significant role on family economy and inside activities and cause economic prosperity of society. yet , women couldn’t gain their real position as active citizens who have talent for participation at economic , politic , social and cultural arena at most countries , especially developing country , and still their activities in economic calculations aren’t considered , and they be considered as intangible workforce . Disappointing estimation about number of active rural women and underestimate about extent of their participation at economic activities is confirmation on lack of adequate attention to women’s affairs and their added value.

[Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , Abbas Emami and Mehdi Nazarpour. Criteria of rural women empowerment in developing countries. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):23-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.05

Keywords: empowerment, rural women

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Rural women's financial self-reliance and its Economic effects

 

1 Ghasem Nikbakhsh, , 2Khatereh siyar and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: World Health Organization estimated that women work 2times more than men averagely. In United Nation researches, except Australia, Canada and US, women in all countries work more hours than men. But major problem here is that, work means everything that leading to financial income. So, in government statistics, women are considered as unemployed and few of female employees are counted as productive and employed forces. In India, in one survey, and according to this perspective (Financial income) this result emerged that only 34% of women (compare to 63% of men) is counted as workforces of society. While if we also consider doing services and home productions and preparing family needs , as productive activities ( without leading to Financial income) , we would find different results and value of this deprived group of society , will be clear to us. By considering work and home productions in India, these results emerged: 75% of women are working compared with 64% of men (compared to 34% versus 64% of pervious statistics). Also in another survey in Nepal villages and according to financial income criterion, just 20% of women are working, while by considering home production criterion, women’s share of workforce, reached to 53%. By the way researches show that women have basic role in economics of family.

[Ghasem Nikbakhsh, Khatereh siyar and Mehdi Nazarpour. Rural women's financial self-reliance and its Economic effects. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):28-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.06

Keywords: rural women, financial self-reliance

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7

Indigenous Knowledge for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa

 

Chikaire, J. and Nnadi, F.N.

Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

Federal University of Technology Owerri.

e-mail bankausta@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Higher temperatures, more variable precipitation and changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climate events will have significant consequences on food production and food security. The frequency of heat stress, drought, and flooding are also expected to increase, even though they cannot be modeled satisfactorily with current climate models. All of these will undoubtedly have adverse effects on crops and agricultural productivity over and above the effects due to changes in mean variables alone. The impacts of climate change on agriculture are likely to be regionally distinct and highly heterogeneous spatially requiring sophisticated understanding of causes and effects and careful design and dissemination of appropriate responses. Adaptation measures are needed urgently to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change, facilitated by concerted action and strategic planning. As a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture also has much untapped potential to reduce emissions through reduced deforestation and changes in land use and agricultural practices. This is where indigenous knowledge comes in to play as a key to climate change mitigation and adaptation. African communities and farmers have always coped with changing environments. They have the knowledge and practices to cope with adverse environments and shocks. The enhancement of indigenous capacity is key to the empowerment of local communities and their effective participation in the development process. This paper thus highlights some indigenous mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been practiced in Africa, and the benefits of integrating indigenous knowledge into formal climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Incorporating indigenous knowledge into climate change policies can lead to the development of effective adaptation strategies that are cost-effective, participatory and sustainable.

[Chikaire, J. and Nnadi, F.N..Indigenous Knowledge for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):32-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.07

 

Keywords: Climate change, mitigation, adaptation, agriculture, temperature.

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Adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions onto Activated Carbon derived from Agricultural Waste.

 

Musah Monday*, Birnin-yauri Umar Abubakar1., Faruk Umar Zaki1, Itodo Adams Udoji2.

 

*Department of Chemistry, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria.

1. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2. Department of Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology,Aleiro,Nigeria

musahmonday@yahoo.com Phone Number: +2348034064331

 

Abstract:The adsorption of Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solutions by batch process onto activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell was studied. The influence of contact time was experimentally verified. Optimum adsorption of 85.61% and 79.34% were obtained for Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. Three kinetic models: pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and elovich models were used to analyse the adsorption process. Sum of square of error was also calculated to compare the fitness of pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics. Results showed that the adsorption mechanism in the sorbate/adsorbent system follow a pseudo second-order kinetics.

[Musah Monday, Birnin-yauri Umar Abubakar, Faruk Umar Zaki, Itodo Adams Udoji. Adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions onto Activated Carbon derived from Agricultural Waste. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):41-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.08

 

Key words: Activated carbon, adsorption, palm kernel shell, heavy metals, kinetic models

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9

Use of SMS based alerts and applications in e-Governance service Model

 

Dr. M.K. Sharma1 and Rajeev Kumar2

 

1Associate Professor and Head

Department of Computer Science, Amrapali Institute of Management & Computer Applications, Haldwani (Uttarakhand)

2Assistant Professor Computer Science Department college of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad

E-Mail: sharmamkhld@gmail.com,

 

Abstract: As the number of mobile users growing day by day in India and the good sign is that this is also growing in rural parts of India also .For a mobile user Short message service (SMS) now become one of the most preferred communication medium . Local authorities in many countries are using SMS services also to deliver e-Governance services to their citizen. In this paper we have collected some currently available SMS based e-Governance and other popular services as a model and suggested the use of SMS based services or alerts to offer some services in the area of agriculture, health, education. Due to many times mobile phone users over Internet users in India and adequate established infrastructures it is easier to offer some of the e-Governance services to a large number of people by SMS at a cheap rate rather than using Internet. This paper also represents a comparative study to show how SMS based e-Governance services offer model can fulfill most of the services that Internet based e-Governance can offer. Through SMS based e-Governance services people can be notified immediately about healthcare, natural disasters, tax services, education information and can also participate in voting, auctions and many other activities. This paper concludes by listing opportunities and challenges regarding SMS based e-Governance services implementation in India.

[Dr. M.K. Sharma and Rajeev Kumar. Use of SMS based alerts and applications in e-Governance service Model. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):46-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.09

 

Keywords: e- Governance, Hospitality, Agriculture and SMS based Service

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The Effect of Storage Conditions on the Proximate and Rheological Properties of Soup Thickener Brachystegia enrycoma (Achi)

 

Nwosu J. N., Ogueke, C. C., Owuamanam, C. I. and Onuegbu, N.

 

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

ifytina19972003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of storage conditions on the proximate and rheological properties of ‘Achi’ (Brachystegia enrycoma), was studied for 12 weeks while analyses were carried out at 4 weekly intervals. The seed was subjected to five different storage conditions namely refrigeration, ambient, fire place (Ngiga), plastic, and mud pot. The proximate composition values of ‘Achi’ decreased under all the storage condition after 12 weeks of storage except for moisture that increased at ambient and carbohydrates that also increased as a result of decrease in the other values. Rheological analysis showed a significant decrease (p≤0.05) for viscosity, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying capacities, swelling index, wettability and solubility as the storage time increased from I to 12 weeks. Also there was no significant difference (p0.05) in gelation, and bulk density as storage time increased from I week to 12 weeks.

[Nwosu J. N., Ogueke, C. C., Owuamanam, C. I. and Onuegbu, N. The Effect of Storage Conditions on the Proximate and Rheological Properties of Soup Thickener Brachystegia enrycoma (Achi). Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):52-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.10

 

Keywords: Rheological properties, storage conditions

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Seminal plasma oxidant–antioxidant imbalance is a dominant feature of primary idiopathic infertile male smokers

 

Sherif El-Kannishy,(Ph.D)(1); Soma Sh Abd El Gawad,(M.D)(2); Ibrahim Abdelaal,(M.D)(2); Abdelhamid A Metwaly,(M.D) (3) and Tarek A Shokeir,(M.D)(4)

 

 (1)Analytical Toxicology - Emergency Hospital, (2) Clinical Pathology Dept., (3) Internal Medicine Dept. and (4) Obstetrics & Gynecology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

somaabdelgawad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although, reactive oxygen species may induce defective semen quality, some authors denied such association. Objectives: To assess seminal plasma oxidant – antioxidant status in tobacco smoking men. Patients and methods: Semen samples were obtained from: (a) 30 tobacco smoker married men and (b) 30 strict non-smoker married men. Half of each group was primary infertile. Their semen samples presented nonleuko and nonhemo-cytospermia. After liquifaction, semen samples were analyzed for: (i) convential semen parameters by a computer assisted semen analyzer. ii) Seminal plasma oxidant-antioxidant status including: the lipid peroxidation (LPO) index [malondialdehyde (MDA)], and various antioxidants [α tocopherol, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH)]. Results: In seminal plasma, mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in fertile or infertile tobacco smokers than the corresponding of the non-smokers (p<0.001) but more marked in the infertile cases. Enhanced LPO of sperm plasma membranes induced decrease of sperm motility and viability %. Whereas, the antioxidants α tocopherol, ascorbic acid, SOD and GSH concentrations in seminal plasma were significantly decreased in infertile or fertile smokers than the corresponding in the nonsmokers (P<0.01) but more in the infertile cases. There were significant negative correlations of basic semen parameters in cigarette smokers with the seminal plasma MDA concentrations and significant positive correlations between sperm motility and viability% and different seminal plasma antioxidant levels. Conclusion: Insufficient scavenging antioxidants in seminal plasma of chronic heavy smoking men could underly the deleterious spermatozoal quality and function defects and consequently male infertility.

[Sherif El-Kannishy; Soma Sh Abd El Gawad; Ibrahim Abdelaal, Abdelhamid A Metwaly and Tarek A Shokeir: Seminal plasma oxidant–antioxidant imbalance is a dominant feature of primary idiopathic infertile male smokers. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):59-65]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.11

 

Key words: Reactive oxygen species, Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdhyde, Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione.

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An approach towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem

 

Hari Om Sharan1, Rajeev Kumar1 and Vikas Solanki2

 

1Computer Science Department College of Engineering

Teerthanker Mhaveer University, Moradabad.(India)

2Computer Science Department, IET, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, (India).

E-Mail: sharan.hariom@gmail.com, rajeevphd@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: DNA Computing is an alternative method for computations. It is based on the observation that in general it is possible to design of series of biochemical experiments involving DNA molecules which is equivalent to processing information encoded in these molecules. Cook’s Theorem tells that if one algorithm for an NP-complete or an NP-hard problem will be developed, then other problems will be solved by means of reduction to that problem. The minimum vertex cover problem is a classic graph optimization problem and has been shown to be NP-Complete. In this paper, we propose a DNA algorithm for solving the minimum vertex-cover problem.

[Hari Om Sharan, Rajeev Kumar and Vikas Solanki. An approach towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):66-68]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.12

 

Keywords: DNA Computing; NP-complete problems; NP-hard problems; Minimum Vertex Cover Problem; Cook’s Theorem.

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PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION: A TOOL IN COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION

 

IWU R.U, AZORO A V., ONOJA A. I and CHINAKA .A.

 

Department of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri Imo State.

Corresponding Email Address: rosykachi@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: All over the world Parents Teachers Association (PTA) is seen as a potent factor in the achievement of objectives for uplifting science education. Parents’ involvement in educational policies promotes a healthy and consistent learning environment by establishing mutual goals between parents and teachers and developing activities that bridge the home and the school. Parents – teachers programmes actively engage parents and teachers through a variety of activities that enable them participate actively in decision making, strict implementation of the curriculum and instilling of discipline in students. These activities have gone a long way in increasing students’ success in science subjects. The study suggested among other things: involvement of parents and teachers in decision making in the school, supplying information about children’s progress to parents regularly and organization of conferences for PTA members.

[IWU R.U, AZORO A V., ONOJA A. I and CHINAKA .A, PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION: A TOOL IN COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION. Report and Opinion. Report and Opinion 2011;3(5):69-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030511.13

 

Keywords: Parents, Teachers, Association and Science Education.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 19, 2011. 
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