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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

 

Volume 3 - Issue 7, Cumulated 25, July 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

 No.

 

1

Implications of empowering rural women

 

1 Ghasem Nikbakhsh, 2 Mojtaba Sadighi and 3 Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Empowerment is capacity that woman can obtain in cultural and social environment, for economic independency and self reliance, by controlling over emotional decision making and far from violation. Empowering means, evolution and developing activities through non governmental organizations (NGOS) that lead empowerment to improve economic dimensions. Enabling is process that, during it, people of society do activities to overcome barriers of advancement that finally cause their domination to determine their own density. The term “enabling” means overcoming fundamental inequalities. So it is different from self-reliance. Enabling, enables individual to overcome any problematic condition and consider barriers and problems as part of life and positive campaign. Finally, enabling provides energy to overcome most intellectual barriers and external problems at private life.

[Ghasem Nikbakhsh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Implications of empowering rural women. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.01

 

Keywords: Empowerment, Rural Women

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2

Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages

 

1 Kobra Lashgari , 2 Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 3 Mojtaba Sadighi

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Challenges which faced the early users of distance education are still with us today. If distance education is to play a greater role in improving the quality of education, it will require expanded technology; more linkages between schools, higher education, and the private sector; and more teachers who use technology well. Teachers must be involved in planning the systems, trained to use the tools they provide, and given the flexibility to revise their teaching. Federal and state regulations will need revision to ensure a more flexible and effective use of technology. Connections have been established across geographic, instructional, and institutional boundaries which provide opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing among many groups In the pooling of students and teachers, distance learning reconfigures the classroom which no longer is bounded by the physical space of the school, district, state or nation. The key to success in distance learning is the teacher. If the teacher is good, the technology can become almost transparent. No technology can overcome poor teaching which is actually exacerbated in distance education applications. When skilled teachers are involved, enthusiasm, expertise, and creative use of the media can enrich students beyond the four walls of their classroom.

[Kobra Lashgari , Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mojtaba Sadighi. Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):5-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.02

 

Keywords: Online Classes, distance education

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3

Information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural education

 

1 Hamidreza Hossein, 2 Bibisadat Miresmaeili and 3 Alireza Talkhabi

 

1, 2,3 Department of Communication, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: hossein@damavandiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICT), including radio and television and the newer digital technologies like computers and the Internet as potentially are introduced powerful tools and activators of educational reform and changes. different ICT, when properly applied can be developed to help access to education and the relationship between training and workshops to strengthen the increasingly digital, the quality of education also helped to create teaching and learning in an active process connected to real life high take. However, the experience of being raised by ICT in the classroom and other educational sites around the world during the last few decades proves that is not automatic fully realize the potential benefits of ICT training. With the help of state and local funding, information technology has been purchased for schools ever since the 1980s. The state has also found many ways to support teacher training in the use of IT, and it has also allocated funds for the production of IT programs. Instruction in the use of IT has also played an important role in teacher training organized by local school authorities. It is against this background that the need arose to find out how far we have progressed in the application of ICT in education and what impacts these significant economic investments have had. It is also time to start a value-oriented discussion of how strongly the future of the Iran society-and with it, of education and training- will be linked to the vision of an information society brimming over with technology.

[Hamidreza Hossein, Bibisadat Miresmaeili and Alireza Talkhabi. Information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural education.Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):9-12 ]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.03

 

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), rural, education

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4

Technological concepts of Andragogy assumptions

 

1 Shohreh Goodarzi, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The culture of backwardness in the education of children in kindergarten and elementary school years, been considered so teachers, students in the planning process and are involved in learning activities and as a child but he goes up the educational ladder and more and more responsibility their education assumes And this with the help of parents, teachers and curriculum planners occur. But when his person was defined as adults for certain things as emotional self-concept occurs naturally his own role in society and sees itself as a mature person as a producer or acts subject sees, Now his duty as a server, a couple (husband or wife), a parent (father or mother), and a citizen Will look. After an adult look at his new position and look at other than his educational responsibilities and the concept acquires its own character driven And he will be able to take his own decisions and outcomes to manage them. In fact, the point is that when he himself fully understands his guidance a deep need for understanding and respect for others by your character to feel his guidance And that's why the adult needs to be treated with respect and be seen as a unique individual. Therefore, situations that they feel they can be treated like children, or avoid, avoid, resist, and said they hate. Adult learning and the conditions under which incompatible and incongruous with the concept of their own (as autonomous individuals) is take away (saying what to do and what not to do. In the case of adults to recall some of the classroom as a place that is wrong with their behavior and this spirit is so strong that a major obstacle for adult education activities is placed. So if adults were able to learn systemic absorption of the educational environment, we should be teaching awards and is worthy of adult.

[Shohreh Goodarzi, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mehdi Nazarpour. Technological concepts of Andragogy assumptions. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):13-17 ]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.04

 

Keywords: adult education, Andragogy

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5

Rural women empowerment in developing countries

 

1 Mojtaba Sadighi, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mohammadreza Ghaffari

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the rural community of Iran, there are gaps between the ruling class (capital owners) and villagers, between literate and illiterate, and between men and women. Especially in villages women have fewer possibilities in terms of investment and less power and credit. Role of rural women, over of men, is more influenced with different economic, social, cultural and ecologic factors. Rural women are considered as a noticeable potential in the community either directly (crops production, livestock, handicrafts, cottage industries) or indirectly by helping the agricultural sector (as labor). About 5.6 million women are involved in agricultural production, and activities related to planting... harvesting, preparation of animal food, and taking care of livestock and poultry and some certain activities related to trading and marketing are all different fields of rural women’s role and participation. Based on current statistics, women in rural area participate about 50% in conversion industries, 22% in producing crops and livestock, 75% in handicrafts and in areas related to planting…harvesting , respectively, 25, 24 and 4.26. And also in activities related to livestock, they handle 23% of livestock grazing, 42% of animal care and 100 percent of total poultry in the village. Therefore their role in achieving food security is undeniable. But, like most developing countries, this crucial role in society and in process of rural development, is not obvious. In Iranian rural community, about 80% of women work, but they are mostly considered as housewives, unpaid employment, domestic workers, family workers, or independent employers. The statistics often do not take into account seasonal, part-time, unpaid employment, and housekeeping activities. In economics and social sciences, those of women’s activities that have emerged out of house and affected national economy, are the ones to be noticed. In most research and statistics men are known as the heads of household and they are also the owners of lands and fields. That only 1% of the rural lands are belonging to women does confirm such matter.

[ Mojtaba Sadighi, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mohammadreza Ghaffari. Rural women empowerment in developing countries. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):18-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.05

 

Keywords: empowerment, developing countries

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6

Role and Legal Aspects of United Nations Organization on Human Rights in Indian Sub-Continent

 

Singhal Ashish Kumar

 

Department of Law, DAV College, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

Email: drashiah.singhal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Human rights organizations are non-government and non-profit bodies in which people are actively working in the field as responsible citizens. United Nationas Organization is a body designated for protection of human rights and the promotion and protection of human rights has been a major preoccupation for the United Nations since 1945 (UNDPI, 1996). According to Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA), one of the most important objectives of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is to promote respect for human rights and the basic freedoms of all human beings and peoples. UNO is continuously taking initiatives for its protection. Recently UNO has adopted international human rights treaties, established United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in 1993 and also established Human Rights Council in 2006. This article is aimed to describe the role and legal aspects of UNO on human rights. It can be said that UN human rights machinery has expanded: its areas of concern, its working methods, and its frequency of reporting are greater than in the past (Gaer, 2005).

[Singhal Ashish Kumar. Role and legal aspects of united nations organization on human rights in Indian Sub-continent. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):23 -24]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.06

 

Keywords: United Nation Organisation, Human rights, Legal aspects.

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7

Assessment of Religio-touristic activities in Haridwar City of Uttarakhand State (India): A SWOT Analysis

 

*Vijay Sharma1 Sushil Bhadula2 and B. D. Joshi2

 

1. School of Yoga & Health, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar-249411, Uttarakhand, India.

2. Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, Uttarakhand, India.

*E-mail: vijaysharma_mediplants@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Haridwar city has been revered as a sacred place and has been drawing increasing number of pilgrims / tourists year after year. The Pilgrimage season during the festive days has moderate positive impacts on the income of local residents. Besides the positive impacts, some negative socio-cultural impacts i.e. increase in crime, accidents, the degradation of environmental scenario and some other threats to this sector were also observed during this study, which is an attempt to investigate the present condition as well as the future possibilities of Pilgrimage Tourism in Haridwar City.

[Vijay Sharma1 Sushil Bhadula2 and B. D. Joshi2.Assessment of Religio-touristic activities in Haridwar City of Uttarakhand State (India): A SWOT Analysis Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):25 -29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.07

 

Key words: Tourism; Pilgrimage; Solid waste management; Environmental pollution

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8

Assessment of Water Quality of River Ganges at Haridwar during Kumbh Mela-2010

 

Namita Joshi* and Vandana Sati

 

Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya,

Gurukul Kangri, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. *drnamitaenv@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out for River Ganges at Haridwar at three sites namely Har ki Pauri, Muneshwar Ghat (Singh Dwar) and Rajghat (Daksha Temple) to monitor the pollution levels during kumbh. For the aforesaid purpose certain physicochemical parameters like temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, pH, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, hardness, alkalinity and free chlorine were taken into account. The coliform levels were also assessed, and a 28.99% rise at Har ki Pauri, 13.92% rise at Singh Dwar and 19.30% rise at Daksha Temple owing to mass bathing, dumping of flowers and other materials during snans. Except turbidity, free chlorine and coliform levels, all other water quality parameters were within the standards as recommended by WHO. Correlation was also evaluated among physicochemical parameters and a strong positive positive correlation was observed between conductivity and temperature ,temperature and total dissolved solids, conductivity and turbidity, total dissolved solids and conductivity to name a few.

[Namita Joshi and Vandana Sati. Assessment of Water Quality of River Ganges at Haridwar during Kumbh Mela-2010. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):30-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.08

 

Keywords: Water quality, physicochemical parameters, Dissolved oxygen, Conductivity, Correlation.

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9

Studies on virulence characters of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animal and human.

 

Khalilia A. El-Taib

 

Microbiology Unit, Suez Canal university Hospitals, Egypt

dr. khalilia11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The virulence properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that were isolated from human, cow calves and lambs were determined by using adherence assay , Congo red binding test, production of hemolysin, and HEp2 cell invasion test. The isolates were tested also for antibiotic sensitivity using disc diffusion method . PCR was involved for determine the presence of virulence invA gene that is responsible for invasion property of Salmonella strains. The studies was indicated that a large portion of the isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium were binding congo red and hemolysin production. IT was proved that Salmonella Typhimurium has adhesion and invasion properties which were responsible for pathogenesis. All isolates amplified by PCR were invA gene positive.

[Khalilia A. El-Taib. Studies on virulence characters of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animal and human. Report and Opinion 2011;3(7):37-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.09

 

Keywords: virulence; character; Salmonella Typhimurium; animal; human

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 2, 2011. 
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doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.01

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.02

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.03

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.04

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.05

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.06

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.07

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.08

doi:10.7537/marsroj030711.09

 

 

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