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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 4 - Issue 4, Cumulated 34, April 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9873

 

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0404

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Laboratory Evaluation of Live Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccine

 

Rania Aly1; El-Sanousi, A 2 and Susan, S. El-Mahdy1

 

1Central Lab. for Eval. of Vet. Biol. Abbassia Cairo, Egypt (CLEVB)

2Faculty of Vet. Med. Cairo Univ. Giza, Egypt

Prof.s.elmahdy@gmail.com Rani_vet@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Quality control tests were applied to prove the efficacy of the Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccine by Identity, sterility, titration, immunosuppression, safety and potency tests. Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccine proved to be safe when inoculated in 1-day old chicks free from maternal derived antibodies, broiler chicks and Swiss mice with 10-field dose of the vaccine. The Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccine did not interfere with MDA and could be inoculated in 1-day broiler chicks safely and resulted in protective antibody response. Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccine was inoculated in 18-day old specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs (SPF- ECE) (3-days before hatching) without adverse effect on hatchability% and achieved protective response when challenged with vvIBDV compared with CEVA transmune vaccine which gave similar results. Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccine was stable after 10 blind passages on CEF cells that showed the same DNA band using specific primer for VP2 gene. Due to intra cellular nature of the vector vaccine so it gave long life protection as the immunity lasts till 9 month in our experiment after inoculation of the vaccine by one field dose to 1-day old broiler chicks then serum sample collected for serological tests (ELISA-SNT) and challenged with vvIBDV.

[Rania Aly; El-Sanousi, A.and Susan, S. El-Mahdy. Laboratory Evaluation of Live Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccine. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):1-11]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.01

 

Keywords: Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccine; VP2gene; evaluation

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2

A Comparative Study Of High And Low Delinquency Prone Adolescents Of Ganderbal, On The Various Dimensions Of Adjustment – Kashmir.

 

N.A. Gash

 

Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

Showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted on the titled caption, “A comparative study of high and low delinquency prone adolescents of Ganderbal, on the various dimensions of adjustment – Kashmir”. The general objective of the study is to identify high and low delinquency prone adolescent, to compare these high and low delinquency prone adolescent groups on the various dimensions of adjustment viz; home, emotion, social, health and total adjustment respectively. The sample of 100 adolescents was drawn randomly, Lidhoo`s delinquency proneness scale and Bell`s adjustment inventory were administered. The criterion of extreme group technique was used, to categorize high and low delinquency prone group and these groups were compared on the various dimensions of adjustment by using appropriate statistical technique viz, Mean, S.D, and ‘t’-value respectively to extract out the results of the study. The results of the said study revealed that the high and low delinquency prone adolescents shows no significant difference on home and social dimension of adjustment, But on emotional health and total adjustment dimensions of high and low groups of delinquency proneness subjects shows significant difference providentially.

[N.A. Gash. A Comparative Study Of High And Low Delinquency Prone Adolescents Of Ganderbal, On The Various Dimensions Of Adjustment – Kashmir. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):12-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.02

 

Key words:- Delinquency Prone Adolescents, Adjustment.

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3

Examining the concept of security from Islam prospective focusing Imam Khomeini opinion

 

Mohammad Farhadi, Fateme Rostami

 

Shahid baghersadr Town, abdanan, Ilam proviance, Iran.

Email: mfarhadi@mail.ru

 

Abstract: In security issues, Islam arguing that establishing security for Muslims, country and Islamic state is not separated from each other but also it relates to security and benefits of other Muslims as well. Islamic interpretation of security replaces the concept of nation with community and security in a country may be depended on establishing security in all over the world. According to Islam, if nation-state origins a political power, it merely focuses on nationality, necessarily national benefit will be followed and indeed benefit of Islamic world will be ignored. So, distinguishing between nation and community leads to domination of school security on nation safety and concept of “national security” substitute with “Islamic world and system”.

[Mohammad Farhadi, Fateme Rostami. Examining the concept of security from Islam prospective focusing Imam Khomeini opinion. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):17-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.03

 

Key words: security, Islam, national interest, community, nation

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4

Bacteria isolates and antibiotic susceptibility of Ear infections in Abeokuta, Nigeria

 

1Motayo B. O., 1Ojiogwa. I. J., 2Adeniji F.O., 3Nwanze J.C., 3Onoh C.C., Okerentugba PO4, 4Okonko I. O.

 

1Medical Microbiology unit, Pathology department Federal Medical center Idi-Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

babatundemotayo@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Ear infections are a common medical condition globally, often overlooked as a minor medical problem, evidence has shown that if left untreated or baldly managed it could lead to severe complications. We have therefore reviewed ear infections screened for microorganisms at the Microbiology unit of Federal Medical center Abeokuta. A total of 91 ear swab samples were processed comprising 45 male and 46 female patients. 78(85.7%) isolates were recovered consisting 57(73%) GNB, 20(25.6%) GPC and 1 isolate of Candida albicans. It showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 38(48.7%) was the most predominant bacteria species isolated from ear infection. This was followed by Staphylococcus aureus 20(25.6%), Proteus spp. 16(20.5%) and Escherichia coli 2(2.5%). Klebsiella spp. 1(1.3%) and Candida albicans 1(1.3%) was the least prevalent. A total of 78 isolates were recovered from samples, age group 1-14 years of age gave a frequency of 60(76.9%) while 15 years and above gave 18(23.1%). Escherichia coli 2(2.5%) was only isolated from age group 1-14 years of age. Klebsiella spp. 1(1.3%) and Candida albicans 1(1.3%) were only isolated from subjects in age group 15 years and above. Gentamycin was the most broadly active antibiotic followed closely by Ofloxacin and Ceftazidime, high level of resistance was seen against Amoxicillin, and Chloramphenicol, other antibiotics tested performed below average. The findings of this study indicates a predominance of opportunistic pathogens like pseudomonas and an emerging resistance profile to Chloramphenicol a widely used antibiotic for this condition. There is a need for increased surveillance of conditions such as otitis media in order to prevent emergence of multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogens capable of complicating an otherwise simple infection.

[Motayo B. O., Ojiogwa. I. J., Adeniji F.O., Nwanze J.C., Onoh C.C., Okerentugba PO, Okonko I. O. Bacteria isolates and antibiotic susceptibility of Ear infections in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2012;4(4):23-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.04

 

Keywords: Ear infections, Bacteria, Antibiotic sensitivity.

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5

A Deterministic Mathematical Model for the Control of the Spread of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria

 

1M.Mamman, 2M.O Ibrahim and 3A.I Enagi

 

1Department of mathematics, Niger State College of Education Minna, Nigeria

2Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

3Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The worldwide schistosomiasis epidemic is a global health crisis. Nigeria, a country that is part of Africa where the diseases were commonly found has her fare share of this crisis. In this study two equilibrium states were analyzed, the disease free equilibrium state was analyzed for stability or otherwise using Bellman and Cooke theorem and the disease endemic state was analyzed for stability or otherwise using the linearised stability theorem. It was established that the disease endemic state is locally asymptotically stable, while the disease free equilibrium state is stable if the birthrate (β) of the snails is from 0-20% and unstable if the birth rate (β) of the snails is from 30% and above.

[M.Mamman, M.O Ibrahim and A.I Enagi. A Deterministic Mathematical Model for Control of the Spread of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):27-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.05

 

Key words: Schistosomiasis, epidemic, endemic, equilibrium state, stability

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6

Construction and validation the time management skills questionnaire 

 

Karim Sevari 1, Jafar Oazar Ahwazi 2 

 

1. Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Ahwaz, Iran

 2. Student of Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Ahwaz, Iran

Sevari1347@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to validate the skills of time management. To do so, 200 students of Payam- Nor University of Ahwaz (134 females and 66 males) were selected randomly.The exploratory factor analysis was used to construct a questionnaire. The data was obtained through the questionnaire.Results showed that Constructed questionnaire was combined from 24 items & 3 factors as record activities (9 items), set priorities and evaluate them(8items),and the division and classification of activities (7items). Reliability using cronbach's alpha was calculated for whole questionnaire above 0.86, for first factors 0.60, for second factor 0.78 & for third factor 0.74. validity of the that test was correlated with the time management of trueman and hartely (1996) determined & its value of the questionnaire was 0./733, factor analysis has relatively been good.

[Karim Sevari, Jafar Oazar Ahwazi. Construction and validation the time management skills questionnaire. Rep Opinion 2012;4(4):32-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.06

 

Key words: time management skills, record activities, set priorities and evaluate them, division and categories of activities.

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7

The Effect of Escherichia coli on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

 

Udeze AO1, Sowoolu GA1, Ezediokpu MN2, Nwanze JC3, Onoh C3, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria;

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East/West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria;

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: The impact of E. coli on catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated in the course of the project. The bacterium used in this study was a clinical isolate sourced from the University of Ilorin teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin. Various physicochemical parameters of the aquaculture which includes; dissolved oxygen, daily pH and temperature readings were also studied during the duration of the project work. E. coli was inoculated into Clarias gariepinus distributed into experiment 1 and 2 and the control was left uninoculated and observed for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, the test organism, E. coli was re-isolated from experiment 2 and not from experiment 1 and the control experiment. Other bacteria isolates were obtained and characterized from the fishes. They include; Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella sp., Vibro sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus sp. All the bacteria isolates were isolated from both the skin and the intestine of the fishes except E. coli which was found only in the intestine.

[Udeze AO, Sowoolu GA, Ezediokpu MN, Nwanze JC, Onoh C, Okonko IO. The Effect of Escherichia coli on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Rep Opinion 2012;4(4):36-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.07

 

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, E. coli, physicochemical parameters, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella sp., Vibro sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus sp.

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8

Need patterns of high/low creative secondary school students

 

Dr. M.Y. Ganie, Aqueel Ahmad pandith, Muddasir Hamid Malik

 

1 Associate professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2 Research scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

 

Abstract: Creativity has fascinated scientists, philosophers and layman like. One of the major aims of the education is to promote creativity in pupils. Creativity was regarded as a rare quality of distinguished individuals. Again there was a notion that creativity was associated with artistic individuals only who were distinguished in various fields as painters, sculptors or writers. Thus, creativity was understood to be artistic in nature and it was usually associated with pieces of art. The main objective of this study is to know the verbal and non-verbal creativity of high/low creative secondary school students and need patterns.

[M.Y. Ganie, Aqueel Ahmad pandith, Muddasir Hamid Malik. Need patterns of high/low creative secondary school students. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):43-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.08

 

Key word: patterns; high/low; creative; secondary; school students

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9

Comparative study between available used Newcastle Vaccines in market on broiler chickens

 

Kh. M. ELbayoumi; Eman R.Hassan; K.M. Mahgoup; Zeinab M. S. Amin Girh; and Hoda M. Mekky

 

Veterinary Research Division Poultry Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza

K_bayoumi2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For studying the effect of 3 common Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines (La Sota, Avenew and Vetapest) in the Egyptian broiler chicken flocks; 200, one day old commercial broiler chicks in four equal groups reared on commercial ration. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were received La Sota, Avenew and Vitapest ND vaccine; respectively; while birds of group 4 was kept as negative control. At 36 days old (10 days after last vaccination) all groups were challenged 10 days after last vaccination with 107 EID50 /ml of velogenic ND virus. Results of HI test revealed that all vaccines produce positive protective antibody titer start to increase after 1st vaccination as the highest was Vetapest (10.25 average) followed by Lasota (8.25 average) then Avenew (6.5 average) then continue after 2nd vaccination the highest was Vetapest (10.5 average) followed by Lasota (10.125 average) then Avenew (9.875 average), while after challenge the titer slightly decreased among all vaccinated groups the lowest was Lasota (7.125 average) then followed by Avenew (7.5 average) while the highest was Vetapest (7.75 average). All challenged vaccinated groups showed 100% protection against20% in control negative group. The histopathologically changeswere recorded in Vetapest vaccinated birds the tracheal sections appeared normal, while mild infiltration of the submucosa with mononuclear cells was detected in some examined sections. Liver in most examined sections revealed normal hepatocytes with normal organization, but few examined sections showed minute focal area of hepatocellular necrosis infiltrated by mononuclear cells. Proventriculus showed normal mucosa with normal proventricular glands with no inflammatory reactions. On the other hand the two other vaccinated groups showed focal area of deciliation with moderate infiltration of the submucosa with mononuclear cells and submucosal edema, while liver showed thickening of the perihepatic capsule as well as congestion of the blood vessels with focal area of hepatocellular necrosis infiltrated by mononuclear cells, there was portal edema and hyperplasia of epithelial lining bile duct. Proventriculus showed infiltration of the mucosa with mononuclear cells. After challenge with virulent virus the condition become more sever in all examined tissue samples as trachea showed necrosis of the mucus gland with massive infiltration of the submucosa with mononuclear cells while liver showed different types of necrosis, as sporadic cell necrosis with pyknotic nuclei, centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes and Proventriculus showed heavy infiltration of the mucosa with large number of inflammatory cells mostly heterophils and mononuclear cells as well as submucosal edema. Histopathological examination revealed that mild lesion in Avenew as well as moderate in both La Sota and Vetapest. These lesions become more sever following challenged with field virus as in case of Avenew. It could be concluded that the use of live vaccine could protect the birds from clinical signs when challenged with field virus with occurrence of microscopic lesions which was milder in Avinew. This finding needs may be depending on origin of the strain either respiratory or enteric one

[Kh. M. ELbayoumi; Eman R. Hassan; K.M.Mahgoup; Zeinab M. S. Amin Girh; and Hoda M. Mekky. Comparative study between available used Newcastle Vaccines in market on broiler chickens. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):46-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.09

 

Key words: ND live vaccines, HI test, Histopathology, challenge test.

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10

Soil mycoflora studies of some locations in Lagos State, Nigeria.

 

Ewekeye, Tolulope; Oke, Oyedamola; Li-Hammed, Morufat

 

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.

P. O. BOX 10210, Lagos State University Post Office, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.

stoluseun@yahoo.com, dammy656@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Soil mycoflora studies were carried out on a non-industrial site and three industrial sites in Lagos State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from different spots in each location. The pH of the samples ranged from 6.31-9.78. The mycoflora of the samples was also determined and a total number of sixty-one(61) fungal species belonging twenty-one (21) genera molds and four (4) genera of yeasts were isolated. Aspergillus species (29.60%), Penicillium species (24.50%) and Trichoderma species (11.22%) were the most encountered in the study. Of all the locations sampled, the non-industrial site, Lagos State University (LASU), was the richest in terms of fungal species with twenty-six (26) species, this was followed by Polyethylene Nigeria Limited with twenty-three(23) species, Chemstar Nigeria Limited, Ikeja with (19) species, while Chemstar Nigeria Limited, Alakuko had the least with fourteen(14) species. These results were discussed in relation to effect of industrial effluent on the mycoflora of soil environment.

[Ewekeye, Tolulope; Oke, Oyedamola; Li-Hammed, Morufat. Soil mycoflora studies of some locations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):52-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.10

 

Keywords: Soil mycoflora, non-industrial site, industrial sites

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11

hysico-chemicial Quality of a Yoghurt-Like Product from African Yam Bean

 

Amakoromo ER, Innocent-Adiele HC, Njoku HO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

worldclassasset@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The production of yoghurt from whole and dehulled African yam bean seeds was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from whole and dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with yoghurmet (a commercial yoghurt culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). Physicochemical qualities of the yam bean yoghurt samples were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical quality of the products. There was a gradual decrease in the pH and an increase in the total titratable acidity of the samples.

[Amakoromo ER, Innocent-Adiele HC, Njoku HO. Physico-chemicial Quality of a Yoghurt-Like Product from African Yam Bean. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):58-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.11

 

Keywords: African yam bean milk, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Yoghurt, Physicochemical quality

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Anti-Plamodial Activity of ethanolic root bark extract of Piliostigma thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniacea) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei NK 65.

 

Madara, AA1, Tijani, AY2 Nandi, EP1

 

1. Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science University of Abuja, Nigeria

 

2. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Idu Industrial Area, P.M.B 21, Garki-Abuja, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT: Piliostigma thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniacea) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulcerations. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic root bark extract of Piliostigma thonningii was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke’s method. The ethanolic root bark extract was evaluated for in vivo anti plasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei berghei NK65 in mice. Four day suppressive test, curative effect against established infection and prophylactic models of anti plasmodial studies were carried out. The oral median lethal dose was determined to be ≥ 5000 mg/kg body weight. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exerted dose dependent chemo suppressive effects at the different levels of the infections tested. However the anti-plasmodial effect of chloroquine at 5mg/kg body weight was higher than the extract in all the test models. This shows that the plant has anti plasmodial property that can be explored for the management of malaria.

[Madara, AA, Tijani, AY Nandi, EP. Anti-Plamodial Activity of ethanolic root bark extract of Piliostigma thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniacea) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei NK 65. Rep Opinion. 2012;4(4):62-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12

doi:10.7537/marsroj040412.12

 

Keywords: Piliostigma thonningii, anti plasmodial, Plasmodium berghei berghei NK65

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