Report and Opinion
4 - Issue 6, Cumulated 36, June 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9873
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Titles / Authors
Zen and the Art
of Founding Mathematics
Research Group of non-existence
The process of attaching a ribbon to each tree in a field will
be analysed in order to construct the notion 'number' which
apparently involves two components; separating an inside from an
outside and linear order. Instead of using a worldview that
involves separation, a method based on synthesis will be
introduced as a means to reveal a thought pattern which has a
fractal-like structure. This method, which is associated with
fractal logic, leads up to an alternative worldview and the term
'fractalism' is coined. Fractalism does not appear to contradict
science and is contrasted with philosophies such as formalism,
constructivism and platonism to make clear that fractalism
belongs to a different school of thought. The fractilian
'school' will be described and its difficulties discussed. In a
search for the 'foundations of mathematics', Gödel's
incompleteness theorems are highlighted and it will be put
forward that the Gödel sentence has the characteristic of a
fractal, i.e., self-similarity on the level of not being
provable. Consequently, fractalism offers a possible solution
for the foundational crisis within mathematics. It will be
explained how fractalism results in a theory of invariance,
although to accept this theory one has to break free from the
old-established view that self-evidence suits truth. Ultimately,
the unreasonable effectiveness of
mathematics in the natural sciences is discussed so as to
demonstrate the illusiveness behind this effectiveness due to
the creation of a reality-within-reality.
[Beukering K. Zen and the Art of Founding
Mathematics. Rep Opinion 2012;4(6):1-17].
number; linear order; separation; coherent; insight; Cartesian;
ego; worldview; form; essence; empty; analysis; synthesis;
logic; fractal order; self-similar; scale invariance; crisis;
Histo-Pathological Changes in
Leaves Cells of Squash Plants infected with Squash leaf curl
E.F., 2Azza G. Farag, 1Osman T.A.M and
Botany Dept., Fac.
Agric., Fayoum University, Egypt.
Phytoplasma Res. Dept., Plant Pathology Res. Inst., ARC, Giza,
Egypt (The present address: Biotechnology Dept., Faculty of
Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia, KSA)
Phytoplasma Res. Dept., Plant Pathology Res. Inst., ARC, Giza,
Abstract: Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) was
isolated from squash plants cultivated in Fayoum Governorate.
Field inspection of squash leaf curl viral disease was
determined according to visual symptoms. Squash plants naturally
diseased with SqLCV showed systemic viral symptoms of leaf
curling, leaf crinkle, vein banding, fruit malformation and
stunting. Virus was confirmed using PCR. Bemisia
tabaci insect was able to transmit SqLCV from infected to
healthy squash seedlings. The resultant purified virus
preparation gave a UV spectrum typical of nucleoprotein. Maximum
and minimum absorbance was recorded at 257 and 245 nm,
respectively. The purified virus yield obtained in this study
was 1.1 mg/ml/100g leaf tissues using the extraction coefficient
of 7.7. Light microscopy was used to recognize the effect of
Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) on the anatomy structure of
different organelles such as stem, leaf petiole and leaf blade.
The results obtained showed that: Infection of squash plants by
Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) led to a decrease in stem
section diameter by (10.9%), this decrease was due to the
decrease in average diameter of cavity by (33.3%). While, other
stem components measurements were showed an increase in its
measurements; infection of squash plants by SqLCV decreased the
section diameter of leaf petiole by (24.4%), this decrease
resulted from the decrease in average thickness of ground tissue
by 25% and decrease of average diameter of cavity by 17.9%.
While, the other leaf petiole components was less affected;
squash leaves were greatly affected as a result of the infection
Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV). This infection was led to
an increase in midvein dimension by (22.2% x 28.0%). This
increase resulted from the increase in midvein vascular bundle
dimension by (127.3 x 76.9%). Electron microscopy was used to
recognize the internal changes on internal organelles due to
infection of Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV). The results
obtained showed that, severe damage in chloroplasts including
thylakoids in grana; uneven thickening in the cell walls
resulted from developing the curly symptoms in squash leaves;
severe damage in mitochondria; aggregates of cytoplasm; nucleus
[Mohamed E.F., Azza G. Faragm, Osman T.A.M and Eman A.A.
Histo-Pathological Changes in Leaves Cells of Squash Plants
infected with Squash leaf curl begomovirus (SqLCV).
Rep Opinion 2012;4(6):18-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Squash leaf curl virus; SqLCV; Histology; Electron
microscopy; light microscopy
A Glance at Ending Consonant
Clusters in Abadeh Tashk Dialect
Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht branch, Marvdasht, Iran
Abstract: Dialects are clusters of one language, such as
Persian dialects, Tati, Kurdish, bellucci, Lori, Mazandarani,
etc, are different dialects of one Iranian language that are
called as "Iranian Primary Language" by Iran Kalbasi. Abadeh
Tashk dialect is a part of Lori dialect and among Iranian
Western languages and is regarded as South-West Iranian
languages. The author has tried to analyze this dialect from the
respect of consonant clusters. When some consonants are placed
together, they will be called "consonant clusters. Therefore,
the composting processes could be optimized by the application
of the developed simulation model.
[Faranak Ramezani. A Glance at Ending Consonant Clusters in Abadeh
Consonant clusters, ending cluster
The Utopia of Farzaneh
AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI1, AYYUB MANSOURI1
Utopia is the Ideal society that
has been a wish since old times. Utopia is analyzed in different
aspects, and there are various definitions of that. As an
example, a mystic have a nostalgic look at it. Based on this
view, the present article has had a brief look at utopia in the
beginning, and has analyzed some samples of Farzaneh Khojandi's
utopias through introducing Tajik literature and Khojandi's poem
AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI, AYYUB MANSOURI. The Utopia of Farzaneh
Khojandi's Poems. Rep Opinion
2012;4(6):33-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Utopia, Ideal Society, Shar-e-Behesht-e-Aghoosh (translated as
"Paradise City, My Embrace")
Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka,
on the growth
of 10 weeks.
with Diet 1 which contained
of 0.20% OTC (Diet
with CTR. At
0.20 and 0.40 %
OTC, SGR of
SGR of fish were 1.67±0.07 and 2.57±0.06
and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly
difference (p > 0.05) between the CTR group and other
experimental fish with the exception of fish fed diet 4. The
best (0.73±0.07) and least (1.35±0.10) performances for FCR were
recorded in fish fed diets 4 and 1 respectively. Severe
impairments were observed on the stomach lining at 0.40% OTC and
0.30% FRS compared with mild impairments that were recorded at
0.20% OTC and 0.15% FRS inclusion levels. Implications of these
findings are discussed. The growth rate and histology of
Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Juveniles fed Antibiotics
(Oxytetracycline and Furasol) treated Feed. Lawal MO,
Aderolu AZ, Ezenwanne DO. Rep Opinion 2012;4(6):37-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
antibiotics, growth performance,
Relative and Absolute
Fecundity of Schizothorax Niger and Schizothorax
Esocinus at Dacchigam National Park Kashmir
Ulfat Jan, G. Mustafa Shah and
Aijaz Ahmad Bhat
Post Graduate Department of
Zoology, University of Kashmir Srinagar190006.
Abstract: Schizothorax niger and Schizothorax esocinus were cultured on artificial diet at
Dachigam National Park. The diet was composed of fish meal,
Soya, mustard cake, wheat bran and rice bran. The feed was
provided twice daily. Fishes having almost equal size and weight
were selected. The results observed indicated that the absolute
fecundity of S.niger was more as compare to S esocinus.Where as
the relative fecundity of S.niger was less than S.esocinus. The
P. Value for absolute and relative fecundity is 0.6467 and
0.8901 considered not significant.
Jan, G. Mustafa Shah and Aijaz Ahmad Bhat. Relative and
Absolute Fecundity of Schizothorax Niger and
Schizothorax Esocinus at Dacchigam National Park Kashmir.
Report and Opinion
2012;4(6):43-46]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Schizothorax esocinus, relative fecundity, absolute
Estimation of biogenic amines in salted –
fermented fish and some fish products in Cairo Markets with
special references to its storage
and Ayman Hamed
veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig
of Biotechnology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza,
The main objective of the present study is to analyze major
biogenic amines in
Feseekh and sardine (salted) and other some commercial fish
products to determine the concentrations of biogenic amine during
different storage temperatures and durations.
Seven different kinds of fish product samples,
according to the
type and part of fish used for preparation,
were purchased at the local department stores and transported in
to the laboratory.
analyzed for biogenic amine
content. All samples
were purchased and
stored at three
different temperatures, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20
The concentration of biogenic amines was determined after 20
days and at 40 and 60 days of storage.
the samples and HPLC determination
of biogenic amines were carried out.
In summary, most commercial fish product samples
only trace amounts (below 200 mg/kg) of biogenic
amines, and the concentrations did not change
significantly during various storage conditions,
that these samples are safe for human consumption.
However, further studies are required to control
concentrations of biogenic amines under proper
storage condition, since the contents of biogenic
to increase in the
concentration as the storage temperature increases. The results showed that the free amino acid and biogenic amines content of Feseekh fish high and low salt and other fish products increased
significantly during long time of ripening and storage. So it
could be concluded that salted-fermented fish (Feseekh,
sardine and meloha) can be consumed without any health risks
between 20 and 40 days, but it could be hazardous after 60 days,
due to the increased free amino acids and biogenic amine
A. Raslan and Ayman
Estimation of biogenic amines in salted – fermented
fish and some fish products in Cairo Markets with special
references to its storage.
Rep Opinion 2012;4(6):47-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Biogenic amines- storage temperatures-
Feseekh- Sardine- Meloha-Duration.
Optimization of Release from Dam Reservoirs to the Agriculture
Demands (Case study: Jarreh dam to Ramhormoz Irrigation and
drainage network, Khuzistan)
Saeed Boroomand-Nasab1, Shadman Veysi2, *,
1. Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, ShahidChamran
University if Ahvaz, Faculty of Water Sciences.
2. MSc Irrigation and Drainage, Shahid Chamran University,
Faculty of Water Science. Tel: 09356726395.
3. MSc Student of Power system, Kurdistan University, Faculty of
This paper presents a Genetic Algorithm (GA) model for finding
the optimaloperating release of reservoir, located on the river
Zard, a major tributary of the basinAllah. In the presented
research mathematical optimization models were used to
Management and optimize the release and storage volume from
Jarreh dam reservoir. For reach this objective using monthly
inflow time series to the reservoir dam in the 40 years
(1971-2010) and was using probability distribution the inflow to
the Reservoir with different percent. For the purpose of
minimization different between release and demand, a non-linear
optimization was developed and excused using Matlab software and
genetic algorithm tool box method. The water demand for crops in
the Ramhormoz irrigation and drainage network was calculated
using Penman-Montieth method and finally calculated monthly
demand. The results showed that the release from dam in the
different inflow was not meeting the monthly demands in
Ramhormoz Irrigation and drainage network.
Boroomand-Nasab, Shadman Veysi, Moghadam Veysi. Optimization of
Release from Dam Reservoirs to the Agriculture Demands (Case
study: Jarreh dam to Ramhormoz Irrigation and drainage network,
2012;4(6):53-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Reservoir operation, Ramhormoz
The manuscripts in this issue
were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from
June 1, 2012.
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