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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

 

Volume 4 - Issue 9, Cumulated 39, 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9873

 

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0409

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: sciencepub@gmail.com

CONTENTS  

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Titles / Authors

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THE IMPACT OF LUDWIG FEUERBACH AND AUGUSTE COMTE ON GEORGE ELIOT’S MORAL VISION

 

Dr. Anuradha Pawar

 

Department of Humanities

Teertahanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India

 

Abstract:  In this paper I have focused on the moral views of George Eliot. It is said that the characters of George Eliots are dominated by morality. Eliot thinks that this morality is essential for every human being and by following this morality one can touch the status of god. Feuerbach and Auguste Comte are two philosophers who emphasized the morality in human relationship and supported the fulfillment of social duties for man otherwise he may suffer a lot. George Eliot has been greatly influenced by these philosophers. 

[Anuradha Pawar. THE IMPACT OF LUDWIG FEUERBACH AND AUGUSTE COMTE ON GEORGE ELIOT’S MORAL VISION. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):1-2]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1 

Keywords: moral; morality; human; philosopher

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Significance of Commitment, Attitude and Mendel Choice of Garden pea (Pisum sativum) in His Success Story as the Father of Genetics

 

Thomas Benjamin Thoha1, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat2,  Effedua Hyacinth Izuka3,  Afolabi Oluwadun1

 

1.             Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2.             Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State. Nigeria.

3.             Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Public Health, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Benthoa2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Success in life is central and very crucial to certain key secrets without which its attainment may prove very difficult. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the impact of ten important key secret of success in the emergence of Mendel as the father of genetics  with the view of suggesting ways of using these important key secret of success to achieving ones goals and purposes in life. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed of which 285 were filled out and returned (= 81%). The percentage of completed survey was not significantly different between the respondents in various localities. Of the returned questionnaires, 277 were found to be valid. All the analysis were therefore based on these 277 questionnaires. 100% of the respondents have good background in the field of science. Of the respondents, 50 (18.1%) were pg students, 192 (69.3%) were undergraduate science students, 20 (7.22%) were science teachers in secondary school while 15 (5.42%) were university lecturers.177 (63.9%) were male and 100 (36.1%) were female. The Age of the respondents varies from 18-43years (Mean (283years). Total years of experience of the respondent either as a scientist or science students ranged from 10-26 years (mean (13.35) years). The most common specialities among the respondent were Microbiology, Medical laboratory science, Botany, Biochemistry and Zoology. The  order of increasing of the specialities were Zoology < botany <Medical laboratory science < Biochemistry < Microbiology. Some 25% of the study population believed his commitment was the reason for his success story,70% believed his choice of the Garden pea is central to his success story while only 5% believed his attitude play a major in his emergence as the father of genetics. In another vein,10% of the respondent believed Mendel is only a good Academician, 60% believed  he is a good researcher, Academics and also a successful entrepreneur while 30% believed he is only a  good researchers. The study shows   that these three secret   were properly engineered  by mendel and therefore  galvanized  him to  accomplishing  his life purpose.

[Thomas Benjamin Thoha, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat, Effedua Hyacinth Izuka, Afolabi Oluwadun. Significance of Commitment, Attitude and Mendel Choice of Garden pea (Pisum sativum) in His Success Story as the Father of Genetics. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):3-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2

 

Keywords: Significance, Attitude, Commitment, Choice, Success.

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AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND THE AIR POLLUTION TOLERANCE INDICES OF SOME COMMON PLANT SPECIES OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

 

Tanushree Bhattacharya, Sukalyan Chakraborty, Monica Kagathara, Bignesh Thakur

 

  1. Dr. Tanushree Bhattacharya

Designation: Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology for Advance Studies and Research (ISTAR), PO BOX: 13, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India 388120 Telephone no.:+919998567649 E-mail: tanu_shreeb@yahoo.com

  1. Dr. Sukalyan Chakraborty,

Designation : Post Doctoral Research Fellow, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (R.O.C.), TEL\ (886)-6-275-7575 #65430, E-mail: su_kalyanc@yahoo.co.uk

  1. Monica Kagathara

P.G. Student, P.G. Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology for Advance Studies and Research (ISTAR), PO BOX: 13, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India 388120

Telephone no.: +919228267040  E-mail: mkagathara@yahoo.co.in

  1. Bignesh Thakur

P.G. Student, P.G. Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology for Advance Studies and Research (ISTAR), PO BOX: 13, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India 388120

Telephone no.: +918000413821  E-mail: biggi244@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was performed to measure the air pollution status of Anand City and its impact on the prevalent vegetation in the urban habitat. SPM, Sox and NOx were measured using HVAS in the dry season. Ten sampling sites with one control site were chosen as sampling site based on the traffic density. Concentration of NOx, SOx and SPM varied between 0.74 ug/m3 to18.52 ug/m3, 1.09 ug/m3 to 8.13 ug/m3 and 148.68 ug/m3 to 1959.57 ug/m3 respectively. Only SPM was observed above the standard limits. The concentration of air pollution parameters however indicated nonsignificant variation among different sites as per two way ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. NOx was higher in the trafficked, commercial areas. However SOx and SPM were recorded more in the heavily trafficked area. The positive correlation found between Sox, NOx and SPM also suggests likely same source for these parameters. For APTI calculation four parameters of plant leaf viz. pH, moisture content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were analysed for all the three species commonly found in the 11 sampling sites. Species were Polyalthia longifolia, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Azadirachta Higher APTI was observed in Polyalthia longifolia (6.57-10.22), followed by Peltophorum pterocarpum (6.81-8.43) and Azadirachta indica (6.01-7.59). So it can be concluded that Polyalthia longifolia is a more tolerant species than the other two species.

[Tanushree Bhattacharya, Sukalyan Chakraborty, Monica Kagathara, Bignesh Thakur. AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND THE AIR POLLUTION TOLERANCE INDICES OF SOME COMMON PLANT SPECIES OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):7-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3

 

Keywords: Air pollution, Anand city, APTI, ANOVA, Polyalthia longifolia, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Azadirachta indica.

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Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Risk Factors and Resources- Utilization at a Chest Disease Clinic, Alexandria, Egypt

السل المقاوم للدواء : عوامل الخطورة و استخدام الموارد في عيادة الأمراض الصدرية، الاسكندرية ، مصر

 

Ola Abdel Moneim Akl,* Azza Ali El.Mahalli.†

 

* High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University. A. professor of Primary Health Care.

College of Applied Medical sciences, Dammam University - KSA& High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University- Department of Health Administration and Behavioral Sciences. A. professor of Health Administration, Planning& Policy. ola_akl@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background: Drug-resistant TB is a relatively new phenomenon that now occurs throughout the world. Drug resistance arises due to the improper use of antibiotics in chemotherapy of drug susceptible TB patients such as administration of improper treatment regimens by health care workers and failure to ensure that patients complete the whole course of treatment. Essentially, resistance arises in areas with poor TB control programs. Objective:  To determine risk factors of M/XDR-TB among TB patients  attending a chest diseases clinic in Alexandria- Egypt for the period from December 2008 till June 2011 to improve case management and control of drug resistant TB. Also, it aimed to determine effect of M/XDR-TB on utilization of resources. Design: Case- control study. Method:  Medical records of TB patients who were receiving treatment at the chest diseases clinic for the period from December 2008 till June 2011. Cases were patients underwent drug susceptibility tests and results confirmed M/XDR – TB. However, controls were TB patients without drug resistance based on results of drug susceptibility tests. Cases were 59 patients, and controls were 122 patients (ratio was 1:2). Results: almost the half of both cases (MDR/XDR patients) and controls were from the middle age group (25-45 years). Male gender, employment, history of TB contacts and having a positive smear to AFB on admission carry higher risks for developing MDR-TB (OR: 2.28, 3.46, 2.31, and 25.3 respectively). In logistic regression, the duration of treatment was the only significant factor (protective). All resources utilized were significantly higher for MDR-TB cases than for controls.  Conclusion and Recommendations: treatment of M/XDR-TB is a cost effective intervention that necessitates urgent mobilization of resources.

[Ola Abdel Moneim Akl, Azza Ali El.Mahalli. Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Risk Factors and Resources- Utilization at a Chest Disease Clinic, Alexandria, Egypt. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):16-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4

 

Key Words:  M/XDR-TB- Risk factors- Resources Utilization

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Scientific Names are Contaminated

 

Amir Ghazilou1*, Afshin Nateghi-Shahrokni2, Setareh Badri3

 

1Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran; 2 Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 3Payam-noor University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The two-part name of a species is commonly known as its Latin name. However, biologists and philologists prefer to use the term “scientific name” rather than “Latin name”, because the words used to create these names are not always from Latin. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the degrees of similarity between a sample of scientific names and common languages by analyzing relative letter frequency as an onomastic variable. Alphabetical letter frequencies were compared among a sample of scientific names and letter frequencies obtained from nine other languages including: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Latin, and Greek. The dissimilarity between languages was then calculated using Euclidean distance for letter frequencies as a variable. Significant differences were found among different languages and scientific names for all alphabetical letter frequencies examined. Overall, Italian, Spanish and French languages shared highest similarity with scientific names. It can be speculated that scientific naming from Linneaus’s first wide-scope goal evolved to the later practice of incorporating names of scientists, with the resulting broadening of the language base from Latin to modern languages.

[Amir Ghazilou, Afshin Nateghi-Shahrokni, Setareh Badri. Scientific Names are Contaminated. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):23-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5

Keywords: Latin name; biologist; philologist; alphabetical letter; language

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New and Fast Outlier Detection Scheme in WSN: NFODS-WSN

 

Vipnesh Jha1, Sumit kumar srivastava2

 

M. Tech. (CSE) Student & Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Apex Institute of Technology, Rampur, (U.P), INDIA1

M. Tech. (CSE) Student & Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, D.B.I.T, Dehradun, (U.K.), INDIA2

vipneshjha@gmail.com1, sumitsri15.007@gmail.com2

 

Abstract: - In this work, we focused on the problem of outlier detection in wireless sensor networks. Outlier detection techniques generally focus the developer’s or user’s context into the interesting events, or unexpected results in the network which has very low probability of occurrence. In this paper, we have proposed a model that is based on the approximation of the sensor data distribution. We processed and evaluated our proposed scheme with a set of experiments with datasets which is taken from Intel Berkeley research lab. The experimental evaluation shows that our algorithm can achieve very high precision and recall rates for identifying outliers.

[Vipnesh Jha, Sumit kumar srivastava. New and Fast Outlier Detection Scheme in WSN: NFODS-WSN. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):26-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6

 

Keywords: - wireless sensor networks, energy, security, privacy

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A novel approach of an Optimal Multi-layer Neural Network for Eigenfaces Based Face Recognition in image processing

 

Sumit kumar srivastava

 

M. Tech. (CSE) Student & Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, D.B.I.T, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Email: sumitsri15.007@gmail.com

 

Abstract:  Face recognition is one of the most popular problems in the field of image analysis. In this paper, we discuss the design of an optimal multi-layer neural network for the task of face recognition. There are many issues while designing the neural network like number of nodes in input layer, output layer and hidden layer(s), setting the values of learning rate and momentum, updating of weights. Lastly, the criteria for evaluating the performance of the neural network and stopping the learning are to be decided. We discuss all these design issues in the light of the eigenfaces based face recognition. We report the effects of variations of these parameters on number of training cycles required to get optimal results. We also list the optimized values for these parameters. In our experiments, we use two face databases namely ORL and UMIST. These databases are used to construct the eigenfaces. The original faces are reconstructed using the top eigenfaces. The factors used in the reconstruction of the faces are used as the inputs to the neural network.

[Sumit kumar srivastava. A novel approach of an Optimal Multi-layer Neural Network for Eigenfaces Based Face Recognition in image processing. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):30-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7

 

Keywords- Neural network, eigenfaces, face recognition, hidden layer, back propagation.

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Heat Resistance And Inactivation of Neosartorya fischeri and Talaromyces flavus ascospores in water, phosphate buffers, fruit juices and fruit juices fortified with sugars and preservatives.

 

N.J. Amaeze

 

Department of biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: The work was designed to the study some heat resistance characteristics of the isolates obtained in relation to fruit processing parameters. The effect of heat (850, 90 0, 92.5 0 and 95 0C) in combination with common fruit products preservatives (sodium benzoate and citric acid) and sugars (fructose and sucrose) on inactivation of  ascospores of N. fischeri and T. flavus were studied in water, phosphate buffers, grapefruit, orange and pineapple juices. The rate of thermal inactivation was highest in medium containing sodium benzoate. The presence of sugars (sucrose and fructose) in juices protected the ascospores against heat inactivation when compared with plain juices. Ascospores of T. flavus had D85 0C values which ranged from 10.6 to 78.9min; D90 0C values of <1 to 13.6min and D92.5 0C values of <1 to 8.1min. Ascospores of N. fischeri had D85 0C values which ranged from 61.9 to 217.5min; D90 0C values of 5.0 to 62.6min; D92.5 0C values of 1.1 to 19.7min and D95 0C values of <1 to 13.6min. These results mark the high heat resistance of ascospores of heat resistant fungi isolated from the tropics. Heat resistant fungi not only cause spoilage of fruit products but also produce highly toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds; these findings are of utmost importance to fruit processing industries which are presently increasing in number in Nigeria and other developing countries.

[N.J. Amaeze. Heat Resistance And Inactivation of Neosartorya fischeri and Talaromyces flavus ascospores in water, phosphate buffers, fruit juices and fruit juices fortified with sugars and preservatives. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):41-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8

 

Key words: Fungi, Food preservatives, Thermal processes

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Carcass Characteristics of Broilers fed Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) Leaf Meal-based diets

 

A. H. Ekeocha1 and K. D. Afolabi2

 

1Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Livestock Unit, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: tonyelcocks@yahoo.com;

 

Abstract: A study was conducted for eight weeks to investigate the effect of feeding Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) leaf meal on carcass characteristics of broilers. One hundred and fifty day old Abor Acre broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments (A, B, C, D and E). Treatment A served as control while birds in treatments B, C, D and E received Mexican sunflower Leaf Meal (MSLM) at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% respectively. Feeds and water were provided ad libitum and the routine vaccination / medication followed the standard procedures. The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in all the parameters measured for carcass characteristics (shank, gizzard, head, crop, thigh, drumstick, wings breast, back, neck, abdominal fats, spleen, heart, lung, liver, intestine and proventriculus) except for the neck weight where birds on treatment B (2.50% MSLM) obtained the highest neck weight (182.31g) and the spleen with highest weight (3.60g) were obtained in treatment C (5.0% MSLM). The carcass qualities were also significantly decreased (p > 0.05) except for the neck and spleen weights. Primal cuts of broilers expressed as percentage of dressed weights were similar across treatments. The result of this study showed that inclusion of MSLM at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% has almost no effect on both the carcass characteristics and carcass quality of the broilers under study.

[A. H. Ekeocha and K. D. Afolabi. Carcass Characteristics of Broilers fed Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) Leaf Meal-based diets. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):51-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9

 

Keywords: Mexican sunflower, Carcass characteristics, Broilers, Primal cuts.

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Influence of drinking water supplementation with licorice extract on certain blood traits of broiler chickens during heat stress

 

Hazim. J. Al – daraji

 

Department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the physiological mechanisms expected to be involved in alleviate the detrimental effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by supplementing drinking water with licorice extract (LE). A total of 600 broiler chicks, one day old were used. Birds have been assigned to 4 treatment groups with 3 replicates of 50 chicks each (150 chicks per treatment). Birds in the first treatment (T1) provided drinking water alone and considered as a control group, whereas birds in treatments 2 (T2), 3 (T3) and 4 (T4) provided drinking water supplemented with 150, 300 or 450 mg LE / liter, respectively. Hematological traits included in this study were: Erythrocyte counts (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), thrombocyte counts (Thr), leucocyte counts (WBC), heterophil / lymphocyte ratio (H / L ratio), hematocrit (pcv) and plasma uric acid (Uri), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Cho), Protein (Pro), aspartate aminotransaminase activity (AST), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium (Cal) and phosphorus (Pho). Results revealed that inclusion of the LE in the drinking water of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in RBC, Hb, Thr, WBC, PCV, and plasma Uri, Glu, AST, ALP, Ca and Pho and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in H / L ratio, and plasma Cho and Pro compared with (T1). However, T4 recorded the best results with relation to all blood characteristics included in this experiment. It was concluded from this study that supplementation of LE particularly at the level of 450 mg / liter to the drinking water of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress can depress the adverse effects of heat stress on general physiological status of broiler chickens.

[Hazim. J. Al – daraji. Influence of drinking water supplementation with licorice extract on certain blood traits of broiler chickens during heat stress. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):56-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10

 

Keywords: hysiological mechanism; chicken; water; Erythrocyte counts (RBC); hemoglobin concentration (Hb); thrombocyte counts (Thr); leucocyte counts (WBC); heterophil / lymphocyte ratio (H / L ratio); hematocrit (pcv); plasma uric acid (Uri); glucose (Glu); cholesterol (Cho); Protein (Pro); aspartate aminotransaminase activity (AST); alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP); calcium (Cal);phosphorus (Pho)

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[Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):61-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11

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Investigation of  some Hematological Parameters and the biochemical system in pupils with Dermatophytosis.

 

Raheem-Ademola Ramota Remi1,2,3,Thomas Benjamin Thoha2*,Omolade Olabowale Adefolake1, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat4, Afolabi Oluwadun2

 

1.                   Deparment of Primary and Community Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2.                   Department of  Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University College of Health Sciences, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3.                   Spectra Medics Diagnostic and Research Laboratory,Araromi, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

4.                   Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago iwoye,Ogun State,Nigeria.

*Corresponding author benthoa2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study included 125 clinically healthy pupils (group 1) and 125 clinical cases of dermatophytosis (group 2).The influence of dermatophytosis on some biochemical profiles and the haematological parameters was investigated using standard methods.No significant difference occur in the mean PCV, Total WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets counts, and RBS level (P>0.05) but the ESR, Eosinophils counts, serum protein and serum albumin recorded a statistically significant values in the dermatophytic pupils when compared to the control group. Our findings suggest a possible relationship between some hematological parameters imbalance, biochemical system alteration and dermatophyte infection.

[Raheem-Ademola Ramota Remi, Thomas Benjamin Thoha, Omolade Olabowale Adefolake, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat, Afolabi Oluwadun. Investigation of  some Hematological Parameters and the biochemical system in pupils with Dermatophytosis. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):67-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12

 

Keywords: Hematological, Biochemical,  Dermatophytosis

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A Review of Successful Housing System in Iran and the Introduction of Cob as a New Alternative in Iran’s Industry

 

Reza Mirzaei

 

Department of Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

Aspiran0080@yahoo.com

 

AbstractThis study focuses on the analysis of the successful prefabricated systems in housing in Iran. Amongst the most important factors influencing the success of prefabricated systems in Iran are the weight, high assembling speed, resistance against earthquakes, being economical, quality control and system’s flexibility for architectural plans.. In this paper the localized version of Cob, adaptable to Iranian housing system, is introduced for the first time. This paper is a study on Cob semi industrial system and Architectural- structural specifications. In introduction, author has considered history of house prefabrication house and analyzed Cob System.

[Reza Mirzaei . A Review of Successful Housing System in Iran and the Introduction of Cob as a New Alternative in Iran’s Industry. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):70-74]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13

 

Keywords: Constructional open system, prefabricated, Cob, the industrial production, semi-industrial production

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PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF MILK SUBSTITUTE FROM MELON SEEDS (CITRULUS VULGARIS SCHRAD)

 

OMOLE, J.O and IGHODARO, O.M

 

Biochemistry Laboratory, Lead City University, Nigeria

macigho@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Vegetable milk was produced from melon seeds by boiling 20g of the seeds in100ml distilled water for 1h using a water bath, after which the resultant slurry was cooled to 28 oc and then filtered using ultra filtration (UF) membrane process. The percentage yield was 80.6% and the milk has characteristic white colour, specific gravity of 1.002, pH of 6.8 and titratable acidity of 0.70% (as lactic acid). The protein, crude fat, ash, soluble carbohydrates and moisture contents were determined to be 1.3%, 3.09%, 1.62%, 5.79%, and 88.2% respectively. Atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry showed that the milk substitute is well buffered in minerals: calcium (92mg/100g), Phosphorous (197mg/100g), magnesium (16mg/100g), potassium (68mg/100g), sodium (3.7mg / 100g), zinc (3.8mg/100g), (copper 0.60mg/100g), magnesium (1.93mg/100g) and iron (6.34mg / 100g). The milk substitute is comparable to natural milk in colour, pH and trace mineral composition. Its sensory evaluation revealed that the milk is comparable to cow’s milk in colour but inferior in taste and flavor.

 [Omole and Ighodaro. Proximate composition and quality attributes of milk substitute from melon seeds (citrulus vulgaris schrad. Rep Opinion 2012;4(9):75-78]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14

 

Key Words: Melon, milk, proximate composition, mineral composition, sensory   evaluation

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 8/15/2012. 
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