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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion )

Volume 4 - Issue 10, Cumulated 40, October 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online)

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, report0410, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873


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Titles / Authors

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How are single electrode potential and rates of oxidation and reduction related?




#16/1, 8th Main Road Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, Karnataka 560010



Abstract: The Aim of this article is to establish the relationship between single electrode potential and the rates of oxidation and reduction.

[Manjunath R. How are single electrode potential and rates of oxidation and reduction related? Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):1-3]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1


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Godwin Oladele Olutona*; John Chijoke Ajaelu; Modupe O. Dawodu


Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

Corresponding author e-mail*: delog2@gmail.com; delog2@yahoomail.com


Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the concentration of five trace metals and speciation pattern in surface water Aiba reservoir in Iwo , South-Western Nigeria, after sorption with Amberlite XAD-16. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for estimation of trace metals. The total mean concentrations of trace metals in the surface water of the reservoir was in the decreasing order of Fe (0.47 ± 0.15) > Mn (0.26 ± 0.09) > Zn (0.16 ± 0.07) > Cu (0.07 ± 0.02) > Pb (0.005 ± 0.001) mg/L. Fe and Mn were above the (WHO, 2006) specified limit, Zn and Cu were below limit and Pb was exactly equal to the specified limit. The speciation pattern revealed that suspended metal had the highest percentage distribution in Mn and Fe, while organic bound had the highest percentage distribution in Pb and free metal ions had the highest percentage distribution in Zn and Cu. The suspended particulate metals and those that are bound by humic and fulvic acid present in natural organic matter in waters, have very low toxicity. In this study where Zn and Cu had the highest percentage in free metal ion showed that their potential to be toxic was very high and this may have adverse effects on the aquatic habitats living in the reservoir.

[Godwin Oladele Olutona; John Chijoke Ajaelu; Modupe O. Dawodu. EVALUATION OF TRACE METAL LEVELS AND SPECIATION PATTERN IN THE SURFACE WATER OF AIBA RESERVOIUR, AFTER SORPTION ON AMBERLITE XAD-16 RESIN. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):4-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Key words: Trace metals, Speciation, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

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How are Arrhenius frequency factor and rates of activation and deactivation related?

Manjunath. R

16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar Bangalore, Karnataka 560010, India

 Email: manjunath5496@gmail.com

Abstract: This project is to establish the relationship between Arrhenius frequency factor and the rates of activation and deactivation.

[Manjunath. R. How are Arrhenius frequency factor and rates of activation and deactivation related? Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):14-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3


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(“Chan” function of Prime numbers)

(Preparatory to an upcoming major manuscript “The primordial 1:3 constant, as the basis of mathematics)


Vinoo Cameron MD (Primary author), Theo Den otter


Hope Research, 704 Pine Street, Athens, Wisconsin, 54411

E Mail: Hope9900@frontier.com


Abstract: As shown in our manuscript before in this journal, Prime numbers are totally predictable, and follow two chains that are arranged in curves at the divergence of  . These curves and possibly spiral expansion of the two chains as shown are precise, and most likely define the universe. This is a minor key preparatory expose and a mathematical entrée to mathematicians as this basic calculus/equation has been (solved) by the author, and will be presented as part of a major Manuscript on the “Primordial 1:3 constant in Mathematics” to be submitted to the Journal of mathematical research (Canada) as a Diaspora of this new mathematics. As a preparatory exercise, this equation defines much of the non- linear expansion of space, modulated by fixed Prime numbers.

[Vinoo Cameron, Theo Den otter. PRIME NUMBER COORDINATES AND CALCULUS. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):16-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Key Words: Half Line numbers, “Chan” value for Prime number 6491.

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Aghughu O1and E.A. Oghide2.


1. Plant Breeding Division 2. Agronomy Division

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City.


ABSTRACT: Hevea brasiliensis is a low-land tropical tree crop and can be propagated by sexual as well as asexual methods in the nursery. Seedlings (budded stumps) or planting materials so produced are carefully extracted and conveyed to the designated locations where they are eventually planted. This involves a number of activities which are here discussed along with necessary precautionary measures to ensure high survival of the field transplants.

[Aghughu O and E.A. Oghide. Handling and delivery of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber budded stumps for plantation establishment in Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):18-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Key words: Hevea brasiliensis, handling, budded stumps, plantation establishment

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Tiny Circularly Polarized Printed Slot Antenna for UWB Usage


Majid Shokri1 , Ch. Ghobadi1 and J.Nourinia1 , Hamed Shirzad2, S.Asiaban2 and Zh.Amiri2


1. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, West-Azarbayjan, Iran

2. Department of Electrical and electronic engineering, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad, University Urmia, West-Azarbayjan, Iran


Abstract: This letter offers a wideband circularly polarized square slot antenna (CPSSA) fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW), with a compact size of only 25 mm (length) ×25mm (width) × 0.8 mm (height). The proposed antenna provides impedance bandwidth of 2.86–10.95 GHz (117%) with VSWR ≤ 2, and its CP bandwidth is larger than 47.5% that covers 5.05-8.20 GHz which is obtained by embedding two inverted-L grounded strips around two opposite corners whereas the impedance bandwidth can be greatly improved through the tuning stubs. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna have been discussed to verify its characteristics.

[Majid Shokri, Ch. Ghobadi and J.Nourinia, Hamed Shirzad, S.Asiaban and Zh.Amiri. Tiny Circularly Polarized Printed Slot Antenna for UWB Usage. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):21-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Key Words: slot antenna, circular polarization

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Challenges Of Security Issues In Cloud Computing Layers


Amin Panah1 , Amir Panah2 , Omid Panah3 and Samere Fallahpour4


1Department of Computer, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran

2Faculty Member of Computer and IT Department, Hadaf Higher Education Institute, Sari, Iran

3Faculty Member of Computer Department, Islamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Iran

4Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

e-mail: amin.panah2020@gmail.com, a.panah@hadaf.ac.ir, o.panah@iauamol.ac.ir,samere.fallahpour@gmail.com


Abstract. Cloud Computing has been envisioned as the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. In contrast to traditional solutions, where the IT services are under proper physical, logical and personnel controls, Cloud Computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique attribute, however, poses many new security challenges. In this article, we focus on security in some layer of cloud computing, which has always been an important aspect of quality of service.

[Amin Panah; Amir Panah; Omid Panah;Samere Fallahpour. Challenges Of Security Issues In Cloud Computing Layers. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):25-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Keywords: Cloud computing, Securiyt Problem, Attacks, Layers.

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*Ani, A.O., Alutu, O.N., Osita, C.O and Ugwuowo, L.C


Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

*Corresponding author. Email: austinani2011@yahoo.com


Abstract: One hundred and twenty 3 -week old Harco black pullet chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary fibre and supplementary enzyme levels on nutrient utilization and haematological indices of pullet chicks. The birds were randomly divided into 8 groups of 15 birds each and assigned to 8 energetic (11.78-11.96 MJ/Kg ME) and nitrogenous (20% crude protein) diets in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement involving four fibre levels (5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0%) and two enzyme levels (0 and 0.25%) for 8 weeks. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 5 birds per replicate. Results showed that the intakes of crude fibre(CF) and nitrogen-free extract increased significantly (P<0.01) as the fibre level in the diet increased beyond 6%. Dry matter, nitrogen and CF retentions were significantly (P<0.01) decreased as the dietary fibre increased beyond 6% inclusion level. Increasing levels of crude fibre in the diets had no significant (P>0.01) effect on WBC and MCHC but affected the PCV, Hb, RBC, MCH and MCV significantly (P<0.01). It was concluded that pullet chicks can be fed 6% dietary fibre without supplementary enzyme and 8% dietary fibre with supplementary enzyme without adverse effects on nutrient retention and the haematology of chicks.

[Ani, A.O., Alutu, O.N., Osita, C.O and Ugwuowo, L.C. EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBRE AND SUPPLEMENTARY ENZYME LEVELS ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF PULLET CHICKS. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):30-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Key words: effect, fibre, enzyme, diets, haematology, nutrients

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Risk-related Activities and Control Problems of Human African Trypanosomosis in Western Equatoria State, South Sudan


Yatta S. LUKAW1 and Erneo B. OCHI 2


1. University of Juba, P.O. Box 82 Juba

2. National Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries

Contact address: E-mail: yattalukaw2002@yahoo.com


Abstract: Human African trypanosomosis is one of the most important transboundary diseases restricting economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. The present paper outlines human activities culminating in the HAT and highlights some problems related to measures applied to control HAT in Western Equatoria State, South Sudan. Review on relevant data to HAT in Western Equatoria State was comparatively made and analyzed. Graphs were drawn using Microsoft Excel 2007 Software and descriptive statistics done using statview version 5.0.1 for windows. The correlation between different activities and relative risk of the infection was deduced from a regression plot graph. Ibba County revealed the highest prevalence rate of HAT (30.5%) as compared with the lowest rate (3.7%) in Yambio County. Human social activities revealed significant correlation (R2=0.971). Water collection activity revealed high association with the infection (relative risk = 1.1) compared to the lowest relative risk (0.5) associated with livestock care. This study revealed that human activities might increase the risk of infection with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. The persistence of the disease and infection in the affected areas might be attributed to control-related problems of institutional development and social upheavals.

[Yatta S. LUKAW and Erneo B. OCHI. Risk-related Activities and Control Problems of Human African Trypanosomosis in Western Equatoria State, South Sudan. Rep Opinion 2012; 4(10):37-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Keywords: Risk; Control Problems; Human African Trypanosomiasis; South Sudan

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Antibacterial activity of the alcoholic extracts of Entodon nepalensis Mizush. against some pathogenic bacteria


Afroz Alam*, Vinay Sharma, S. C. Sharma and Punam Kumari


Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Tonk-30 022 Rajasthan, India

* afrozalamsafvi@gmail.com


Abstract: The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts from the moss- Entodon nepalensis Mizush. was evaluated against three bacterial species. The antibacterial activity was assessed by well diffusion method. The ethanolic extract of plant showed a stronger effect than the methanolic extract. The maximum antagonistic effect showed against tested Escherichia coli followed by Salmonella typhimurium and least against Bacillus subtilis.

[Afroz Alam, Vinay Sharma, S. C. Sharma and Punam Kumari. Antibacterial activity of the alcoholic extracts of Entodon nepalensis Mizush. against some pathogenic bacteria. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):44-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Keywords: Entodon nepalensis, ethanol extract, antibacterial activity, well diffusion method.

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Characterization of Two Proteases from Enterobacter and E. coli Isolated from Processed Foods in the West African Sub-Region


Owoseni, A.A.1* and Onilude, A.A.2


1 Department of Biological Sciences, Bown University, Iwo, Osun State.

2 Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria



Abstract: Continuous study of the diversity as well as the dynamics of microbial communities in processed foods are being undertaken worldwide to check the prevalence and spread of gastrointestinal tract-related illnesses. Indigenously processed food samples of different types were collected from two Francophone countries – Togo and Benin and two Anglophone countries – Ghana and Nigeria in the West African sub- region during the wet and dry seasons of a sampling period of two years. Enterobacteria were isolated from each of the samples using standard techniques. The isolates were subjected to enzymatic screening for protease production. These enzymes were assayed and characterized. Protease activity observed demonstrates the enzymes are metallo-proteases and not serine-proteases. Acid-stable proteases (pH 5.4) were detected in the isolates. Protease activity was lowest at 20oC and highest at 50oC for both organisms. The presence of enteric bacteria in the foods analyzed provide undeniable evidence of the poor microbiological quality of indigenously processed foods could form the basis of a useful databank in formulation of food-borne disease control and prevention strategies in the sub-region.

[Owoseni AA and Onilude AA. Characterization of Two Proteases from Enterobacter and E. coli Isolated from Processed Foods in the West African Sub-Region. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):48-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11



Keywords: protease, processed food, public health, West Africa, enterobacteria

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Prevalence of Diabetes in Zambuk General Hospital


*Lynn Maori, Dorcas Ezekiel and Joy Bilal.


Zambuk General Hospital, Gombe State, Nigeria.



Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes in patients attending Zambuk General Hospital, Gombe Nigeria was carried from January to august 2012. The association with age and gender was determined. 207 blood samples were collected. Based on their age range, the age range of 21 -40 showed 8(23.5%) males and 17(34%) females were found to have diabetes from the 31 and 25 males and females that were diagnosed with diabetes respectively. Likewise age range of 41 – above showed 26(76.4%) males and 33(66%) females were found to have diabetes from the 26 and 33 males and females respectively. The total percentage prevalence is 40.5%.

[Lynn Maori, Dorcas Ezekiel and Joy Bilal.. Prevalence of Diabetes in Zambuk General Hospital. Rep Opinion 2012;4(10):54-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12



Keyword: Age, Gender, Diabetes mellitus

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 8/25/2012. 
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