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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 5 - Issue 1, Cumulated 43, January 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873, Monthly


Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

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Titles / Authors

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Mathematical Model to Estimate Drain Water Quality in Saturated Soils and its Comparison with Field Experiments in South of Khuzestan


Majid Sharifipour1, AbdAli Naseri2, Siroos Jafari3, Shadman Veysi4 


1,2. Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran

3. Department of soil science, Ramin Agriculture University and natural resources, Ahwaz, Iran

4. Young Reasearchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran



Abstract: In order to attain sustainable agriculture, optimum use of water resources and reduction of the adverse effect of irrigation and drainage networks development, it is compulsory to prepare their drain water management plans before construction. To compile such a plan a proper estimate of drain water quality and quantity should be available in both reclamation and operation periods. For the validation of this model, Drainage water salinity data from public 6 pipe drainage units near Khuzistan, Iran were studied. The control volume was between the drainage level and the soil surface, the soil condition was assumed saturated. In this research the mathematical model for forecasting how much of salinity in drain water quality is related to irrigation water and soil salinity. In this research in unsaturated zone water flow is assumed to be in Steady-state. Ultimately the model indicated that the proportions of deep and shallow groundwater entering the drain laterals were very large in this area.

[Majid Sharifipour, AbdAli Naseri, Siroos Jafari, Shadman Veysi. Mathematical Model to Estimate Drain Water Quality in Saturated Soils and its Comparison with Field Experiments in South of Khuzestan. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):1-6]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Key words: Groundwater, Impervious Layer, Leaching, Reclamation, Salinity

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The study of waves in plasma and laser interaction with plasma


Mehrniya Habib alah


Department of plasma Physics, Scince and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

Address: no 145 -Kiyanpars West 6 street- Ahvaz-Iran;Phone number: 00989163010368

Email: mehrniya.habib@yahoo.com


Abstract: Continuous progresses in base of short Laser plasmas have attracted the researchers to this point within the interaction of these lasers with materials. One of the most important interactions of laser with substances is the plasma or laser interaction which today, this is attracted by everyone. The present study, as a case study, has studied the waves in plasma in which the laser interaction with plasma is the main purpose of this research.

[Mehrniya Habib alah. The study of waves in plasma and laser interaction with plasma. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):7-19]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Keywords: plasma, laser, interaction.

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Characterization of Online Degrees and comparing with Traditional Degrees


Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2


1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

 *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com


Abstract: Technology transports information, not people. Distances between teachers and students are bridged with an array of familiar technology as well as new information age equipment. What sets today's distance education efforts apart from previous efforts is the possibility of an interactive capacity that provides learner and teacher with needed feedback, including the opportunity to dialogue, clarify, or assess. Advances in digital compression technology may greatly expand the number of channels that can be sent over any transmission medium, doubling or even tripling channel capacity. Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications. Different technologies have different capabilities and limitations, and effective implementation will depend on matching technological capabilities to education needs.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Characterization of Online Degrees and comparing with Traditional Degrees. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):20-25]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3.



Keywords: Online Degrees and, Traditional Degrees, distance education.

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Empowerment of rural women: recommendations for developing countries


Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com


Abstract: However rural women play major role to produce food at all over the world, but rarely enjoy of extension services. Wherever, rural women as producers of food productions and family supervisor, have little contact with extension services organizations, so their problems and needs would reflect at extensional information feedback, rarely. Therefore agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture.

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Empowerment of rural women: recommendations for developing countries. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):26-30]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: empowerment, rural women, developing countries.

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The role of ICT in distance education


Amirhossein Pirmoradi


Former Graduate Student (M. S), science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: amirhosseinpirmoradi@yahoo.com


Abstract: Challenges which faced the early users of distance education are still with us today. If distance education is to play a greater role in improving the quality of education, it will require expanded technology; more linkages between schools, higher education, and the private sector; and more teachers who use technology well. Teachers must be involved in planning the systems, trained to use the tools they provide, and given the flexibility to revise their teaching. Federal and state regulations will need revision to ensure a more flexible and effective use of technology. Connections have been established across geographic, instructional, and institutional boundaries which provide opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing among many groups In the pooling of students and teachers, distance learning reconfigures the classroom which no longer is bounded by the physical space of the school, district, state or nation.

[Amirhossein Pirmoradi. The role of ICT in distance education. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):31-35]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Keywords: ICT, distance education

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The Role of rural women empowerment in accelerating rural development


Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Maryam Khodamoradi, Abbas Emami and Esmaeel Ghorbani


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com


Abstract: rural women take different responsibility and roles such as producers of crops, ranching and keeping poultry, children education, housekeeping, supervising family economy and managing it, collecting firewood, weaving carpet, so illiterate women who haven’t possibility to utilize mass media properly too, wouldn’t able to do their duties and roles and also wouldn’t be affective to develop rural societies. So importance of education is very critical for rural women especially extensional educations. Approximately in most UN reports, women has been considered as greatest deprived group at human societies, while at global level, about two third of all affairs is done by women. But only one third of all recorded affairs relates to women. And also just 1% of proceeds of estates and assets of world belong to women and two third of illiterates of world are women, however they form 50% of workforce at agriculture part and they produce half of foods at all over the world.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Maryam Khodamoradi, Abbas Emami and Esmaeel Ghorbani. The Role of rural women empowerment in accelerating rural development. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):36-41]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Keywords: empowerment, rural women, rural development.

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A study of Pseudolinear functions with convex optimization


Ritu Sharma1, Mayank Pawar2, Sanjeev Rajan3


1Research Scholar, Hindu College, Moradabad

2Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad

3Hindu College, Moradabad


Abstract: In this paper we introduced Pseudolinear functions as a generalization of convex functions

Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):42-44]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Keywords: Pseudolinear functions, -convex functions,convex optimization, Concave Optimization, non linear programming.

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The civil claims movement in Iran


Ali asghar amini dehaghi


Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Development process after Iran and Iraq war wasn’t balanced and it had a caricaturized mode. On the other hand, the middle class especially university graduates increased day by day that the political sovereignty wasn’t aware from it. As this new generation needed the social base especially the social status and subsequently a stream of the hidden perverse were getting fat in the shadow of bureaucracy. Following the relative deprivation between the middle class and elites of society culminated that at first its consequences caused doubt about the legitimate religious building sources of the political sovereignty and was crystallized in mentality of the new generation. In addition to, this new generation caused by the negative attitude about the Islamic revolution ideals an after 20 years from the Islamic revolution of Iran, they chose Khatami the pragmatic and reformist candidate in election of president in 1367 with the most high despite the political sovereignty (principles oriented) and wanted own civil claims codified in constitution. Regarding to the severe limitations against Khatami during the eight-year presidency, performing the reforms within constitution wasn’t very successful, but it increased the political development in society, so it caused despair of the middle class and educated spectrum and elites of society. So reform thought didn’t loss but was hidden in the social bottom layer. Then it appeared with excuse to cheat in election of president in 1388/03/22 and wanted own civil claims within green movement with more experience. More importantly, this movement wasn’t based on the charismatic leadership, because they connected to flow of knowledge in the modern world using the information technology (IT). Its members are often citizens of the virtual environments such as internet and other media that they have the political discourse via it. Beginning pro-democracy movements in the Middle East area and North Africa in 2011 indicates the role of the modern media and the cyber environments in forming today movements. So it is used in the civil claims movements of Iran in order to decrease the campaign spends and avoiding violence resorting to the dichotomy culture as a campaign tactic against the political sovereignty i.e. it used being secular the religious and idealistic mottos used in the draft of Islamic revolution of Iran (1979) in order to speed to movement and falling in box of the political system especially creating doubt in rule followers. But according to the experience of Islamic revolution, there is no rush in achieving the victory and the political system change, because it wants the secularism discourse extends in all social aspects of Iran in order to perfect the constitutional revolution project that was unfinished. However today the civil claims movement process is performing in the accordion shape in the disobedience field and follows the sudden rise and getting the golden opportunities to perform own goals. Lack of consensus between the traditional opposition and the new generation prevents forming the political discourse in process of the political relations with rule.

[Ali asghar amini dehaghi. The civil claims movement in Iran. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):45-51]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Key words: sense of the relative deprivation, the virtual Iran, the movement latency, fundamentalism, reformism, the social mobility, hidden diverted, dichotomy culture, the civil disobedience, the negative attitude.

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he Investigation of Spectrum H-NMR Ligand, spectrum IR and formed Ligand complexes


Raheleh Mohtarami1, Naser Samadi2, Forogh Mohtarami3


1: Department of Chemical analysis, Iran

2: Professor Assistant of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Urmia University, Iran

3: Ph.D. Student of Food Science & Technology, Urmia University, Iran



Abstract: There are many compounds in Inorganic chemistry that in this, the central atom, interact dative bond at least with a surrounding atoms (ligands). Receptors in the central atoms electron pairs, such compounds are known complex or co-ordination compounds. Central atom in these compounds is usually an electron-hole that can take unpaired electrons in a covalent ligand and can form Covalent– co-ordination (dot). In this study for confirmation the complex formation between the ligand and the tested metals, NMR and IR studies have also been performed.

[Raheleh Mohtarami, Naser Samadi, Forogh Mohtarami. The Investigation of Spectrum H-NMR Ligand, spectrum IR and formed Ligand complexes. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):52-56]. (ISSN:1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Key words: Spectrum H-NMR Ligand, Spectrum IR Ligand, Formed Ligand, Complex.

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Phytochemical screening of cumin seeds extract


Madhukar. C


# 444, 3rd C Main, 1st Stage, 2nd phase, Manjunath nagar, Bangalore 560010, Karnataka, India

Email: benaka.madhu@gmail.com


Abstract: Herein, we present the phytochemical analysis of the cumin seeds extract.

[Madhukar. C. Phytochemical screening of cumin seeds extract. Rep Opinion 2013;5(1):57-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Key words: phytochemical screening, cumin seeds, crude extract.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 12, 2013. 
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