Report and Opinion
5 - Issue 2, Cumulated 44, February 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873, Monthly
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Titles / Authors
The role of mosques on improving of religious culture and
decreasing of social corruptions: Case study the mosque of
Honameh (Shirvan, North Khorasan, Iran)
Mohammad Motamedi and Azizollah Saeb
Department of geography, Shirvan Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, IRAN
Mosques are centers for improving of religious culture and
civilization. This role is more important in the current century
which is called the age of anxiety. The main aim of this
research is evaluating of the role of the mosque of Honameh on
decreasing of social corruption and increasing of religious
culture. The method of research is analytic-descriptive and the
number of research society is 350 people and the numbers of
samples are 220 people. Based on the result of this research it
was found that the mosque of Honameh had an effective role on
increasing of religious culture and decreasing of anxiety.
[Motamedi M, Saeb A. The role of mosques on improving of
religious culture and decreasing of social corruptions: Case
study the mosque of Honameh (Shirvan, North Khorasan, Iran).
Mosque, religious, culture, social, corruption
Independence Of Indian Judiciary:
Need for vast
and in all aspect of Judicial Activism
1. Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal; 2.
Ikramuddin Malik & Abroo Khan
1. Invertis University, Bareilly, India; 2. Subharti Uiversity,
is a vast change in judicial process but on various points
judiciary is silent whether the promotion of judges in High
Courts or Supreme Court, the response bility of giving
information under the right to information act., the corruption
of judges. Is there no need of activism in this era? No doubt
law regulate the society, but some time society also regulates
the law. Is there need of the procedure of public opinion how
judiciary should do their function through judicial activism? As
it is clear changing aspirations of people also affects law.
Constitutions, Courts, and other part of judicial system are
made for common people. In the view of Justice Y. V. Chandrachud
observed “it is really the poor, starved and mindless millions
who need the court protection for securing the enjoyment human
rights”. So being some need of more activism in judiciary,
judicial activism has played an important role in human life.
Although on the one hand Judiciary has touched almost every
aspect of life through judicial activism whether the case of
bonded labour, rehabilitation of freed bounded labour, payment
of minimum wages, juvenile offenders, child labour, illegal
detention, torture and maltreatment of police lock-up,
implementation of various provisions of the Constitution,
environment problems, the court took cognizance of each case and
laid down various judgments to protect the basic human rights of
each and every member of society, but on the other hand there is
need of transparency itself in judiciary.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
can be no difference of opinion in the House that our judiciary
must be both independent of the executive and must also be
competent in itself. And the question is how these two objects
can be secured".
The courts in
India have also given a new interpretation to the constitutional
provision relating to protection and improvement of the
environment may be explained with reference to the following
constitution 42nd Amendment.
Federal System of Government
(Distribution of Legislative Power).
Directive Principles of State
[Ashish Kumar Singhal; Ikramuddin Malik & Abroo Khan
Independence Of Indian Judiciary:
Need for vast
and in all aspect of Judicial Activism.
Judicial Activism, Public Interest Litigation
Sassanid Religion and the Decline
Department of Political Science, Zahedan branch, Islamic Azad
University, Zahedan, Iran
was initially an universally obeyed and secular religion which
emphasized on the man`s will along with afterlife, but gradually
it was influenced by ascetic religious and philosophical
circumstances and tended toward fatalism, anchorite and
surrendering fate as well as paved the way for the religious
declining of the Sassanid which was considered as a pillar for
Sassanid dynasty establishment like feudalism.
Sassanid Religion and the Decline.
aflatoxin detection in fresh and stored ‘garri
(locally processed food)
1 , Abdul-Lateef MB
1 and Ayansina ADV2
Mycology & Biotechnology unit,1, Department of
Botany& Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences,
Eight samples of both fresh and stored ‘garri ijebu’(GI) which
is usually being processed in Ijebu land and consumed by the
Ijebus and other Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria were
analyzed for proximate composition, fungi detection and the
level of aflatoxin B1 B2, G1
and G2 contamination. Moisture content of 66.1% and
42.0 were recorded for fresh and 18- month old GI samples
respectively. Results of carbohydrate analysis showed that fresh
GI sample had 41.1% starch which reduced significantly to 20.6%
in 18- month stored GI. It was also observed that the crude
protein reduced significantly (P<0.05) from 4.9 to
4.4% respectively. The fat contents also reduced as the storage
time increases. Fungi that were found in biodereriorating GI
samples included Aspergillus tamari, Aspergillus niger,
Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum,
Fusarium compacticum and Saccharomyces spp. The study
also presented level of mycotoxin contamination in fresh and
stored ‘garri ijebu’. In the samples, Aflatoxin B2
(0.0085ug/kg) was detected in 18-month stored sample,
representing 8.8% of the total aflatoxin detected.
The nutritional indices and health implications of both fresh
and stored GI was discussed.
Abdul-Lateef MB and Ayansina ADV. Fungal and
aflatoxin detection in fresh and stored ‘garri ijebu’
(locally processed food).
biodeterioration, fungi, aflatoxins, ‘garri ijebu’
Chemical Characterization of
Acacia cyanophylla Compost as Growth Substrate
M’Sadak Youssef *, 1
and Elouaer Mohamed Aymen1
Sousse University, High Institute of Agronomy Chott-Mariem,
evaluate the quality of Acacia cyanophylla-based compost
and to study the possibilities of improving its chemical
proprieties, raw and screened Acacia cyanophylla compost
according to different techniques were incorporated with rabbit
manures compost in various proportions. Growth substrates
obtained were subjected to chemical analysis (pH, Electrical
Conductivity, Salinity, Organic Matter, Total Organic Carbon,
Total Nitrogen, C/N ratio and potassium and phosphorus
contents). Results obtained showed variations in chemical
parameters depending on the type of screening methods (simple or
double) and the nature of the mixture considered. Even if
significant differences were observed for diverse substrates,
recorded values were in the standards of acceptance, only for
potassium and phosphorus contents, were it is necessary to
optimize the incorporation of rabbit manures compost to adjust
the level in those minerals in Acacia cyanophylla
Chemical Characterization of
Acacia cyanophylla Compost as Growth Substrate.
2013;5(2):20-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
screening, mixture, growth substrate, chemical
Legal System On The Rights Of Accused Under Pre Independent
Malik1, Abroo Khan1 &Dr. Ashish Kumar
Assistant Professor, Faculty of law,Subharti University, Meerut,
Assistant. Professor, HOD in law, Invertis University, Bareilly,
The .administration of justice in Islam on the tenets and
injunctions is based on Holy Quran. The Quran
may, thus, be described as the supreme legislative Code of Islam
which laid down basic rules of justice. Its origin dates back to
the character and personality of the great Arabian Prophet,
Mohammed. Rightly, Sir William Muir has observed "And so true a
mirror is the Quran of Mohammad's character, that the saying
became proverbial. His character is the Quran." But the Prophet
is said to be not only the founder of the Islamic religion but
also executive, legislative and .the judicial head of Islam on
all the points wherever the Quran was silent. The adjudications
of the Prophet of Islam are unique for their simplicity,
fairness and equanimity. It is said that he confessed that in
the adjudication, of the disputes he. being like other human
beings is liable to err. It is said by Ibn Abbas that the
Prophet said, "If man were given according to their claims then
they would certainly lay claim to the blood of men as well as
their property; but an oath is incumbent upon the defendant."
In its infancy the Muslim law required the complaint to produce
witnesses and demanded of the accused to take oath. The
sufficiency of the evidence of the witnesses has been stated in
thus:The evidence required in a case of whoredom is that of four
men, as he has been ordained in Koran….the other evidence
required in other criminal cases is that of two men, according
to the text of Quran….in all other cases the evidence required
is that of two men or one man and two' women whether the case
relates to property, or to other rights, such as marriage,
divorce, agency, executorship or the like.
rights of the accused in some forms existed under the Muslim
Criminal jurisprudence and thus ways and means were devised to
insure a fair trial to a person accused of crime. A brief survey
of these rights is discussed.
study of Muslim. administration of criminal justice manifests
manifold improvements made by the Muslim rulers in the system
during the pre-Muslim period.
Malik, Abroo Khan & Ashish Kumar Singhal.
Muslim Legal System On The Rights Of Accused Under Pre
2013;5(2):26-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Quran, Muslim Law, Jail, Human Rights, Arrest, Judiciary.
Role Of Indian Judiciary In Eradicating
Iqramuddin Malik,1 Abroo Khan1 & Dr. Ashish Kumar
1. Department of Law,Subharti
2.Department of Law,Invertis
Judiciary being the
guardian of the Constitution, corruption in any form is not at
all expected in this organ of government. But to our misfortune
this weed has entered the most sacred organ of the government.
How far can we go with a Judicial System which is inefficient
and cannot protect the rights of the peoples on account of
prevailing corruption? Can we afford to ignore the pregnant
silence of the people who are the ultimate sufferer of this
menace? It is high time for the Judiciary to cull out this
menace or else it would be too late. This study is based on the
extent of corruption in judicial system as well as in other
governmental organization its causes and how to combat this
problem the effective decision of Judiciary not only to
eradicate corruption in Judicial System but also other organs of
One of the fundamental rights of
humankind is the expectation of reciprocity of treatment in the
conduct of one’s affairs. This translates into being just and
fair, and to be so treated in the courts which are charged with
administering justice. In discharging this obligation, the
streams of justice must be kept pure and unadulterated, not
clogged or polluted.
Malik, Abroo Khan,
Ashish Kumar Singhal.
The Role Of Indian Judiciary In Eradicating
of Adaptive Modulation performance of wideband OFDM
communication: Case Study
M. Tech. Electronics and
Bhagwant Institute of
In this paper we will discuss
about the adaptive modulation of wideband communication as the
demand of high quality service in next generation wireless
communication systems, a high performance of data transmission
requires an increase of spectrum efficiency and an improvement
of error performance in wireless communication systems. Here
firstly we have investigated the OFDM system performance of
adaptive modulation. In this to further enhance the system, we
employ convolution coding to OFDM system.
Impact of Adaptive Modulation performance of wideband OFDM
communication: Case Study.
2013; 5(2):33-34]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Adaptive Modulation, wireless
communication, 4G, OFDM Communication.
Factors Influencing Customer
Satisfaction in Banking Sector of Pakistan
Muhammad Imran Qureshi 1,
2, Sehrish Rustum
2 , Abdullah Bin Omar 2 Khalid Zaman
Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of
Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: Customer satisfaction has strong influence on
the efficiency and financial performance of banks. Customers are
satisfied when quality services of banks meets their
expectations and the level of dissatisfaction occurs when banks
are unable and failed to fulfill their expectations. The study
investigates the factors which may influence customer’s
satisfaction in banking sector of Pakistan. The study is
conducted on the basis of convenient sampling and around one
thousand questionnaires were distributed to corporate customers
of different banks located in four provinces of Pakistan. Factor
analysis was used for the measurement of items which may
strongly influence customer’s level of satisfaction. The result
indicates that core services provided by the banks are best
predictors of customer satisfaction.
[Qureshi, M, M, Rustam, A., Rustam,S., Omar, B, O., Zaman, K.
Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction in Banking Sector of
Pakistan. Rep Opinion
2013;5(2):35-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Customers, Satisfaction, Quality services, Banking sector,
Factor analysis, Pakistan.
The effect of carbon source
of growth medium on α-amylase production by strains of
Penicillium solitum and Aspergillus rubrum isolated
from yam (Dioscorea alata)
Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1
, Olusola Abiola Ladokun2
of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied
Sciences, Lead City, University, Ibadan, Nigeria
of Biochemistry, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied
Sciences, Lead City, University, Ibadan, Nigeria
and Aspergillus rubrum isolated from deteriorated yam (Dioscorea
alata) using potato dextrose agar grew and sporulated at 25oC.
They expressed α-amylase activity in a synthetic growth medium
with potassium nitrate as nitrogen source and certain carbon
sources. The carbon sources were varied and were starch,
maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and lactose. Rice (Oryza
sativa) also supported fungal growth and α-amylase
production. When rice was growth medium, Aspergillus rubrum
seemed a better producer of α-amylase than Penicillium
solitum as expressed on the tenth day of inoculation.
Highest activity was expressed by Penicillium solitum on
the tenth day of inoculation of the synthetic medium when
maltose was carbon source. Least activity was expressed by
Aspergillus rubrum when galactose was carbon source.
[Adejuwon AO, Ladokun OA. The effect of carbon source of
growth medium on α-amylase production by strains of
Penicillium solitum and Aspergillus rubrum isolated
from yam (Dioscorea alata).
Rep Opinion 2013;5(2):40-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Penicillium solitum; Aspergillus rubrum;
α-amylase; growth medium; carbon source; nitrogen source.
Ambient Air Quality and Noise
monitoring in Haridwar City of Uttarakhand State (India)
Sushil Bhadula and B. D. Joshi*
Dept. of Zoology, Uttaranchal
College of Science and Technology, Dehradun
*Dept. of Zoology and
Environmental sciences, Gurukula Kangri University,
In the present study, four
parameters viz. RSPM, SPM, SO2 and NO2
were studied during October to December 2011, at three busy
intersections of Haridwar city namely; Singh Dwar, Prem Nagar
Ashram Chowk and Chandi Chowk to assess the impact of vehicular
emission on air quality of concerned area. Noise levels were
also monitored for sites with the help of Sound Level Meter. The
minimum and maximum value for RSPM were recorded 86.20 µgm-3
and 99.75 µgm-3 at Prem Nagar Ashram Chowk and Chandi
Chowk, respectively. The minimum 285.90 µgm-3 and
maximum 400.50 µgm-3 value for SPM were recorded at
Prem Nagar Ashram Chowk and Singh Dwar, respectively. The
minimum 7.15 µgm-3 and maximum 9.10 µgm-3
values for SO2 were recorded at Prem Nagar Ashram
Chowk and Chandi Chowk, respectively. The minimum 9.99 µgm-3
and maximum 11.39 µgm-3 value for NO2 were
recorded at Prem Nagar Ashram Chowk and Chandi Chowk,
respectively. In the present study, it was found that the noise
level in all three different sites was higher as comparison to
the standard prescribed limit of noise.
Bhadula and B. D. Joshi. Ambient Air Quality and Noise
monitoring in Haridwar City of Uttarakhand State (India).
Ambient; Air; Quality; Noise;
Comparative effect of medium
composition on bioflocculant production by microorganisms
isolated from wastewater samples
Gboyega Adebami, Adebayo-Tayo
Department of Microbiology,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria
A bioflocculant is a kind of biodegradable polymeric flocculants
produced by many microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and
actinomycetes during their growth. Bioflocculant have special
advantages such as safety for ecosystems, potential flocculating
effects, biodegradability and harmlessness to humans and the
environment. Based on these unique properties it may potentially
be applied in production industries for various purposes. In
this study, a total of thirty nine (39) bacteria were isolated
from three different wastewater samples from Oyo and Osun
states. The isolates were screened for bioflocculant production
using kaolin solution (5g/L) as a test material. There was a
significant different (P≥0.05) in the flocculating ability of
the isolates. The percentage flocculating activity ranged from
03.00p – 75.63a % in which isolate TB3 had
the highest followed in order by isolates TM3, AM6 and API,
while isolate AP3 had the least. Six isolates with the best
flocculating activity selected and identified phenotypically
were: Enterobacter asburiae AM6, Streptococcus
plurextorum AP1, Solibacillus silvestri AP4,
Bacillus licheniformis NB2, Citrobacter sp. TB3 and
Paenibacillus polymyxa TM3. The isolates were used for
bioflocculant production using different medium (Medium 1, 2, 3
and 4 respectively). There was a significant difference (P≥0.05)
in the flocculating activity of the isolates in production
medium. In Medium 1 the percentage flocculating activity ranged
from 31.0 -89.19% in which isolate AP4 had the highest. About
33.5% of the isolate (AP4 and TB2) had flocculating activity
above 70%. In Medium 2 the percentage flocculating activity
ranged from 32.91 -89.19% in which isolate AP4 had the highest.
About 83.3% of the isolate (AM6, AP1, AP4, NB2 and TB2) had
flocculating activity above 70%. In Medium 3 the percentage
flocculating activity ranged from 34.81 -78.38% in which isolate
AP4 had the highest. About 66.7% of the isolate (AM6, AP1, AP4
and TB2) had flocculating activity above 70%. In Medium 4 the
percentage flocculating activity ranged from 34.65 -88.02% in
which isolate NB2 had the highest. About 66.7% of the isolate
(AM6, AP1, AP4 and NB2) had flocculating activity above 70%. [Gboyega
Adebami. Adebayo-Tayo Bukola Christianah. Comparative effect
of medium composition on bioflocculant production by
microorganisms isolated from wastewater samples.
2013;5(2):46-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Waste waters, Bacteria, Bioflocculant, Production medium,
The manuscripts in this issue
were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from
December 26, 2012.
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