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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 5 - Issue 6, Cumulated 48, June 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873, Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Titles / Authors

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Effects of Achillea millefolium L. And Pimpinella anisum L. Extracts on Wound Healing in rats


Maryam Rezaei * 1, Mohamad Dalvand 2, Forozan Hadipor 2, Mahbobe Pirhemat 2, Mohamad Alipor 2, Omolbanin Moradi 3


1.Researcher, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, Iran

2.Department of Biology, Payam Noor University, Khoramabad, Iran

3.Department of Statistics, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

* Corresponding author: re.mari@yahoo.com


Abstract: This experiment was conducted in order to compare the effects of Achillea millefolium and Pimpinella anisum Extracts on healing of wounds in rats. Twenty-four adult, male Wistar-albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A received a Achillea millefolium extract and Group B received a Pimpinella anisum extract, Group C, as the control group, didn’t receive any treatment and finally Group D received a silver sulfadiazine ointment. The results show that Achillea millefolium extract served to accelerate the wound healing process and specifically increased epithelialization in treatment groups compared to the other groups. Thus, this study demonstrates that Achillea millefolium may be effective in stimulating the enclosure of wounds. Results from our investigation suggest a positive effect of Achillea millefolium on aseptic surgical skin wound healing.

[Maryam Rezaei, Mohamad Dalvand, Forozan Hadipor, Mahbobe Pirhemat, Mohamad Alipor, Omolbanin. Effects of Achillea millefolium L. And Pimpinella anisum L. Extracts on Wound Healing in rats. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):1-4. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Keywords: wound healing, rat; silver sulfadiazine; Achillea millefolium; Pimpinella anisum

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Harnessing Energy from the Sun


Oladeji, J.T.


Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso. research222a@gmail.com


Abstract: Nigeria’s vision of becoming one of the twenty richest economies in the world by year 2020 will be a mirage, unless the issue of epileptic power supply is resolved. This could however be overcome by utilizing energy from the sun, which is very abundant in the country, Nigeria being a tropical country. Solar energy is the most promising of the renewable energy sources in view of its apparent limitless potential. This study therefore investigated the potentials of energy generation from the sun. The materials used were solar panel, inverter, battery, solar charger controller and solar panel stand. They were coupled together. Four positions of panel were selected and these were; when the panel was at parallel to the horizontal and stationary, when it was inclined at 15, 30 and 45 respectively. Readings of generated current at various angles of inclination of solar panel were recorded and exact location of the panel was determined through compass. The average currents recorded at 15, 30 and 45 were 4.67, 4.89 and 4.97 amperes respectively, while the current generated for stationary panel when it was parallel to the horizontal was 3.96 amperes. The results showed that improved current generation was obtained when the panel was facing south. The study concluded that having a rotating solar panel is far better than the stationary one and that, the maximum current, which translates to high power was recorded at angle of inclination of 45 degrees.

[Oladeji, J. T. Harnessing Energy from the Sun. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):5-9]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Keywords: Solar energy, solar panel, inverter, battery, current, power

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α-Amylases by strains of Candida albicans and Fusarium sp.: Expression and characterization


Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1*, Olajumoke Elizabeth Abe2, Bukola Ayodeji Bamkefa3, Adesola Adetutu Ajayi4, Kehinde Olusayo Awojobi5, Mary Ajibola Adejuwon6 and Oluwatosin Ologbosere7


1*, 2, 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University,

Ibadan, Nigeria

7Office of the Librarian, The University Library, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Sango-Ota, Nigeria

5Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

6Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: In this investigation, a defined medium was inoculated with Candida albicans and Fusarium sp. Incubation was at 28oC. The composition of the medium was potassium dihydrogen sulphate, magnesium sulphate, calcium sulphate, hydrated iron sulphate, manganese sulphate, copper sulphate, zinc sulphate, thiamine, biotin, sodium nitrate (nitrogen source) and galactose (carbon source). Proteins which exhibited α-amylase activity were expressed by the isolates within a period of eight days. The enzymes obtained on days of optimum activity were precipitated at 90% saturation and dialysed with buffer.The results showed that, by the seventh day of inoculation of the medium, optimum α-amylase activity was expressed by Candida albicans. Production of α-amylase by Fusarium sp. was optimum by the sixth day. The α-amylases constituted by the two isolates, partially purified, were stimulated by Na+ but inhibited by HgCl2 and EDTA.

[Adejuwon AO, Abe OE, Bamkefa BA, Ajayi AA, Awojobi KO, Adejuwon MA, Ologbosere O. α-Amylases by strains of Candida albicans and Fusarium sp.: Expression and characterization. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):10-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



Key words: α-amylase; Candida albicans; Fusarium sp.

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Impact of Bank Stock Returns on Economic Growth by Considering Indicators of Institutional Characteristics and Financial Development in the United States


Mirhosaine Mousavi 1, Raziyeh Amirtaimouri 2, Reza Avazpour 3


1 Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economy, Alzahra University

 2 MS of Economic Sciences, Faculty of Economy, Alzahra University

Email: ramirtaimori@yahoo.com

3 MS of Management, Faculty of Human Sciences, Shahed University


Abstract: Previous research has established (1) that a country’s financial sector influence future economic growth and (2) that stock market index returns affect future economic growth. We extend and tie together these two strands of the growth literature by analyzing the relationship between banking industry stock returns and future economic growth also we survey Indicators Of Institutional Characteristics, such as bank-accounting-disclosure standards, banking crises, and government ownership of banks. Using ARDL techniques to analyze time series data for the period between 1974 and 2011InUnited states, we find a positive and significant relationship between bank stock returns and future GDP growth By Considering Indicators of Institutional Characteristics and Financial Development in United States.

[Mirhosaine Mousavi, Raziyeh Amirtaimouri and Reza Avazpour. Impact of Bank Stock Returns on Economic Growth by Considering Indicators of Institutional Characteristics and Financial Development in the United States. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):18-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: ARDL, Bank, Economic growth, Stock returns, Financial Development, Indicators of Institutional Characteristics.

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Production of Protease from a Strain of Candida albicans: Flour as Growth Substrate


Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1*, Mutiat Temilade Lamidi2, Olubiyi Akinsoji Akintobi3, Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro4


1,2,3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: Proteases are produced industrially and have a wide application. In the present investigation, Candida albicans inoculated into flour grew at 37OC producing proteolytic activity within ten days. The induced protease was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. The partially purified protease had optimum activity at 300C and at pH 7.0. The alkaline protease was able to degrade casein with optimum activity expressed at 8mg/ml concentration. The enzyme was stimulated by zinc chloride and potassium chloride but inhibited by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid suggesting a metalloprotease.

[Adejuwon AO, Lamidi MT, Akintobi OA, Ighodaro OM. Production of Protease from a Strain of Candida albicans: Flour as Growth Substrate. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):23-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Key words: Candida albicans; protease; flour.

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Protease From a Strain of Candida albicans Grown in a Defined Medium


Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1*, Ayokunnumi Adedayo Haruna2, Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye3, Olubiyi Akinsoji Akintobi4


1,2,4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: A defined medium with galactose as carbon source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source was inoculated with Candida albicans. Incubation was at 37oC. Protease activity was expressed by the isolate within a period of six days. Optimum activity was expressed on the fifth day. The protease was precipitated at 90% saturation and dialysed with buffer. The partially purified enzyme was stimulated by salts of Zn2+ and Na+ but inhibited by HgCl2 and EDTA. [Adejuwon AO, Haruna AA, Arojojoye OA, Akintobi OA. Protease From a Strain of Candida albicans Grown in a Defined Medium. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):27-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Key words: Protease; Candida albicans; growth medium.

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Secularism & Constitution-A Study in India


Dr. Shokendra Kumar Sharma 1 & Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal 2


1. Assistant Professor, Faculty of law, Subharti University, Meerut, India

2. Assistant Professor, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

Corresponding Author’s Email: drasiah@gmail.com


Abstract: When the word ‘Secular’ was borrowed from the west and placed into the preamble of our constitution by the founding members of modern India, the message they wanted to send out to the world and the value system they wanted to instill among Indians in a nutshell was that India will have no state religion, all the people in this ancient country are equal in the eyes of the government and the law thus shall live in peace and harmony. But what our modern leaders did was nothing unique or exemplary by adding secularism to India’s constitution but rather made the concept of secularism redundant and betrayed the basic knowledge and essence that constituted India’s ethos since time immemorial. India always followed the great tradition of ‘Sarva dharmasambhava’ i.e. all religions are harmonious with each other and lead to God and thus one can follow the path he or she chooses. Tolerance and harmony is a weave through Indian philosophy, culture and society since ages.

[Shokendra Kumar Sharma & Ashish Kumar Singhal. Secularism & Constitution-A Study in India. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):32-36]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Keywords: Communalism, Politics, Civil Society, Secularism, Religion, Ancient India

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Importance of Adult Learning Principles


Esmaeel Ghorbani1, Maryam Khodamoradi2, Mehran Bozorgmanesh3 and Abbas Emami4


1,2,3,4 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com


Abstract: Adults learn most effectively when they have an inner motivation to develop a new skill or gain new knowledge. They resist learning material if it is forced on them, or if the only reason given is that the material will, in some vague way, be "good for them to know." Adults need to know why they are being asked to learn something; and they definitely will want to know what the benefits will be before they begin learning. This means the best motivators for adult learners are explicit interest and self benefit. If they can be shown that the program will benefit them pragmatically and practically, they will learn better, and the benefits will be much longer lasting. Typical motivations include a desire for better handling of personal money matters, say in retirement, wanting a new or first job, promotion, job enrichment, a need to reinforce old skills in say, handling credit or learn new ones, a need to adapt to community changes such as on-line banking and so on. Remember the tone of the program should be motivating.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Importance of Adult Learning Principles. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):37-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Keywords: adult education, Adult Learning

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Importance of contingency management in organization


Vahid Khalatbari Limaki 1, 2 *


1- MSc student, Department of Public Administration, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran

2- Expert in Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran

*Corresponding author: Vahid Khalatbari Limaki, E-mail: khalatbarivahid@yahoo.com


Abstract: Management, like other sciences has vicissitudinous history, the history which its formal and scientific beginning started at the beginning of 20 century by systemic and empiricist efforts by Taylor. Different schools and theories were formed after scientific beginning of studies in management, which finally resulted in contingency school (approach/attitude/theory) in 70s. However, we can find the origin of the contingency approach in predecessor’s ideas such as Henry Faiol and Mary Parkerfalt but this approach was known by Fidler who considered contingency aspect of leadership, more. After appearing contingency school in management, nothing exists as "one Best Way longer. This means that success of one approach in one place does not guarantee its success in other place but various factors including cultural and civilization context, national identity, history of one nation, and all involved in success or lack of success of one approach.

[Vahid Khalatbari Limaki. Importance of contingency management in the organization. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):41-43] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Keywords: contingency management, organization

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Converting UML Description of Software Architecture to Stochastic Process Algebra and Performance Evaluation


Rahmat Zolfaghari


Islamic Azad University, Hashtgerd Branch, Department of Computer Engineering, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Important qualitative parameters of the large software systems are determined by indicators of effectiveness of the software's, such as response time, operating power and error rate. Procedure modeling is an approach for evaluating the effectiveness and validation of the systems and, as well as it predicts the requirements of qualitative and quantitative performance and provides a comparison between all kinds of designs with respect to performance indicators. Present study suggested a method for converting the UML description designing software to Stochastic Process Algebra (SPA) model, which provides the application of using the UML in designing software with high performance; in other words it putting the performance in designing software and a high quality software is designed. In order to modeling the parts of system we use state chart and for the interactions between the parts we use the Collaboration chart with the performance profile (using the performance profile is the distinction between the suggested approach and the former ones.). An algorithm is provided for automatic production of the SPA performance model from the XML (Extensible Markup Language) documents and state and collaboration charts with performance profiles(stereotype, label and limitation), using the ExportXMI software, ArgoUML is provided, and then they gained SPA performance/operation model in the PEPAworkbench tool is loaded for performance analysis, so as the designer can test the fulfill of performance goals of his design according to type of different performance parameters and changing in value and chooses the best option in designing.

[Rahmat Zolfaghari. Converting UML Description of Software Architecture to Stochastic Process Algebra and Performance Evaluation. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):44-50] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Keywords: Performance evaluation, UML (Unified Modeling Language), SPA (Stochastic Process Algebra) and performance profile.

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Evaluation of the employee characteristics on Organizational Effectiveness


Chenari Vahid


Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran


Abstract: Today, more than ever, specified the development organizations and the communities that depend on the proper use of human resources and Key role for recruiting qualified human resources has caused intense competition between organizations is essential, especially in educational organizations. Attention to the individual characteristics of employees and their creativity in an organization to successfully reach their goals with high efficiency. Managers should always consider evolving characteristics of this valuable resource and with Recognition of their talents and abilities and participation in production provided. Since human characteristics are related with organizational effectiveness, In this research to achieve the desired results is to consider practical and scientific purposes. In this study, the independent variables include experience, education, age, gender and aspects of personality (introversion, extraversion, impulse control, psychosis, neurosis and emotional stability), and effectiveness is considered the dependent variable. Ten hypotheses for the research questions that were developed, To analyze the hypothesis, 67-item questionnaire was distributed among employees Sama College. After analyzing the questions and test hypotheses using Pearson correlation analysis, regression analysis and T-test analyzes indicated a significant relationship between work experience, education, age, gender, introversion, extroversion, emotional stability, Neuroticism and impulse control with there are organizational effectiveness. But there was no significant relationship between neuroticism and organizational effectiveness.

[Chenari Vahid. Evaluation of the employee characteristics on Organizational Effectiveness. Rep Opinion 2013;5(6):51-53] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11



Key words: educational organization, effectiveness, human resources, Individual characteristics.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 28, 2013. 
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