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Science Journal


Report and Opinion


Volume 5 - Issue 7, Cumulated 49, July 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873, Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Titles / Authors

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The Study of the amount of organizational justice in education organization from the point of view of the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization


Mohammad sotoude


Email: mohammadsotoodeh@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study aimed to consider the organizational justice in three perspectives of distributive, procedural and interactional justice from the point of view of the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization in 2012. The research population consisted of all the teachers and staffs of the areas of education organization in Isfahan. The research participants were selected based on the cluster random sampling; from among the areas of Isfahan Education Organization, areas 1, 5, and Jay area were selected. Finally 85 staffs and 474 teachers were selected based on the cluster random sampling. The research method was descriptive and quantitative, and the data collection instrument was Noorman and Niehoff organizational justice questionnaire. The reliability of the   questionnaire was 0.95 based on the Cronbach's alpha. The data analysis was descriptive and inferential. In descriptive statistics, frequency tables and percentage graphs were used, and in inferential statistics, Z-test, dependent t-test, variance analysis and Hetling t-test were used. The results of the research show that the amount of procedural justice among the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization is less than the average level. In addition, the amount of distributive justice was more than the average level. The amount of interactional justice among the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization was also more than the average level.

[Mohammad sotoude. The Study of the amount of organizational justice in education organization from the point of view of the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Key words: organizational justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice.

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[Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):9-18] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj050713.02


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Utilisation Of Information And Communication Technologies (Icts) Tools In Government Administration: A Study Of Kaduna State Governmnet, Nigeria


Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim


Computer Department, University of Abuja, Nigeria

Email: hbisallah@gmail.com


Abstract: In line with the current trends in the use of Information and Communication Technologies tools for various administrative purposes both in government establishments and private sectors in different countries of the world; this study investigates correlation that exists between deployment and utilization of ICTs facilities in government’s ministries, by extension departments, units and sections for administration efficiency in Kaduna state and sampled employees’ ICTs skills influence on the government productivity.  Results showed that there is strong relationship between the deployment of various ICTs facilities in the state government ministries of education, economic planning, finance, information and orientation, and science and technology and employees’ usage for varied administrative duties assigned to them. This was established through Pearson Moment of Correlation Coefficient and test of statistical significance. The study also found that Information and Communication Technologies skills of the employees influence the use of ICTs for government productivity at the Chi-Square value of 300.000 at 6 degrees of freedom which was significant at 0.000.  Based on the findings, the researcher recommends among others that other state and local governments in Nigeria should emulate Kaduna state government by deploying necessary ICTs tools to various ministries, departments and agencies so as to ensure adequate performance and enhanced productivity on the part of employees in all ramifications. There is also a need for any government that wants to be relevant in terms of G2C ICTs application to equip her staff with necessary movable ICTs facilities not only office-stationed tools.

Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim: Utilisation Of Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs) Tools In Government Administration: A Study Of Kaduna State Governmnet, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):19-28] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



Key Words: Deployment, Utilisation, ICTs tools, Kaduna State, government administration, efficiency

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Ultimacy of Divine acts in view of Avicenna (Ebne-Sina)


Seyed Abalfazl Hosseini


Payam Noor University



Abstract: Ebne-Sina, among other Islamic philosophers, is the person who works more about problem of ultimacy and aim of Divine acts. He, according to satiety of existence and self existent, has been denied of extra aim over essence from his holy essence, there, aim is the same of essence.He loves himself per se, and consequently is lover of his creatures and effects. Extra aim ove essence is for things that are incomplete, things which are complete in possible perfections, are superemperical of having extra aim over the essence.       

[Seyed Abalfazl Hosseini. Ultimacy of Divine acts in view of Avicenna (Ebne-Sina). Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):29-32] (ISSN: 1553-9865). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Key words: Ultimacy, Grant, satiety, pure walefare, God

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Alkylation Reactions Via Organo Heteroatomes Halides


Dr. Nagham. Mahmood. Aljamali*


Assist.Prof, Chem. Dep., College of Education., Univ. Kufa. Iraq.

*E-mail: Dr.Nagham_mj@yahoo.com (to corresponding)


Abstract: Series of heterocyclic compounds wer synthesized in this work through reaction of organo heteroatomes compounds or organo-(S,Se) halides with amino compounds to produce cyclic compounds which have two heteroatoms in content by using alkylation reactions. All prepared compounds [1-7] have been characterized by using several chemical techniques such as,(H.NMR–spectra,(C.H.N)–analysis), FT.IR–spectra and melting points.

[Nagham. Mahmood. Aljamali. Alkylation Reactions Via Organo Heteroatomes Halides. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):33-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Key words: organo- (S,Se) compounds, alkylation reactions

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The effect of media on Soft Power


Abbas Parsian


Abstract: In the discourse analysis between the West and Iran, Iran's soft power is important as an important indicator. Hence, the purpose of this study is that Review internal and external elements and components of it through Understanding Political power in Iran and using the effective component in the formation and the incidence of soft power.  Distinguished aspect of this paper is Realism, at impartially and at the same time critically on the issue of Iran's soft power; especially, it is the role of media in the process of ups and downs. It seems that, Supporters and opponents Have attempted to magnification and highlighting the unusual for political and propaganda purposes. The author has tried to provide a logical response to the following hypotheses: The reasons for the formation of Issue of soft power in the political and security realms west, The Role of Iran in this discourse, Evaluation of the Iran’s ability to challenge the West in the field of soft power, The reasons for the ups and downs of Iran‘s soft power and Finally Speculations about the future of Iran and the West in the area of ​​soft power.

[Abbas Parsian. The effect of media on Soft Power. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):40-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Key words: soft power, soft war, Iran’s soft power, Iran’s media, public diplomacy, social network, Iran’s people

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Production and Characterisation of Amylase by Fungi Isolated from Soil Samples at Gwagwalada, FCT, Abuja - Nigeria


Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Ijigbade, Bamidele.


Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja-Nigeria.

Email: sylvaugoh@hotmail.com


Abstract: Fifty soil samples were collected from refuse dumps, animal sheds, farmlands, drainage sites and barbers’ shops at Gwagwalada Abuja and screened for the presence of amylase- producing fungi spread plate method of inoculation. 1 g of soil sample was dissolved in 10 ml sterilized distilled water. The soil suspension was diluted up to 103. About 0.2 ml of the samples were inoculated on already prepared Sabraud’s dextrose agar plates. The inoculated plates were incubated at ambient temperature (25 20C) for 5 days and were subsequently sub cultured to obtain pure isolates. A total of 51 fungal isolates belonging to two genera and four species of amylase- producing fungi were observed. Sixteen (31.37 %) of the isolates were from refuse dumps, 11 (21.57%) from animal sheds and barbers’ shop soils each, while farmland and drainage sites have 10 (19.61 %) and 3 (5.88 %) isolates respectively. Aspergillus niger (van Teigh) 17 (33.33 %) was the most abundant species, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (Thom) 13 (25.49 %), Aspergillus flavus (Link ex Fr.) 12 (23.53 %) and Penicillium marneffei 9 (17.65 %) being the least abundant. The highest amylase activities were recorded in Penicillium chrysogenum (16.930.22 Amylase unit (Au)/ml ), Penicillium marneffei (16.020.43 Au/ml), Aspergillus niger (14.730.75 Au/ml) and Aspergillus flavus (12.511.66 Au/ml).The rate of abundance and the quantity of enzymes produced are significantly different (P = 0.05) for the organisms. These amylolytic fungi have the potential to be a useful tool in biotechnological processes involving starch hydrolysis. The results of this work show that amylolytic activity is relatively widespread among common fungi and may have an important role in starch degradation in natural environment.

[Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Ijigbade, Bamidele. Production and Characterisation of Amylase by Fungi Isolated from Soil Samples at Gwagwalada, FCT, Abuja – Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):44-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Keywords: Amylase, Fungi, Soil, Enzymes

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‘The Individual Vs The Wife’ – The Inner Conflict in the Selected Characters of Anita Desai & Margaret Laurence


S. Patchainayagi 1, Dr. S. Parvin Banu 2


1. Associate Professor, Department of English, Cheran College of Engineering, Karur. Tamilnadu 639111, India

2. Associate Professor & Head, Department of English, Nandha Engineering College, Erode

patchainayagi@gmail.com, parvinravi71@gmail.com


Abstract: The most common theme in both Anita Desai and Margaret Laurence, the eminent writers is human relationship. Almost all the novels of both writers are spun around women who are highly individualistic or in vehement search of their Individualism which in turn affects their marital life, i.e., being a wife. Be it India or Canada or any part of the world the wives are generally expected to be in accord with the husband and the husband’s family. Almost all the wife characters in Anita Desai and Margaret Laurence are in a great conflict between the mundane ‘wife-ism’ and their own ‘individualism’, and this paper aims at bringing out the nuances of this conflict. Both the writers never fit themselves into the traditional models; they take routine life incidents to prove something universal. For instance Nanda Kaul of Anita Desai’s “Fire on the Mountain” is a great grandmother, leads a reclusive life and thinks she quenches her thirst of living an independent life in carignano, where as the nonagenarian Hagar Shipley of Margaret Laurence’s “The Stone Angel “leads a stubborn life throughout and even resists water at her deathbed and dies. Both Nanda and Hagar hated the Wives inside them but they never tried to escape the wifely duties and at the same time they nurtured their individualism. Not alone Nanda and Hagar the older generation women but even Maya of Anita Desai and Stacey MacAindra of Margaret Laurence the middle aged women face the same hardships of being a wife and try to pave their own way to find their individuality. Both the writers in their novels with the touch of feminist concern try to show ‘the wife’ as a restriction to the woman ‘individuality’.

[S. Patchainayagi, S. Parvin Banu. ‘The Individual Vs The Wife’ – The Inner Conflict in the Selected Characters of Anita Desai & Margaret Laurence. Rep Opinion 2013;5(7):54-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Keywords: Marriage, Conflict, Anita Desai, Margaret Laurence, Individualism, wife, Nonagenarian, Failed Marriage.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 2, 2013. 

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