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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 5 - Issue 8, Cumulated 50, August 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

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Titles / Authors

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Effect Of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell-Arg (Jacob’s Coat,Copper Leaf) Leaves On Leucocyte Count (Wbc) In Mice After Subacute Administration


Hannah Alim Madziga 1, Umar Kyari Sandabe1, Sani Saka 2 and Ayi Vandi Kwaghe3


1. Department of Veterinary Physiology,Pharmacology and Biochemistry University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Borno State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3. Department of Livestock and Pest Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Area 11, Garki, Abuja.

Email: hannamadziga@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: The dried and pulverized leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana was reflux with distilled water. Studies were then undertaken on the effect of the aqueous extract on leucocytic count (WBC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC) on Mice graded doses (800mg/kg,1000mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally to different groups of mice daily for 21 days and had a beneficial effects on the WBC and DLC. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in leucocyte count when compared to control in all the days (7, 14 and 21). Differential leucocyte count also indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase while Lymphocyte indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease.The prolong oral administration of the extract under the condition of this study shows that the extract may be toxic at higher doses. Nevertheless,the extract appeared to be more beneficial at lower doses and significantly (p<0.05) improves WBC and DLC values and this effect has potential application in stimulation of the immune pathway. This may seem to explain for its use as an antifungal and antibacterial agent in African traditional medicine.

[Madziga HA, Sandabe UK, Saka S, Kwaghe AV. Effect Of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell-Arg (Jacob’s Coat, Copper Leaf) Leaves On Leucocyte Count (Wbc) In Mice After Subacute Administration. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Keywords: Acalypha wilkesiana, Aqueous leaf Extract, Leucocyte, Differential Leucocyte Count.

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The analysis relation between components of swot matrix and competitive advantage dimensions in banking sector of Iran.


Mohsen Khajuee


M.A. in Business Management, University of Payam-e Noor, Tehran, Iran

Phone: +989122608178; FAX: +982188362794; mohsenkhajuee@yahoo.com

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mohsenkhajuee@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: One of the ways for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage may be analysis of internal and external environment. In this research, relationship between components of swot matrix and achieving a competitive advantage, experimentally reviewed from the point of view of Iranian banking experts. The study provides empirical evidence based on data, collected from 254 questionnaires. We used Friedman, T student and paired sign test and Pierson coefficient. The results indicate that there is a strong relation between components of analysis of swot matrix and dimensions of competitive advantage. And analysis of competitive advantage dimensions shows that responsibility to customers and innovation have most important to others dimensions (second priority: quality, cost and image). Many of suggestions such as continuous attendance of experts for organization planning and accurate analysis of internal and external competitive environment whether for purposes of legal, political or cultural issues, may give correct understanding to banking planners and experts, until these individuals to be able to design and scheme better future goals of organization by collaborating with managers. Presence of experts with update information and correct understanding of banks internal and external environment results in that bank to follow achieving competitive advantage and introduces always itself as pioneer in the market.

[Mohsen Khajuee. The analysis relation between components of swot matrix and competitive advantage dimensions in banking sector of Iran, Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):6-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Key words: Analysis of swot matrix, competitive advantage, environmental analysis, banking industry

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Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of the Fruit and Leaf Extracts of Tamarindus Indica (Linn.)


Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi1 and Haruna, Isa Mohammed1


1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja, Nigeria.

Email: sylvaugoh@hotmail.com


Abstract: The phytochemical screening and the antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn was carried out. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, reducing sugars, saponins and tannins.The extracts of the fruits and the leaves of Tamarindus indica were tested on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organisms. Agar well diffusion method and macro broth dilution method were employed in determining the zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts respectively. Different concentrations of 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/ml of the extracts were used for the antibacterial activity against the test organisms. The result revealed that the fruit extracts exhibited a higher antibacterial activity than the leaf extracts. The methanol fruit extract gave the highest zone diameter of inhibition of 411.0 mm for E.coli and 370.4 mm for S. typhi at 500 mg/ml while the methanol leaf extract gave 0.0 mm for E.coli and 250.4 mm for S. typhi at 500 mg/ml. The aqueous and methanol fruit extracts were effective against E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa. The ethanol extract was also effective against E.coli, S. typhi, P.aeruginosa and S.aureus. The leaf ethanol and methanol extracts were effective against S.typhi and P. aeruginosa. Generally, the fruit extracts exhibited a higher antibacterial activity than the leaf extracts but both are effective against the test organisms The result also shows that the extracts can inhibit and as well kill the test organisms indicated by their respective MIC and MBC values. These findings were compared with those produced by ampiclox, a reference antibiotic. The results were analyzed statistically using Chi-square at p = 0.05 level of significance T. indica can be harnessed to produce broad-spectrum antibiotics and can be a potential source of new classes of antibiotics that could be useful for infectious diseases caused by the test organisms.

 [Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Haruna, Isa Mohammed. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of The Fruit and Leaf Extracts of Tamarindus Indica (Linn.) Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):18-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



Keywords: Tamarindus indica, Phytochemical screening, antibacterial activity, zone diameter of inhibition

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Comparison of simulated and actual performance of an optical detector in low temperature


B., Boroomand-Nasab, A., Kovsariyan, and M., Soroosh


Electrical Department of Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran, B-Boroomand@mststu.scu.ir


Abstract: Optoelectronic devices in the range between LWIR and MWIR has applications such as optical gas sensing, free-space optical communications, infrared measurement, thermal imaging and biomedical etc. [1] Expression of applications, the need for research in the simulation of semiconductor detector features felt. HgCdTe semiconductor detector with a narrow band gap, which can range in wavelength of the aforementioned acts. its possible to show an elements behavior and Performance by simulated without making it. So far, extensive research to reduce dark current and rise in device operation temperature is performed. Use at low temperatures will result in increased costs. The aim of this study was to compare the actual and simulated a light detector Hg1-xCdxTe by considering tunneling effect, the recombination Auger and SRH. To achieve this goal, assist those equations to simulate drift - diffusion is done in MATLAB software.

[SB., Boroomandnasab, A., Kovsariyan, and M., Soroosh. Comparison of simulated and actual performance of an optical detector in low temperature. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):28-31]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: Optical detector, simulation, drift - diffusion, tunneling, recombination Auger, recombination SRH

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Language Comparison between China and Iran


Shabnam Dadparvar 1, Zou Yixuan 2, Liu Chencan3


1. PHD student of International Relations, CCNU

2MA in Ethics, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics

3PHD student of Constitutionalism and the rule of law


Abstract: Cultural values hold great control on people’s social behaviors. It is important to understand primary values in every culture and to behave in accordance with those values. According to the different documents, the people of Iran and China has had long relation from ancient times, so being acquaintance with the different cultures of the two countries can help the people know more about the differences and similarities of the two cultures, and as a result help the people of these two countries to have closer communication to each other as two important countries in Asia. Language as the major part of the culture has an important role in bringing people together.

[Shabnam Dadparvar, Zou Yixuan, Liu Chencan. Language Comparison between China and Iran Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):32-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Key words: China, Iran, culture, language

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Correlates of Psychological Well-being amongst Graduate Students in Malaysia


Soheila Panahi1*, Aida Suraya Bt. Md Yunus2, Samsilah Bt. Roslan1


1. Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2. Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

sflowers226@gmail.com, soheilapanahi58@gmail.com


Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in psychological well-being among graduate students in terms of demographic profile namely faculty, age, race, number of semesters of study, gender, marital and employment status and family size. Psychological well-being is measured using the Scales of Psychological Well-being with six dimensions including: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships with others, purpose and self-acceptance. A total of 534 graduate students (155 males and 379 females) were randomly selected in one Malaysian university. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and independent t-test. The finding of this study revealed significant differences in overall psychological well-being in terms of different faculties, ages, semesters of study, genders, marital status. As for differences in overall psychological well-being, it was established that there is significant differences in personal growth and positive relationship between students of different semesters of study. In addition, the result indicated that there is significant positive relationship among different semesters of study, ages, genders, and marital status. Significant difference in purpose in life was found for students of different gender and marital status. Moreover, this study showed that marital and employment status have a significant difference in autonomy while, the marital status showed positive and significant difference for overall psychological well-being, positive relationship, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. However, there are no significant differences in psychological well-being of graduate students across different races and family sizes.

[Soheila Panahi, Aida Suraya Bt. Md Yunus, Samsilah Bt. Roslan. Correlates of Psychological Well-being amongst Graduate Students in Malaysia. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):39-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Key Words: Psychological well-being, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationship, purpose in life, self-acceptance

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Factors Influencing Profitability Among Gum Arabic Marketers In Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria


Umar, H.Y1; Otitolaiye, J.O2 and Ibitoye, S.J2


1. Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Edo State

2. Department of Agricultural Economic and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Nigeria.

E- mail: haliru.umar@gmail.com


Abstract: The study analysed the factors influencing revenue generation from gum arabic among its marketers in Jalingo Local Government of Taraba state, Nigeria. Sixty respondents were randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire, out of which 50 was used for this study. Gum arabic is one of the cash crops with high market value in world. This is due to its high demands worldwide. There are about 11 states in the country where gum arabic is abundantly gown wild with some on established farms. The produce is used in the manufacture of many industrial goods like ink, pharmaceuticals, paint, textiles, papers etc. Both descriptive and regression models were used for the analyses. The results revealed that R2 = 0.692, implying that 69.2% of the independent variables used in the study jointly explained the variation in the output. Age, education, operating cost and fixed cost had negative coefficients while family size, purchasing cost, volume of gum arabic sold; labour cost and gum Arabic marketing experience had positive coefficients. These imply that an increase on those variables with negative coefficients will decrease revenue generation in the sales of gum arabic in the area; and an increase in those variables with positive coefficients will lead to increase in the revenue generation in gum arabic marketing in the study area. The gum Arabic marketers were advised to reduce allocation of resources with negative coefficients and increase allocation of the variables with positive coefficients in order to be more efficient in the gum arabic business in the area.

[Umar, H.Y; Otitolaiye, J.O and Ibitoye, S.J. Factors Influencing Profitability Among Gum Arabic Marketers In Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):50-56]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Keywords: gum arabic, marketing, profitability, revenue generation, Jalingo

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Monensin Toxicosis in Camels reared in Egypt: updating clinical and clinicopathological investigations.


 Sabry Ahmed Mousa and Hassan Taha El-Hamamsy


Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author: Sabry Ahmed Mousa, Email: sdiamond_201011@yahoo.com. Cell: +22-0117596959


Abstract: An acute and sub acute onset of illness were reported in a camel ranch in Egypt after accidental feeding a clamed newly imported broiler finsher concentrate containing ionophore monensin sodium with concenteration (100mg/kg feed), So this work was carried out to study the alterations in clinical and clinic-pathological pictures in victim camels. Victim camels showed signs of acute heart failure with significant increase in respiratory rate and its depth, marked elevation of heart rate with tachyarrhythmia, pulse rate was rapid and weak, muscular tremors,respiratory distress, staggering and falling with lateral recumbancy in acute cases while subacute cases showed signs of congested heart failure, restlessness, depression, S.C edema in the area extended from the prepuce toward umbilicus and varying degree of myoglobulinuria and dark colored foul smelling diarrhea were noticed in both groups. Clinico-pathological picture showed significant elevations (p≤0.001) in PCV, muscles enzymes (AST, CPK, LDH), hypocalcaemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Urinalysis revealed sever myoglobinuria with chocolate brown discoloration of urine in acute toxicosis and red brown discoloration in sub acute cases.

[Sabry Ahmed Mousa and Hassan Taha El-Hamamsy. Monensin Toxicosis in Camels reared in Egypt: updating clinical and clinicopathological investigations. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):57-61]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Keywords: Monensin, toxicity, camels, clinical, clinic-pathological, Egypt

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Assessing Different methods used in distance education


Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi 2


1. Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com


Abstract: In the earlier days of distance learning, it was most common to see distance learning used for rural students who were at a distance from an educational institution. The student might watch a telecourse on a television stations, read texts, mail in assignments and then travel to the local college to take an exam. This model is still in use, but as the technology has become more sophisticated and the cost of distance learning dropped as equipment prices dropped, the use of distance education has increased. High front-end costs prevented an early widespread adoption of electronically mediated learning. Distance learning has been aggressively adopted in many areas because it can meet specific educational needs. As the concept of accountability became accepted and laws required certain courses in high school in order for students to be admitted to state colleges, telecommunications was examined as a way to provide student access to the required courses. Many rural school districts could not afford the special teachers to conduct required courses. Distance education met this need by providing courses in schools where teachers were not available or were too costly to provide for a few students. It also fulfilled a need for teacher training and staff development in locations where experts and resources were difficult to obtain. These systems link learner communities with each other and bring a wide array of experts and information to the classroom.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing Different methods used in distance education.

Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):62-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Keywords: distance education, educational methods

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A Data Envelope Analysis to Assess Broiler Responses to Reduced Protein and Energy Diets Supplemented with Essential Amino Acids


Imad E. Abdel Karim Yousif 1, Alaeldein Abudabos 2


1. Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agricultural sciences, King Saud University

2. Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University.



Abstract: The objective of this paper was to assess broiler responses to reduced protein and energy diets supplemented with Lysine, Methionine and Threonine. A data envelope analysis was used to estimate technical and economic efficiency of diets. The results showed that treatment two (T2) with control energy level, lower crude protein and high Lysine, Methionine and Threonine contents are technically and economically efficient compare to standard feed components in treatment one (T1), and to other treatments (T3 and T4) with variable crude protein and Lysine, Methionine and Threonine and energy contents. Also the results proved that age of 33 days is optimum period for broiler to gain optimum body weight that provide desirable technical and economic efficiency.

[Imad E. Abdel Karim Yousif, Alaeldein Abudabos. A Data Envelope Analysis to Assess Broiler Responses to Reduced Protein and Energy Diets Supplemented with Essential Amino Acids. Rep Opinion 2013;5(8):68-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Keywords: Data envelope analysis, reduced protein and energy diet, technical and economic efficiency.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 7, 2013. 
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