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Science Journal


Report and Opinion


Volume 5 - Issue 9, Cumulated 51, September 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Nutrient Dynamics under Different Plantations in Subtropical Forest Ecosystem


Priya Chaudhary and Namita Joshi


Department of Environmental Science, Kanya Gurukul Campus, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India.



Abstract: A study was conducted to estimate the nutrient status of soil under Sal (Shorea robusta) and Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Motichur and Chilla forest ranges of Rajaji National Park in Uttarakhand, India. Overall the mean values of Moisture Content, Water Holding Capacity, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter and Soil Fertility Index were recorded relatively higher in Motichur forest range under both the plantations as compare to the Chilla forest range. The student’s t-test was also analysed and results showed that all the soil properties in the Motichur and Chilla forest ranges were significantly different between Sal and Teak plantations.

[Priya Chaudhary and Namita Joshi. Nutrient Dynamics under Different Plantations in Subtropical Forest Ecosystem, Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Keywords: Nutrient Status, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis, Soil fertility index.

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The importance of tourism Rights in perspective of Islam and Iran


Yousef Niyazi





Abstract: Economists are called the tourism industry as productive investment and the entrepreneur and pay particular attention to this industry, therefore believe that the proper development of tourism is economically increasing exchange of technology. Therefore, proper development of tourism that economically increases in foreign currency. Economics experts believe that, if a country can make use of the potential of special tourist destinations in the countries, the tourist industry is moving. Host region refers to the country or region to which people travel; that is, the receiving country or region for incoming tourists. The importance of tourism in economic development has caused this article examines the legal status of tourism from the perspective of Islam and Iran.

[Yousef Niyazi. The importance of tourism Rights in perspective of Islam and Iran. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):5-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Keywords: Rights - Tourism - Islam - Iran

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Review of diversity, density and abundance of Karun River’s phytoplankton (summer and winter 2012)


Shiva soltani1*, Ebrahim rajabzadeh ghatrami2, Maryam mohammadi Rouzbahani3


1. M.s of biodiversity, Department of Environmental Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Khouzestan, Iran

2. Ph.D marine biotechnology faculty of aquatic marine natural resources, marine science and technology university, Khoramshahr university.

3. Environmental Science Department, Graduate school of the Environmental, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, khouzestan, Iran


Abstract: The study area was selected as the Karun River in Khuzestan from the branches of the beginning of Dez and Karkheh to Persian Gulf. This study was performed in the Karun River in summer and winter on 2012. Samples were taken at 11 designated stations with three replications. Phytoplankton is more sensitive to the environment where they live. Their Densities were 19,160 individuals per square meter in the summer and in winter 12,189 individuals per square meter that were significantly different. Among the categories identified, on average the highest frequency has belonged to Bacillariophyceae by 64.5% and the average density of 20,175 individuals per square meter, Cyanophyceae with 18% and the average density of 6,042 individuals per square meter, Chlorophyceae with 6%, and the average density of 2,036 individuals per square meter, Dinophyceae with 5.5%, and the average density of 1,684 individuals per square meter, Chrysophyaceae with 4% and the average density of 756 individuals per square meter and Euglnophyaceae with 2% and the average density of 656 individuals per square meter. The most abundance of phytoplankton the two seasons of sampling was observed at The Dez station (Station 6) and the lowest abundance at Saponification Khorramshahr station (Station 10). The results of biological indicators have indicated that the highest Shannon index has been related summer season with 2.058 ± 0.09 at the Zargan station and the lowest frequency has been recorded in the Shatit station (0.546± 0.36) in the summer. Also the highest Simpson's dominance index has been recorded in the Shatit station (0.826± 0.36) and the lowest at Zargan station (0.288± 0.36) in the summer. The other hand, the highest of Camargo's index has seen at the Gatvand station (0.624 ± 0.07) in the summer and the lowest frequency (0.213± 0.09) has been in the summer at the Shatit station. The highest of Berilion index has been recorded (4.11± 0.1) at the Gatvand station and the lowest (1.21±0.01) at the Shatit station in the summer. There are significant differences in terms of biological indicators among stations and seasons.

[Shiva soltani, Ebrahim rajabzadeh ghatrami, Maryam mohammadi Rouzbahani. Review of diversity, density and abundance of Karun River’s phytoplankton (summer and winter 2012). Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):9-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



Key words: Karun River's, phytoplankton, diversity density, indicators of Diversity

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Evaluation of the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activities of methanolic and aqueous leaf extract of psidium guajava (l.)


Ugoh, S. C. And Nneji, L. M.


Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja, Nigeria

Sylvaugoh@hotmail.com, lotannanneji@gmail.com


Abstract: Phytochemical composition and antibacterial properties of methanolic and aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (L) was carried out. Fresh leaves of the plant were collected, washed, dried at room temperature and were grounded to fine powder. It was then extracted with 95% methanol and distilled water and further screened for the presence of chemically active compounds by standard methods. The antibacterial activity was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis showed that the methanolic leaf extracts of P. guajava contain reducing sugar, saponins tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and phlobatanins while the aqueous leaf extract contain saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids. The zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentrations of the extract. However, the highest concentration (500mg/ml) of the methanolic extract revealed a higher significant activity (P > 0.05) compared to Gentamicin (control). The extracts were more active against gram positive microorganisms than gram negative microorganisms. Furthermore, this study has revealed that the leaf extract can be harnessed for the production of antibiotics which can enhance our health care delivery system.

[Ugoh, S. C. And Nneji, L. M. Evaluation of the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activities of methanolic and aqueous leaf. Rep Opinion 2013;5(09):14-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: Phytochemical, antibacterial, agar well diffusion, Psidium guajava

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Biochemical And Bacteriological Profiles Of Ceresbospinal Fluids Of Children With Presumed Sepsis In A Tertiary Hospital In Abeokuta, Ogun State


1Akinjinmi A. A, 2Olasunkanmi O. I, 2, 3Akingbade O. A,


1. Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: tundeuluv@yahoo.com, 08060706263

2. Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: olasunkanmitayo@gmail.com 08062392362

3. Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234


Abstract: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In this study all cases of suspected meningitis among children less than 5 years of age from February 2013 to May, 2013 were reviewed. A total of 46 Cerebrospinal fluid samples were received. The macroscopic appearance of the CSF was recorded. Biochemical analysis of the protein and glucose were carried out using spectrophotometer while bacteriological analyses were carried out using standard techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. The protein values of forty one (89.13%) of the cerebrospinal samples fluids range from 10 - 40mg/dl while five (10.87%) of the samples were above 40mg/dl. The glucose values of 31(67.4%) of the cerebrospinal fluids samples range from 45 - 80mg/dl, ten (21.7%) of the samples were above 80mg/dl while the remaining 5(10.9%) were below 45mg/dl. Two (2) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected from two of the Csf samples. The two Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates showed susceptibility to gentamycin and ceftriaxone while one was sensitive to Ceftazidime.

[Akinjinmi A. A, Olasunkanmi O. I, Akingbade O. A,M. Biochemical And Bacteriological Profiles Of Ceresbospinal Fluids Of Children With Presumed Sepsis In A Tertiary Hospital In Abeokuta, Ogun State. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Keywords: Biochemical, Bacteriological Profiles, Ceresbospinal Fluids, Children, Presumed Sepsis, A Tertiary Hospital, Abeokuta, Ogun State

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The Effect of Positive, Negative and Zero Inclinations on Lumbosacral Biomechanical Angles


Morteza Saeb 1, Somayeh Nemati 2, Naser Behpour 3, Kamran Ghoreishi 3, Tayebeh Mahvar 1*


1. Department of education, Ayatollah Taleghani hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2. Kermanshah faculty of physical education and sports sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3. Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran



Abstract: Poor movement and lack of physical mobility in children and teenagers are the major causes of physical weakness and major factors in retarding the growth process. Corrective movements are intended to balance the body and decrease the pressure on different organs. The present study compared the effects of different heel inclinations, while doing corrective movements, on the changes of lumbosacral biomechanical angles in students with lumbar hyperlordosis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 15 girls diagnosed with hyperlordosis with the mean age of 10.93. They were divided into 3 groups (n=5) and carried out corrective movements on positive, negative and zero inclinations for 8 weeks. Then, the sacral inclination angle (SIA), sacral lordosis angle L1-L3 (SLA L1-S3), sacral lordosis angle L3-S1 (SLA L3-S1), and the effects of inclinations on these angles were determined. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The findings indicated no significant difference in terms of angle changes in different groups (P≥0.05). However, there was very little difference between the three groups in terms of angle L3-S1. Despite the insignificant differences, there were more changes in the group standing on negative inclination compared to the other groups. Based on the findings, it can be argued that since the corrective movements were the same for all groups and the only difference was observed between groups regarding the inclination used under the individuals’ feet, the differences between groups can be attributed to the differences in the heel inclinations.

[Morteza Saeb, Somayeh Nemati, Naser Behpour, Kamran Ghoreishi, Tayebeh Mahvar. The Effect of Positive, Negative and Zero Inclinations on Lumbosacral Biomechanical Angles. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):26-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Keywords: Lumbosacral; heel inclination; corrective movements; increased lordosis.

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Studies on Morphological, Chemical and Molecular Aspects of Ocimum species From Central Himalaya, India


Vineeta Pandey1, Tapan K. Nailwal2, Rachana bajpai2, Geeta Tewari3, Kamal Kishor1 and Lalit M. Tewari1*


1. Department of Botany D.S.B, Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263 001. India

2. Department of Biotechnology, Bhimtal Campus, Bhimtal- 263 136. India

3. Department of Chemistry, D.S.B, Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263 001. India

l_tewari@rediffmail.com, kishor.kamal12@yahoo.com


Abstract: In the present study, three species of Ocimum i.e. Ocimum sanctum Linn (Holy Basil), Ocimum gratissimum Linn and Ocimum kilimandscharium Baker ex Gürke collected from different locations were taken for their taxonomic, chemical and genetic characterization. The volatile constituents identified in the essential oil obtained from Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum gratissimum were eugenol and (Z)-b-ocimene varied in their percentage while the essential oil obtained from Ocimum kilimandscharicum has different oil composition and dominated by camphor (80.0%). DNA bands pattern of the three species suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability. Chemical and genetic profiling indicated that Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum gratissimum are similar in characteristics.

[Vineeta Pandey, Tapan K. Nailwal, Rachana bajpai, Geeta Tewari, Kamal Kishor and Lalit M. Tewari. Studies on Morphological, Chemical and Molecular Aspects of Ocimum species From Central Himalaya, India. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):31-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Key words: Ocimum species, taxonomic, Chemical profiling, genetic profiling, GC analysis.

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Microbial resistance to zinc metal and their biosorption mechanism


*Joonu. J and Dr. Horne Iona Averal


*Dept. of zoology, Bishop Heber College, Trichy-17

Dept. of zoology, Holy Cross College, Trichy-17


Abstract : In the present study with the intention of screening for heavy metal tolerance, bacteria were isolated and characterized for their resistance to metals. These samples were collected from an effluent and analyzed to assess their heavy metal contamination. The samples were isolated and characterized by the Gram staining, motility tests and biochemical tests. Metal tolerance in all bacteria showed higher sensitivity to Zinc metal which was observed for 48hrs, 72hrs, 96hrs, 120hrs and 148hrs. Results indicate the applicability of the isolated bacteria for the removal of Nickel, Zinc and Copper from the industrial effluent. The bacteria which survived for higher concentrations of heavy metal are Enterococcus species.

[Joonu. J and Horne Iona Averal. Microbial resistance to zinc metal and their biosorption mechanism. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):36-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Keyword: Microbial resistance to zinc metal and their biosorption mechanism.

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The Amnesty Programme: Integrating Youths as Drivers of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda for Peace Building in the Niger Delta


Kalio, G. A1,*, Godfrey-Kalio, I. A2, Okafor, B.B1


1Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 2Department of Curriculum and Teaching, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria



Abstract: The Niger Delta – the geographical heart of oil production in Nigeria has been a breeding ground for militants and impoverished ethnic groups for some years now. This is because the discovery of oil and its exploitation has ushered in conflicts. Devastated by the ecological costs of oil spillage and the highest gas flaring rates in the world, the Niger Delta has become a centre of violence. In an attempt to solve the Niger Delta crisis, the Federal Government introduced the policy of amnesty to militants as the solution to the Niger Delta Crisis. The amnesty programme because of its robust nature and mode of implementation are faced with challenges. There are fears of a resurgence of the crisis. This article proffers a better solution and strategy for sustainable peace in the region. Hence, agriculture and the agriculture transformation agenda plan of President Goodluck Jonathan has been x-rayed to provide better possibilities for building peace and engineering youth-centered development in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

[Kalio, G. A, Godfrey-Kalio, I. A, Okafor, B.B. The Amnesty Programme: Integrating Youths as Drivers of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda for Peace Building in the Niger Delta. Rep Opinion 2013;5(9):41-46]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Key Words: Niger Delta youths; Amnesty; Agriculture transformation Agenda; Peace; Nigeria.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 10, 2013. 
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