[an error occurred while processing this directive]



Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873; Monthly

Volume 6 - Issue 4, Cumulated 58, April 25 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or .docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript to: sciencepub@gmail.com

When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Report and Opinion

Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA, 347-321-7172




Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text



Climate Change, Livelihood Declining and Knowledge Management: A Case Study on Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh


Shuraya Tasnoova 1, Yutaka Tomoyuki 2, Izumi Iwamoto 3


1, 2,3 Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890 0065, Japan.

E-mail: tasnoova2000@gmail.com


Abstract: Climate change, global warming, natural disasters and poverty are the biggest challenges for the world today. Those challenges affect every person on the planet, but worst affected of all will be people living in the world's poorest countries. On 15 November 2007, Cyclone Sidr, a category 4 storm struck the coast of Bangladesh, and it was so devastating affected on people’s livelihood. The objective of the study was to conduct a livelihood analysis of the people who had the self sufficiency before Cyclone Sidr in the study areas. The study was carried out in Mirzaganj sub district under Patuakhali district, which is purposely selected. A total of seventy primary data were collected by random sampling during April 2008. Five types of assets or capital (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital) were considered to analyze the livelihood. The study revealed that livelihood has been declined after Cyclone Sidr and sustainable development also hampered by Cyclone Sidr. All assets were shown the negative impact on livelihood except social capital. The assistance and support of different organizations were gradually helping to improve their livelihood through income generating activities such as, small business, livestock and poultry, fishery, crop farming, etc. The study also revealed that knowledge management and awareness on climate change would be key factors to minimize the loosing of human life and their assets.

[Shuraya Tasnoova, Yutaka Tomoyuki, Izumi Iwamoto. Climate Change, Livelihood Declining and Knowledge Management: A Case Study on Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):1-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.01


Key words: Global warming, climate change, Cyclone Sidr, livelihood, Bangladesh.

Full Text



Transfer of ownership in the lease acquisition


Jamshid Rashnavi


LLM Student of Private Law, Open University, Faculty of Law, Science and Research fields, Research field; Civil and Private Law


Abstract: To determine the time of ownership transferring in the lease contract acquisition, the nature and type of contract must first be determined. The nature of the contract shall be diagnosed when the ownership is transferred from the lessor to the lessee. Different theories about the nature of the- lease acquisition contract are presented in this chapter, each one must be considered in its place, therefore, to achieve the ultimate goal it is necessary  to review the law and how the occurrence of a condition of the lease acquisition will feel more than anything else. Others believe that the transmission time of lease contract acquisition should be examined how the condition of the acquisition is inserted in the contract. We must consider that there is a difference between the verb condition and the result condition as the result condition will be enforced and there is no need for the parties will to resolve. In contrast the verb condition is provided with the parties will.


1. A study of the Hire – purchase Contract as a Nominate Contract

1.1 The Viewpoint of Hire – purchase as a Lease Contract

1.2. The Viewpoint of Hire – purchase as a Sale Contract

1.3. The viewpoint of Hire – purchase as a Mixed Contract

1.4. The viewpoint of Hire – purchase as an Independent Contract

1.5. Other viewpoints about the Nature of Hire – purchase Contract

2. A study of Hire – purchase and the condition made as an integral part of the contract

2. 1. The Transfer of Ownership to the Lessee in the form of the Affirmative Condition

2. 2. Transfer of Ownership as a Condition of Corollary

[Jamshid Rashnavi. Transfer of ownership in the lease acquisition. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):8-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.02


Keywords: Transfer, ownership, acquisition

Full Text



Prevent Early Marriage- Initiatives Taken By Government Of India”


Jamshed Ansari


Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

E-Mail: jamshedansari024@gmail.com

Mob. No. 09811365596

Address: F-379, Main Jagatpur Road, Wazirabad, Gali No. 6, District- North Delhi, State- Delhi- 110084, Country- India


Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show steps taken to prohibit child marriages from pre Constitution period to present period and lay down suggestions to eradicate the evil practice of child marriage. The scope of this paper extends to the legislative reforms in pre Constitution period to present period and how far it succeeded in prohibiting child marriage.

[Ansari, Jamshed. Prevent Early Marriage- Initiatives Taken by Government of India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):16-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.03


Key Words: Child Marriage, Social Reforms, Prohibition, Restraint, Legislative reforms etc.

Full Text



Structure Model of Correlation between Cognition Learning Style (Intuitive, Analytical) and Mathematics Anxiety: The Intermediary Role of Basic Mathematics Skills


Soleymani Bahare 1, *, Rekabdar Ghasem2


1,2.Department of Mathematics, Abadan branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran



Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cognitive learning styles (Analytical and intuitive) and math anxiety with the intermediary role of basic math skills among bachelor students. To measure cognitive styles we used cognitive learning index styles (Cognitive Learning Index). Which includes two subscales of analytical and intuitive cognitive style. Also to measure math anxiety, the math anxiety scale of Fenma – Sherman was used. The final score of general math is considered as the basic math skills. Correlation test shows that there is a positive relationship between intuitive cognitive style and math anxiety. The correlation between basic math skills and math anxiety indicate a significant negative relationship. There is no significant relationship between the cognitive styles and the basic math skills.

[Soleymani B, Rekabdar G. Structure Model of Correlation between Cognition Learning Style (Intuitive, Analytical) and Mathematics Anxiety: The Intermediary Role of Basic Mathematics Skills. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):26-28]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.04


Key words: Mathematics Anxiety; Cognition Learning Style; Basic Mathematics Skills

Full Text



Market Segmentation of Sport Tourism in Iran for Foreign Tourists Regarding Culture and Modeling of Target Market


Seyed Reza Mousavi Gilani1, Mehdi Kazemi2, Hasan Asadi3, Gholam Reza Samadzadeh4, Ali Reza Atashpanjeh5


1. Assistant  Professor of Physical Education Department, ZAUMS University, Zahedan, Iran.

2.Associate Professor of Management Department, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.

3.Professor of Physical Education Department and Editor in chief of Journal of Sport Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

4.Faculty Member of Library and Information Technology Department, ZAUMS University, Zahedan, Iran.

5.Faculty Member of English Department, ZAUMS University, Zahedan, Iran.


Abstract: The Purpose of this study was market segmenting of sport tourism in Iran for foreign tourists according to culture and modeling of target market. To do so, a questionnaire was distributed among 710 participants from 53 countries attending in Fajr International Sport Events in 2010-11. The results showed that Anglo, Latin European and East European, Arab, South Asian and Confucius (Asian) and Central Asian Cultures had the most interest in the sport events (97%). Also, four factors including attractions related to mountain and snow, water sports, sport events, and desert were selected as models of sport tourism target market in Iran. The results of exploratory analysis revealed that these four factors determined and predicted 62% of Iran sport tourism target market.

[Seyed Reza Mousavi Gilani, Mehdi Kazemi, Hasan Asadi, Gholam Reza Samadzadeh, Ali Reza Atashpanjeh. Market Segmentation of Sport Tourism in Iran for Foreign Tourists Regarding Culture and Modeling of Target Market. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):29-34]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.05


Key words: Market Segmentation, Sport Tourism, Culture, Target Market.

Full Text



Design and manufacture of a membrane bioreactor to synthetic wastewater treatment


Farzin saffari


Islamic Zad University



Abstract: Application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for treatment of organic wastewaters is increasing rapidly, as a result of their high efficiency of removing and solving problems which conventional biological systems have like oxygen dispersing and suspended solid concentrated. In this research, it was tried to analyse the results of organic waste water treatment with ceramic and polymeric membranes MBRs. For this propose, using a MBR was designed. All experiments were performed synthetic waste waters and Tehran refinery activated sludge was used as biological unit. Glucose was used as carbon source in the synthetic waste water and it was replaced with phenol during the experiments. Mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) was determined as the biological system growth. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was analyzed as ability of the MBR in removing organic pollutants and also fouling behavior of the membranes were investigated. The ceramic membrane was replaced with hollow fiber membrane module, and glucose was replaced with phenol as the carbon source. Phenol concentration was increased slowly for studying the biological system behavior and phenol concentration effect on ammonium removal was olso studied. Effects of solid retention time and carbon, nitrogen ratio in feed were investigated and finally hollow fiber membrane fouling behavior was studied.  The results showed that more than 96% COD and more than 99% phenol removals could be acheived when phenol was used as carbon source. Studying membrane bioreactor behavior in different phenol concentrations and different carbon to nitrogen ratios showed that increasing phenol concentration, ammonium removal. COD to N ratio of 20 was the optimum ratio when glucose was used as carbon source and also when phenol concentration was below 400 mgl-1 in the feed. For higher phenol concentrations of carbon to nitrogen ratio of was recommended. Solid retention time of 10 days was the best at which MLSS was stable in the MBR.

[Farzin saffari. Design and manufacture of a membrane bioreactor to synthetic wastewater treatment. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):35-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.06


Keywords: Membrane bioreactor, Phenol biodegradation, membrane fouling, Hollow fibe membrane, Solid retention

Full Text



Statistical Survey of Baharestan channel (Children's TV channel of Tajikistan) on 2012-2013


Elahe Kasmaee


PhD of philosophy of culture, Tajikistan Academy of science


Abstract The purpose of this study is making culture on Baharestan TV. Science culture on BAHARESTAN  TV is included:  language, communication, family, kind of Nutrition, thinking, school, communication with migrant children, gender, motivation, tradition and modernity, aesthetics, TV champion, foresight, learning, interaction, philosophical mind and a sense of identity and other factors of Culture Makers, So have tried to investigate these symptoms on BAHARESTAN  TV And generally This issue should be investigated that Does BAHARESTAN  TV has the basic philosophy which is the basis for making a culture of children's TV? Whether or not?

[Elahe Kasmaee. Statistical Survey of Baharestan  channel (Children's TV channel of Tajikistan) on 2012-2013. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(4):48-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.07


Key words: children's television program, Baharestan  channel, Tajikistan

Full Text



Theoretical Foundations of abhorrence and hatred spreading slogans in Islamic Thought

Sakineh Rastegar Moghadam Ebrahimian


Farhangian University


Abstract: When man is fed up of oppression of oppressors and becomes helpless and defenseless against those who violate his right and do injustice to him, he starts protesting, expressing disgust and calling a curse. Throughout the world, there have always been rulers assuming themselves higher than others and they have been constantly seeking violation of other people's rights to add to their assets. It seems this trend will continue until the reappearance of 12th Imam (A.S). Meanwhile people whose rights have been violated will try to restore their rights in different methods, one of which is to chant slogans calling death upon the tyrant and oppressor. Perhaps such moves which are very destructive may lead to collapse of a strong government, as well help set a nation free. For example, orderly and storming movement of Iranians who could force Shah and his monarchy out of Iran replacing it with Islamic Republic can be given as an example.

[Sakineh Rastegar Moghadam Ebrahimian. Theoretical Foundations of abhorrence and hatred spreading slogans in Islamic Thought Processes. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):54-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.08


Key words: slogans; Islamic Thought, people's rights

Full Text



Identifying and Evaluation of Risk Types in New Product Development Projects and Project Risk Management


Davood Gharakhani, Sajjad Jalalifar, Roshanak Behdadfar


Department of Management, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

Davood Gharakhani (Corresponding author)


Abstract: Success in business comes down to two broad management skills, often termed as ‘doing the right thing’ (choosing the right projects) and ‘doing things right’ (good project management). All decisions about which projects an organization should choose are taken without certain knowledge of what the future will hold and how successful the project will be. Whilst decisions are taken in conditions of uncertainty, we can attempt to predict the factors that can impact on a project. Once we can identify these factors and their possible impacts we can call them risks and attempt to analyze and respond to them. Risks can be both positive, such as embedded opportunities, perhaps to do more business with a new client or customer in future. Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or a negative effect on at least one project objective. The main aim of this paper is to consider the Risk Types that organizations may face when taking on projects of New Product Development Projects. A project is usually defined as such for project management purposes because it has a unique identity and a finite life and is thus distinguishable from other continuing operations.

[Gharakhani D, Jalalifar S, Behdadfar R. Identifying and Evaluation of Risk Types in New Product Development Projects and Project Risk Management. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):64-70]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.09


Keywords: Risk management, Project management, Strategic Risks, Operational Risks, Contextual Risks

Full Text



Study of gene action for various physiological traits in Zea mays


Qurban Ali1,*, Muhammad Ahsan1, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir1 and Shahzad, Maqsood Ahmed Basra2


1.        Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2.        Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

saim1692@gmail.com (+9203219621929)


Abstract: Improvement of physiological traits in maize plays an important role in enhancing grain and fodder yield. Gene action provides an opportunity to a plant breeder to develop higher yielding maize genotypes and was computed by using analysis of variance technique and 6 6 North Carolina matting design II analysis. In order to study gene action for physiological traits an experiment was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan during crop growing season 2011-12 and 2012-2013 using completely randomized block design with three replications. It was reported from the evaluation of F1 hybrids that higher photosynthetic rate was recorded for B-327 (32.21 μg CO2s−1), EV-1097 B-316 (33.13 μg CO2s−1), leaf temperature for B-11 (49.57 C), Sh-139 F-96 (49.60 C), chlorophyll contents for EV-347 (57.77 mg g-1fr.wt), Raka-poshi (57.87 mg g-1fr.wt), stomata conductance for E-336 EV-340 (0.410 mmol m−2 s−1) and E-336 F-96 (0.350 mmol m−2 s−1), transpiration rate for E-336 EV-340 (14.72 mm d−1), E-336 F-96 (14.78 mm d−1), sub-stomata CO2 concentration for Sh-139 Pop/209 (281.7 μmol mol−1 CO2), F-96 (254.0 μmol mol−1 CO2) and water use efficiency was recorded for E-336 EV-340 (312.2 %) and B-327 F-96 (204.9 %). It was concluded that inbred lines B-11, E-336, B-316 performed well for physiological traits. Genetic advance and heritability was found higher for photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, sub-stomata CO2 concentration and water use efficiency. Male additive effects were found higher for chlorophyll contents, water use efficiency, sub-stomata CO2 concentration and photosynthetic rate. Female additive effects, male female interaction and cumulative additive effects were also found higher for chlorophyll contents, sub-stomata CO2 concentration, transpiration rate. Dominance and degree of dominance was also found higher for leaf temperature, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate. These additive effects and the degree of dominance indicated that selection via heterosis breeding may be helpful to develop synthetics with higher grain and fodder yield.

[Ali Q, Ahsan M, Tahir, MHN and Basra SMA. Study of gene action for various physiological traits in Zea mays. Rep Opinion 2014;6(4):71-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj060414.10


Key words: Zea mays, additive effect, dominance, heritability, genetic advance, gen action

Full Text


The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 6, 2014
All comments are welcome: sciencepub@gmail.com


For back issues of the Report and Opinion, click here.

Emails: reportopinion@gmail.com; editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com  

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net

You are encouraged to cite papers published by journal!



Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

2014 Marsland Press