Report and Opinion
ISSN 1553-9873; Monthly
6 - Issue 6, Cumulated 60, June 25, 2014
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Aquaculture: A Tool for Sustainable Development/Food Security
and Poverty Alleviation in Achieving MDG’s Goals
Dr Oyin Olukunle
Department of Aquaculture and
Fisheries Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Aquaculture is a multiculture of plants and animals in an
aquatic environment. Thereby aquaculture is enriched through
integration of formerly existing cultivation of crops cum
horticultural, and /or agronomical or domesticated animals such
as piggery, poultry, rabbitery or even wild domesticated animals
such as guinea fowls, and cane rats. Hence, this study
investigated integrated aquaculture cum horticulture as a
possible tool for sustainable food production in order to ensure
food security in Nigeria and alleviate poverty. The study
utilized four homestead concrete tanks located at the back of my
house in University of Ibadan senior staff quarters. Catfish
bloodstock’s males and females were used to raise fry through
fingerlings to juveniles to adult fish. Data were taken at each
stage of the fish life cycle i.e. the products harvested and
sales. Data on numbers of horticultural trees planted were taken
and numbers of produce at harvest were recorded. These data were
collated and analyzed yearly and at the end of the 10- year
period. The result showed that diversification in integrated
aquaculture ensures better environmental and on farm resource
management which is much needed globally but much more in the
developing countries for food security and poverty alleviation.
At each point in time, there is one product or the other
available for consumption or for sale which ensured better cash
flow. During the dry season the drought was ameliorated by the
availability of water for wetting the crops and incorporation of
vegetables growing into the system. Horticulture cum fish
farming integrated system has been adjudged recently to be a
solution to drought, poor soil condition management; climate
change along with unsustainable water management and farming
practices. This study showed that this system is more natural
and sustains better food production practice. It is capable of
bringing food production closer to urban consumers who do not
have access for extensive farm land and reduces the transport
cost in retail food marketing.
[Olukunle, O. Integrated Aquaculture: A
Tool for Sustainable Development/Food Security and Poverty
Alleviation in Achieving MDG’s Goals.
Integrated Aquaculture, Food Security, Urban food production,
Cratological Analysis Of
Requirement Of Sanction For Prosecution of Judges And Public
Servants In India
Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty),
Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)
The objective of this article is
to evaluate the validity of the requirement of government
sanction to initiate prosecution proceedings against judges and
public servants vis-a-vis the power ordering under the
Constitution of India. The scope of this article is limited to
analysing the propriety and constitutionality of the above
provision within the present Constitutional framework. The
author proceeds with the hypotheses that section 197 Criminal
Procedure Code which requires sanction to prosecute judges and
public servants is unconstitutional and void because it
prescribes an unjust qualification to begin proceedings against
the offender. It clearly stands between the litigant and the
wrong-doer and puts unjust barriers in the process of access to
justice. The issues examined in the paper are: Whether
the provision fits in the present scheme of organization of
power within the Constitution of India, whether the said
provision is valid and required at all, what are the
constitutionality of the provision in the light of Article 14
and the principle of parity of power? Whether the Executive is
justified in restricting remedy against itself, and what has
been the approach of the Courts in interpreting this provision?
Cratological Analysis Of Requirement Of Sanction For Prosecution of
Judges And Public Servants In India.
Sanction, Equality, Natural
Justice, Prosecution, Rule of Law etc.
The Philosophy Of “Dalit”?...
new theory on “JATIS”)
focused that in human social system “Dalits” are
considered as an “out-caste” and treated them as “Untouchables”
and being ill-treated almost in every day of Life. If so,
where did Dalits come from?...
Ancient time global level Scientists, Scholars, Anthropologists
could not exactly answer who are Dalits?... Further world wide
Untouchability, Casteism discrimination being practiced besides
“BLACK” and “WHITE”, ethnics. Further hundreds of
castes, sub castes exist within main “Ethnic frame” of
religions like Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism,
considering Dalits as distinguished out-caste. It is focused
that in developing countries like “INDIA” the sense of “Casteism”
is more dominant in rural area and the Parents of the Nations,
though highly educated, do not know how to grow their children
to eradicate the sense of Casteism without understanding the
reality of nature.
Indians are killing Indians on Casteism.
Srilankans are killing Srilankans on Casteism.
Africans are killing Africans on Casteism.
Afghanistans are killing Afghanistans on Casteism.
Europeans are killing Europeans on Casteism.
Americans are killing Americans on Casteism.
Australians are killing Australians on Casteism.
are like Image of “ALIENS” and considered like “PLASMA
HUMAN” and fundamental Building Block of all generations of
Human races on the “EARTH PLANET”. “Dalits are like
stem of Tree and thousands of branches shall be considered
as generations of races. Dalits are like stem cells and
thousands of varied cells shall be considered derived from stem
V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.
Philosophy Of “Dalit”?
of Indos;Plasma human;Thai-e;Thali;Dalit;Caste;Dalit Blood
Group;Dalit eye iris.
The impact of
food preparation practices on food borne diseases
1*, Elouboudy S.S. 1, Abdelaziz Z.K.
2, Hassan M.A. 3 and Emara M.B. 1
and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar
University, Cairo, Egypt.
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar
University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University,
preparation practices were found to be an important aspect that
affect the food safety. In this study, a total of One hundred
twenty two (122) food samples were used for the isolation of
food poisoning, food spoilage bacteria, yeasts and molds. All
the samples were collected from different hotels and resorts
kitchens in Egypt. All the samples were subjected to aerobic
plate count and total mold / yeast count as the results
indicated that the count vary from satisfactory to
unsatisfactory according to the standards as ISO (International
standards organization) 4833/2003 for Ready to Eat Foods,
(Egyptian standards of frozen minced meat) ES 1694/2005 for
frozen minced meat, (Egyptian standards of frozen meat) ES
1522/2005 for frozen meat and (Egyptian standards of frozen
poultry) ES 1090/2005 for frozen chicken and ISO 4833/2003. The
most important food borne pathogens,
Sp. and B.
Cereus were isolated by using different specific media.
Different preparation practices were found that affect the
aerobic plate count or proliferation of food pathogens as
unhygienic handling; cross contamination; inadequate cleaning
and sanitation of all contact surfaces; improper cooling,
cooking and holding temperature. Salmonella typhimurium
was selected in our study for the rapid detection by molecular
techniques as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which indicated
that PCR test combined with RV selective enrichment is more
sensitive in detecting Salmonella serovars than
[Abdel-Shakour EH, Elouboudy SS, Abdelaziz ZK, Hassan MA and
Emara MB. The impact of food preparation practices on food
borne diseases; food pathogens; Rapid detection; Salmonella
The Concept Of Social Banking
Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of
Delhi, Delhi (INDIA)
The object of this
article is to examine the concept of Social Banking and to see
that what are the benefits of this scheme to the customers and
why we need it? Further to study the different segments of
priority sector and what are the schemes under the priority
sector. The Social Banking services are the need of the day and
no man shall be deprived from doing his business because of
poverty. Most of the Banks are providing the social banking
services. The author has formulated the following questions and
has tried to find out the answer-
What is social banking and why we need it? What are the benefits
of social banking to the underprivileged people and how they
could get benefitted?, How social banking concept emerged in
India and what are its future?, What are the different schemes
provided under the social banking services? And what is the
future of Social Banking?
The concept of Social Banking.
poverty, ethics, policies, development etc.
Influence of host food plants
on the post embryonic development of Oxya japonica (Orthoptera:
S. Tariq Ahmad & Mir Tajamul
Entomology Research Division,
Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir,
Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India
Present study was conducted to
investigate the influence of diet on the post embryonic
development of Oxya japonica and its adaptability to its
host plants with reference to life history statistics under
laboratory conditions. The experiment involved rearing the
nymphal instars and adults of O. Japonica on seven
selected host plants viz. Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Cyanodon
dactylon, Trifolium berseem, Brassica compestris, Plantago sps,
Andropogon sps and mixed diet. It was found that mixed diet
was mostly preferred with the average hopper development period
of 56 ± 2.64, while Brassica campestris and Plantago
sps prolonged the hopper development period, the average
development time being 65.8 ± 1.08 and 66.6 ± 1.34,
respectively. Experimental results showed that the acceptability
percentages of various host plants seem to be correlated with
their affects on the post embryonic stages of grasshoppers. It
was concluded that O. Sativa, , Andropogon sps and mixed
diet are most suitable hosts for Oxya japonica compared
to other host plants tested as was indicated by the shortest
hopper development period.
Tariq Ahmad & Mir Tajamul.
Influence of host food
plants on the post embryonic development of Oxya japonica
Food plants, Post embryonic development, Oxya
A Comparative study of Teaching Competency of Secondary School
teachers in district Srinagar
M.Y Ganaie1, Hafiz
Department of Education, University of Kashmir
Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India.
Teachers are the backbone of every nation. Every society depends
on teachers for the betterment of their lives. It is teachers
who can shape the whole world. But teachers should be competent
enough to come up to the expectations of the society. The study
selected by the investigator to measure the teaching competency
of male and female secondary school teachers of District
Srinagar. The study was conducted on a sample of 60 Secondary
School teachers (30 male and 30 female) has been randomly
selected from various higher secondary schools. The data for the
present study was collected with the help of General Teaching
Competency Scale by B.K. Passi and M.S. Lallitha. Proper
statistical treatment was given in order to obtain the results.
The study revealed that male Secondary School Teachers showed
better teaching competency as compared to Female Secondary
[M.Y Ganaie, Hafiz Mudasir.
A Comparative study of Teaching Competency of Secondary School
teachers in district Srinagar.
2014; 6(6):49-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Teaching Competency, Problems, psycho-social identity,
unconditional acceptance, etc.
Understanding Human Malaria: Further Review on the Literature,
Pathogenesis and Disease Control
Hyacinth Chijioke Okere2 and Victoria Daminabo3.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science
and Technology, Rivers State College of Arts and Science Rumuola,
P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Rivers
State College of Arts and Science Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port
Human malaria is caused by single-celled parasites from the
genus Plasmodium. More than one hundred different species of
Plasmodium exist and produce malaria in many types of
animals including birds and humans. A further review on the four
different species of plasmodium parasites implicated in human
malaria in the tropics was undertaken. The pathogenesis,
laboratory diagnosis; public health significance, treatment and
control strategies including the new and holistic approaches to
fighting the ancient scourge was highlighted. All the
manifestations of malarial illness are caused by the infection
of red cells by the asexual forms of the malaria parasite, and
this makes malaria a potentially multisystem disease, as every
organ of the body is reached by the blood. The parasite damages
red blood cells using plasmepsin enzymes which are aspartic acid
proteases that degrade hemoglobin. Understanding the molecular
biology of the parasite and the sporogonic cycle to aid in re-
engineering of the anopheline mosquito and improved
entomological field will help in controlling the disease. The
protection of the host from the bite of mosquito using netting,
repellants and elimination of the vector through biological
control measures, by introducing organisms that will feed on
their larvae into the site of breeding coupled with prophylactic
treatment with anti-malaria drugs for exposed persons, in
theory, would eradicate the disease.
[Solomon, L., Okere, H.C and Daminabo, V. Understanding Human
Malaria: Further Review on the Literature, Pathogenesis and
Disease Control. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):55-63]. (ISSN:
Anopheline mosquito, plasmodium parasites, human malaria,
pathogenesis, public health significance, holistic approaches,
anti-malaria drugs, ancient scourge, multisystem disease,
malarial illness, red blood cells.
Geopolitical challenges of Islamic Republic of Iran about
major geopolitical center of gravity of the Persian Gulf and
International Relations, which is dominated by two domain Is in
Persian and Arabic. Iranian political and cultural dominance and
superiority geopolitical weight placards on the blue area is not
secret. But in recent decades, Arabic countries in the region
with the support of some Western countries, many national
interests and symbols of Iranian culture and civilization in the
region have been the challenge facing Iran have a lot of
geopolitical conflicts and challenges. In this paper, a
historical approach - analytical, Islamic Republic of Iran's
geopolitical challenges facing the countries of the region will
be presented in Arabic.
Geopolitical challenges of Islamic Republic of Iran about
2014; 6(6):64-72]. (ISSN:
Gulf, geopolitical challenges, the Islamic Republic of Iran,
A Review on the Effect of Employee Satisfaction on Human
Resource Management Productivity and Cost Efficiency
Manizheh Adli1, Reza Saleki2
Business School ,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Human resource is the key element in every organization. It
signifies total attitude, knowledge, creative ability, talent,
aptitude and belief of an individual involved in the affairs of
an organization. Management of human resources is an essential
part for every concern. The aim of this study is to review
previous studies on effect of employee satisfaction on
organization productivity and cost efficiency. Moreover methods
and methodologies which are the most useful to examine
relationships between variables in this study have been
recommended for future works.
[Manizheh Adli, Reza Saleki. A Review on the
Effect of Employee Satisfaction on Human Resource Management
Productivity and Cost Efficiency. Rep Opinion 2014;
6(6):73-79]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Human Resource Management, Employee Satisfaction,
Productivity, Cost Efficiency
Growth and yield of Zea
mays in sulphitation pressmud, its compost, vermicompost and
and Sonal Sharma
Department of Environmental
Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya, Gurukul Kangri
University, Haridwar , Uttarankhand, India.
Abstract : A study was carried
out to evaluate the impact of raw sulphitation pressmud, its
compost, vermicompost and recommended dose of NPK on growth and
yield attributing parameters of Zea mays . It was
observed that application of raw pressmud, its compost,
vermicompost and NPK had decrease the temperature and water
holding capacity but significantly increases moisture content,
organic matter, and N,P,K and narrows down C:N ratio.
Recommended dose of NPK also has same impact except organic
matter. The application of composted pressmud raised the dry
matter (gm/plant) of the maize significantly to 157 gm/plant,
which was highest among all other treatments. Similarly the
grain yield was observed maximum in composted pressmud treated
soil (4135 Kg/ha). But the biological yield and the stover yield
were highest in the soil treated with vermicompost (10890Kg/ha
and 6811 Kg/ha respectively). However, the grain: stover ratio
and harvest index was recorded maximum in NPK treatment
(0.646Kg/ha and 39.28% respectively). The results of this study
are in agreement with those various other studies, which have
also revealed the importance of organic nutrient sources in
improving crop yields.
[Namita Joshi and Sonal Sharma.
Growth and yield of Zea mays in sulphitation pressmud,
its compost, vermicompost and NPK. Rep Opinion
2014; 6(6):80-85]. (ISSN:
sulphidation pressmud, Eisenia
foetida, Zea Mays, composting, vermicomposting.
Effects Of Calcium Carbonate
Of Different Compositions And Particle Size Distributions On The
Mechanical Properties Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
Ganiyu K. Latinwo*1,
David S. Aribike2, Layiwola O. Oyekunle2,
Akpoveta A. Susu3,, Semiu A. Kareem4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University
of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos,
Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State
University, Epe Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of
Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria.
Effects of calcium carbonate of
different compositions (0 – 40 wt%) and particle size
distributions (0.06, 0.5, 3.5, 10, 20, and 841µm) on the
mechanical properties of flexible polyurethane foam were
investigated in this study. The experiments were conducted in a
foaming plant (ISOBLOCK IB 150/4F-SS) and the mechanical
properties determined such Indentation Force Deflection, Tensile
strength, and Elongation at break were measured with the aid of
a Hampden testing machine. The finely divided filler material
increased the hardness characteristics of the foam to
compositions of up to 35wt%, while coarse filler did not show
any appreciable improvement in the property. For all particle
sizes, the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased
while increasing the load of the filler weight percentages.
However, the tendency with which the coarse filler reduce the
properties is not as much as for the fine fillers. Scanning
Electron Microphotography of the foam samples shows how the
filler affect the foam cellular structure and cell size
[Ganiyu K. Latinwo, David S.
Aribike, Layiwola O. Oyekunle, Akpoveta A. Susu, Semiu A.
Kareem. Effects Of Calcium Carbonate Of Different
Compositions And Particle Size Distributions On The Mechanical
Properties Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam. Rep Opinion
2014; 6(6):86-95]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).
Flexible polyurethane foam, calcium carbonate, Indentation Force
Deflection, Tensile strength, Elongation-at-break.
The manuscripts in this issue
were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from
June 12, 2014.
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