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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873; Monthly

Volume 6 - Issue 6, Cumulated 60, June 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Integrated Aquaculture: A Tool for Sustainable Development/Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Achieving MDG’s Goals


Dr Oyin Olukunle


Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: Aquaculture is a multiculture of plants and animals in an aquatic environment.  Thereby aquaculture is enriched through integration of formerly existing cultivation of crops cum horticultural, and /or agronomical or domesticated animals such as piggery, poultry, rabbitery or even wild domesticated animals such as guinea fowls, and cane rats. Hence, this study investigated integrated aquaculture cum horticulture as a possible tool for sustainable food production in order to ensure food security in Nigeria and alleviate poverty. The study utilized four homestead concrete tanks located at the back of my house in University of Ibadan senior staff quarters. Catfish bloodstock’s males and females were used to raise fry through fingerlings to juveniles to adult fish. Data were taken at each stage of the fish life cycle i.e. the products harvested and sales. Data on numbers of horticultural trees planted were taken and numbers of produce at harvest were recorded. These data were collated and analyzed yearly and at the end of the 10- year period. The result showed that diversification in integrated aquaculture ensures better environmental and on farm resource management which is much needed globally but much more in the developing countries for food security and poverty alleviation. At each point in time, there is one product or the other available for consumption or for sale which ensured better cash flow. During the dry season the drought was ameliorated by the availability of water for wetting the crops and incorporation of vegetables growing into the system. Horticulture cum fish farming integrated system has been adjudged recently to be a solution to drought, poor soil condition management; climate change along with unsustainable water management and farming practices.  This study showed that this system is more natural and sustains better food production practice. It is capable of bringing food production closer to urban consumers who do not have access for extensive farm land and reduces the transport cost in retail food marketing.

[Olukunle, O. Integrated Aquaculture: A Tool for Sustainable Development/Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Achieving MDG’s Goals. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.01


Key words:  Integrated Aquaculture, Food Security, Urban food production, Poverty Alleviation.

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Cratological Analysis Of Requirement Of Sanction For Prosecution of Judges And Public Servants In India


Jamshed Ansari


Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com


Abstract: The objective of this article is to evaluate the validity of the requirement of government sanction to initiate prosecution proceedings against judges and public servants vis-a-vis the power ordering under the Constitution of India. The scope of this article is limited to analysing the propriety and constitutionality of the above provision within the present Constitutional framework. The author proceeds with the hypotheses that section 197 Criminal Procedure Code which requires sanction to prosecute judges and public servants is unconstitutional and void because it prescribes an unjust qualification to begin proceedings against the offender. It clearly stands between the litigant and the wrong-doer and puts unjust barriers in the process of access to justice. The issues examined in the paper are: Whether the provision fits in the present scheme of organization of power within the Constitution of India, whether the said provision is valid and required at all, what are the constitutionality of the provision in the light of Article 14 and the principle of parity of power? Whether the Executive is justified in restricting remedy against itself, and what has been the approach of the Courts in interpreting this provision?

[Jamshed Ansari. Cratological Analysis Of Requirement Of Sanction For Prosecution of Judges And Public Servants In India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):9-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.02


Key Words: Sanction, Equality, Natural Justice, Prosecution, Rule of Law etc.

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The Philosophy Of “Dalit”?...

(A new theory on “JATIS”)

Abstract: It is focused that in human social system “Dalits” are considered as an “out-caste” and treated them as “Untouchables” and being ill-treated almost in every day of Life. If so, where did Dalits come from?...

Since Ancient time global level Scientists, Scholars, Anthropologists could not exactly answer who are Dalits?... Further world wide Untouchability, Casteism discrimination being practiced besides “BLACK” and “WHITE”, ethnics. Further hundreds of castes, sub castes exist within main “Ethnic frame” of religions like Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, considering Dalits as distinguished out-caste. It is focused that in developing countries like “INDIA” the sense of “Casteism” is more dominant in rural area and the Parents of the Nations, though highly educated, do not know  how to grow their children to eradicate the sense of Casteism without understanding the reality of nature.

(i)                   Indians are killing Indians on Casteism.

(ii)                 Srilankans are killing Srilankans on Casteism.

(iii)                Africans are killing Africans on Casteism.

(iv)               Afghanistans are killing Afghanistans on Casteism.

(v)                 Europeans are killing Europeans on Casteism.

(vi)               Americans are killing Americans on Casteism.

(vii)              Australians are killing Australians on Casteism.

The “DALITS” are like Image of “ALIENS” and considered like “PLASMA HUMAN” and fundamental Building Block of all generations of Human races on the “EARTH PLANET”. “Dalits are like stem of Tree and thousands of branches shall be considered as generations of races. Dalits are like stem cells and thousands of varied cells shall be considered derived from stem cells”.

- Author

[M. Arulmani, B.E. V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. The Philosophy Of “Dalit”? Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):16-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.03


Key Words: Endos;  Philosophy of Indos;Plasma human;Thai-e;Thali;Dalit;Caste;Dalit Blood Group;Dalit eye iris.           

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The impact of food preparation practices on food borne diseases


Abdel-Shakour E.H. 1*, Elouboudy S.S. 1, Abdelaziz Z.K. 2, Hassan M.A. 3 and Emara M.B. 1


1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.



Abstract: Food preparation practices were found to be an important aspect that affect the food safety. In this study, a total of One hundred twenty two (122) food samples were used for the isolation of food poisoning, food spoilage bacteria, yeasts and molds. All the samples were collected from different hotels and resorts kitchens in Egypt.  All the samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and total mold / yeast count as the results indicated that the count vary from satisfactory to unsatisfactory according to the standards as ISO (International standards organization) 4833/2003 for Ready to Eat Foods, (Egyptian standards of frozen minced meat) ES 1694/2005 for frozen minced meat, (Egyptian standards of frozen meat) ES 1522/2005 for frozen meat and (Egyptian standards of frozen poultry) ES 1090/2005 for frozen chicken and ISO 4833/2003. The most important food borne pathogens, Staph. aureus, E. Coli, Salmonella Sp. and B. Cereus were isolated by using different specific media. Different preparation practices were found that affect the aerobic plate count or proliferation of food pathogens as unhygienic handling; cross contamination; inadequate cleaning and sanitation of all contact surfaces; improper cooling, cooking and holding temperature. Salmonella typhimurium was selected in our study for the rapid detection by molecular techniques as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which indicated that PCR test combined with RV selective enrichment is more sensitive in detecting Salmonella serovars than bacteriological methods.

[Abdel-Shakour EH, Elouboudy SS, Abdelaziz ZK, Hassan MA and Emara MB. The impact of food preparation practices on food borne diseases. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):22-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.04


Keywords: Food borne diseases; food pathogens; Rapid detection; Salmonella typhimurium.

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The Concept Of Social Banking


Jamshed Ansari


Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (INDIA)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

Date: 07.05.2014


Abstracts: The object of this article is to examine the concept of Social Banking and to see that what are the benefits of this scheme to the customers and why we need it? Further to study the different segments of priority sector and what are the schemes under the priority sector. The Social Banking services are the need of the day and no man shall be deprived from doing his business because of poverty. Most of the Banks are providing the social banking services. The author has formulated the following questions and has tried to find out the answer- What is social banking and why we need it? What are the benefits of social banking to the underprivileged people and how they could get benefitted?, How social banking concept emerged in India and what are its future?, What are the different schemes provided under the social banking services? And what is the future of Social Banking?

[Ansari, Jamshed. The concept of Social Banking. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):36-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.05


Key Words: Social banking, poverty, ethics, policies, development etc.

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Influence of host food plants on the post embryonic development of Oxya japonica (Orthoptera: Acrididae)


S. Tariq Ahmad & Mir Tajamul


Entomology Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: - Present study was conducted to investigate the influence of diet on the post embryonic development of Oxya japonica and its adaptability to its host plants with reference to life history statistics under laboratory conditions. The experiment involved rearing the nymphal instars and adults of O. Japonica on seven selected host plants viz. Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Cyanodon dactylon, Trifolium berseem, Brassica compestris, Plantago sps, Andropogon sps and mixed diet. It was found that mixed diet was mostly preferred with the average hopper development period of 56 2.64, while Brassica campestris and Plantago sps prolonged the hopper development period, the average development time being 65.8 1.08 and 66.6 1.34, respectively. Experimental results showed that the acceptability percentages of various host plants seem to be correlated with their affects on the post embryonic stages of grasshoppers. It was concluded that O. Sativa, , Andropogon sps and mixed diet are most suitable hosts for Oxya japonica compared to other host plants tested as was indicated by the shortest hopper development period.

[S. Tariq Ahmad  & Mir Tajamul. Influence of host food plants on the post embryonic development of Oxya japonica (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):44-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.06


Keywords: Food plants, Post embryonic development, Oxya japonica.

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A Comparative study of Teaching Competency of Secondary School teachers in district Srinagar


M.Y Ganaie1, Hafiz Mudasir 2


1.        Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2.       Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India.



Abstract: Teachers are the backbone of every nation. Every society depends on teachers for the betterment of their lives. It is teachers who can shape the whole world. But teachers should be competent enough to come up to the expectations of the society. The study has been selected by the investigator to measure the teaching competency of male and female secondary school teachers of District Srinagar. The study was conducted on a sample of 60 Secondary School teachers (30 male and 30 female) has been randomly selected from various higher secondary schools. The data for the present study was collected with the help of General Teaching Competency Scale by B.K. Passi and M.S. Lallitha. Proper statistical treatment was given in order to obtain the results. The study revealed that male Secondary School Teachers showed better teaching competency as compared to Female Secondary Schools teachers.

[M.Y Ganaie, Hafiz Mudasir. A Comparative study of Teaching Competency of Secondary School teachers in district Srinagar. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(6):49-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.07


Key words: Teaching Competency, Problems, psycho-social identity, unconditional acceptance, etc.

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Understanding Human Malaria: Further Review on the Literature, Pathogenesis and Disease Control


Leera Solomon1, Hyacinth Chijioke Okere2 and Victoria Daminabo3.


1&2 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Rivers State College of Arts and Science Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

3Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Rivers State College of Arts and Science Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



Abstract: Human malaria is caused by single-celled parasites from the genus Plasmodium. More than one hundred different species of Plasmodium exist and produce malaria in many types of animals including birds and humans. A further review on the four different species of plasmodium parasites implicated in human malaria in the tropics was undertaken. The pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis; public health significance, treatment and control strategies including the new and holistic approaches to fighting the ancient scourge was highlighted. All the manifestations of malarial illness are caused by the infection of red cells by the asexual forms of the malaria parasite, and this makes malaria a potentially multisystem disease, as every organ of the body is reached by the blood. The parasite damages red blood cells using plasmepsin enzymes which are aspartic acid proteases that degrade hemoglobin. Understanding the molecular biology of the parasite and the sporogonic cycle to aid in re- engineering of the anopheline mosquito and improved entomological field will help in controlling the disease. The protection of the host from the bite of mosquito using netting, repellants and elimination of the vector through biological control measures, by introducing organisms that will feed on their larvae into the site of breeding coupled with prophylactic treatment with anti-malaria drugs for exposed persons, in theory, would eradicate the disease.

[Solomon, L., Okere, H.C and Daminabo, V. Understanding Human Malaria: Further Review on the Literature, Pathogenesis and Disease Control. Rep Opinion 2014;6(6):55-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.08


Key words: Anopheline mosquito, plasmodium parasites, human malaria, pathogenesis, public health significance, holistic approaches, anti-malaria drugs, ancient scourge, multisystem disease, malarial illness, red blood cells.

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Geopolitical challenges of Islamic Republic of Iran about Persian Gulf


Parya Eskandari




Abstract: One major geopolitical center of gravity of the Persian Gulf and International Relations, which is dominated by two domain Is in Persian and Arabic. Iranian political and cultural dominance and superiority geopolitical weight placards on the blue area is not secret. But in recent decades, Arabic countries in the region with the support of some Western countries, many national interests and symbols of Iranian culture and civilization in the region have been the challenge facing Iran have a lot of geopolitical conflicts and challenges. In this paper, a historical approach - analytical, Islamic Republic of Iran's geopolitical challenges facing the countries of the region will be presented in Arabic.

[Parya Eskandari. Geopolitical challenges of Islamic Republic of Iran about Persian Gulf. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(6):64-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.09


Keywords: Persian Gulf, geopolitical challenges, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Arabic countries.

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A Review on the Effect of Employee Satisfaction on Human Resource Management Productivity and Cost Efficiency


Manizheh Adli1, Reza Saleki2


1International Business School ,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Email: rsaleki86@yahoo.com


Abstract: Human resource is the key element in every organization. It signifies total attitude, knowledge, creative ability, talent, aptitude and belief of an individual involved in the affairs of an organization. Management of human resources is an essential part for every concern. The aim of this study is to review previous studies on effect of employee satisfaction on organization productivity and cost efficiency. Moreover methods and methodologies which are the most useful to examine relationships between variables in this study have been recommended for future works.

[Manizheh Adli, Reza Saleki. A Review on the Effect of Employee Satisfaction on Human Resource Management Productivity and Cost Efficiency. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(6):73-79]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.10


Keywords – Human Resource Management, Employee Satisfaction, Productivity, Cost Efficiency

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Growth and yield of Zea mays in sulphitation pressmud, its compost, vermicompost and NPK


Namita Joshi* and Sonal Sharma


Department of  Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya, Gurukul Kangri University,  Haridwar , Uttarankhand, India.


Abstract : A study was carried out to evaluate the impact of raw sulphitation pressmud, its compost, vermicompost and recommended dose of NPK on growth and yield attributing parameters of Zea mays . It was observed that application of raw pressmud, its compost, vermicompost and NPK had decrease the temperature and water holding capacity but significantly increases moisture content, organic matter, and N,P,K and narrows down C:N ratio. Recommended dose of NPK also has same impact except organic matter. The application of composted pressmud raised the dry matter (gm/plant) of the maize significantly to 157 gm/plant, which was highest among all other treatments. Similarly the grain yield was observed maximum in composted pressmud treated soil (4135 Kg/ha). But the biological yield and the stover yield were highest in the soil treated with vermicompost (10890Kg/ha and 6811 Kg/ha respectively). However, the grain: stover ratio and harvest index was recorded maximum in NPK treatment (0.646Kg/ha and 39.28% respectively). The results of this study are in agreement with those various other studies, which have also revealed the importance of organic nutrient sources in improving crop yields.

[Namita Joshi and Sonal Sharma. Growth and yield of Zea mays in sulphitation pressmud, its compost, vermicompost and NPK. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(6):80-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.11


Keywords: sulphidation pressmud, Eisenia foetida, Zea Mays, composting, vermicomposting.

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Effects Of Calcium Carbonate Of Different Compositions And Particle Size Distributions On The Mechanical Properties Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam


Ganiyu K. Latinwo*1, David S. Aribike2,  Layiwola O. Oyekunle2,  Akpoveta A. Susu3,, Semiu A. Kareem4


1.        Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

2.        Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

3.        Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.

4.        Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria.


Abstract: Effects of calcium carbonate of different compositions (0 – 40 wt%) and particle size distributions (0.06, 0.5, 3.5, 10, 20, and 841m) on the mechanical properties of flexible polyurethane foam were investigated in this study. The experiments were conducted in a foaming plant (ISOBLOCK IB 150/4F-SS) and the mechanical properties determined such Indentation Force Deflection, Tensile strength, and Elongation at break were measured with the aid of a Hampden testing machine. The finely divided filler material increased the hardness characteristics of the foam to compositions of up to 35wt%, while coarse filler did not show any appreciable improvement in the property. For all particle sizes, the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased while increasing the load of the filler weight percentages. However, the tendency with which the coarse filler reduce the properties is not as much as for the fine fillers. Scanning Electron Microphotography of the foam samples shows how the filler affect the foam cellular structure and cell size distributions.

[Ganiyu K. Latinwo, David S. Aribike, Layiwola O. Oyekunle, Akpoveta A. Susu, Semiu A. Kareem. Effects Of Calcium Carbonate Of Different Compositions And Particle Size Distributions On The Mechanical Properties Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(6):86-95]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj060614.12


Keywords: Flexible polyurethane foam, calcium carbonate, Indentation Force Deflection, Tensile strength, Elongation-at-break.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 12, 2014
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