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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 6 - Issue 8, Cumulated 62, August 25, 2014, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Garlic (Alliumsativum) bulbs.

 

1*Huzaifa, U., 1Labaran, I., 1Bello, A.B. and 2Olatunde A.

 

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Huzaifaumar27@Yahoo.Com, +2348069339616

 

Abstract: The present study investigates the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive constituents of medicinally important plant Allium sativum (garlic) in its aqueous of bulb. The phytochemical tests were conducted using standard methods of analysis. The result of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative analysis showed the highest yield of tannins (2.52 g/100g) and lowest yield of flavonoid (0.05 g/100g). Saponin was 0.24 g/100g and C. glycoside 1.88 g/100g. The presence of these phytochemicals confirmed the pharmacological activities of aqueous extract of Allium sativumbulb.

[Huzaifa, U., Labaran, I., Bello, A.B. and Olatunde A. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Garlic(Alliumsativum) bulbs. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.01

 

Key word: Allium sativum, phytochemicals screening, Medicinal plants, bulb, Pharmacological effects

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2

Numerical Solution of the Duffin’s Equation based on 4th Order  Runge-Kutta Solver.

 

1ADEWOLE Olukorede.O, 2TAIWO O.A,  3Ewumi T.O

 

1,2Department of Physics & Electronics, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria.

3Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

mayowaadewole@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The Duffin’s equation arises in the motion of a simple pendulum. It’s been presented considering a Taylor’s series approximation of the first few terms in the sine series. Based on this approximation, a few numerical values is presented for the numerical solution of the differential equation based on one of the ODE solver, fundamentally 4th order Runge-Kutta based.

[ADEWOLE Olukorede. O,  TAIWO O.A, Ewumi T.O. Numerical Solution of the Duffin’s Equation based on 4th Order Runge-Kutta Solver. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):5-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.02

 

Key words: Duffin’s equation, Runge-Kutta method, Taylor’s series, ODE 45 solver

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3

Evaluation effect of KNO3 seed priming on seedling growth and cell membrane damage of sunflower (Heliantus annus) under salt stress

 

Rozbeh Farhoudi

 

1. Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran

rfarhoudi@gmail.com, rfarhoudi@iau-shoushtar.ir

 

Abstract: This research was carried out in order to evolution effect of seed priming on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower (Heliantus annus var. Azargol) in Islamic Azad University, shoushtar Branch, Iran, in 2011. The experimental design was two factors factorial (34) arranged in a completely randomized design; with six replications. The first factor was salt treatments (0, 40 and 80 mmol NaCl solution) and the second factor was seed priming (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 MPa KNO3 solution). Results showed sunflower GP, seedling fresh weight and seedling growth decreas under salinity condition but MGT and MDA concentration was increased. Results showed under saline condition seed priming with KNO3 improved sunflower seed germination, POX activity and seedling growth compared non priming seeds.

[Rozbeh Farhoudi. Evaluation effect of KNO3 seed priming on seedling growth and cell membrane damage of sunflower (Heliantus annus) under salt stress. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):6-11]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.03

 

Key words: salt stress, sunflower, peroxidase activity, priming, KNO3

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4

Roudaki in Samanids’ era

 

Amir Ahmadii

 

amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

  

Abstract: Roudaki is a great and famous in Samanids’ era vicissitudes and cultural royalty both are of features of his era, he experienced three steps of vicissitudes and changes in his life periods. The period of youth and poverty, the period of middle age and welfare. The period of senility and indigence. He is so experienced and he perceived the time well and got along with ups and downs. He believed that the life is an anonymous treasure of experiences. He showed all expectancy and disappointment, mirth and sorrow, absurdity and unreliability and deceiving of macrocosm (world) in his works. Sometimes he advised us to use its experiences and introduced it as the best teacher for humans and sometimes he ascribed it unreliable and meaningless and advised people to ignore the past and concentrate on present life, his attitude to life vicissitudes always is not optimistic but sometimes is pessimistic. Always this study tried to analyze the life from the Roudaki’s attitude and discuss the factors and causes, which originated the vicissitudes and changes.

[Amir Ahmadii. Roudaki in Samanids’ era. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):12-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.04

 

Key words: Roudaki, time. Macrocosm, vicissitudes and changes

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5

Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of annual Species (Scabiosa rotata) In northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar)

 

Hamideh Shadkami1٭, Ghassem Habibi bibalani2

 

1. M.Sc. On Plant Systematic-Ecology, Department of Plant biology, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran

2. Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

h_shadkamie@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Different grazing management treatments cause diverse changes in plant growth, and these changes affect the quantity and quality of the aboveground herbage biomass produced on rangelands. Grazing can change plant species composition, manipulate some plant and ecosystem processes, and alter levels and rates of plant growth. Most range management decisions are based on quantitative measurements of production and utilization of key range plant species. Research area is of rangeland of Till village from Shabestar distract with distance is 25 Kilometers from it. This area is semi arid area and this land covered with natural range land grasses. Root and shoot in these species were sampled in one stage from late Mar late to late Aug. roots of plants stable soils on slope and provide resistance against the forces that improve slope instability. We studied Scabiosa rotate (M.B.) to determine its characteristics. Data were collected with random sampling in this aria with 1m2 in 64 quadrate plots. Mean, Max, Men over ground biomass of this plant is 0.81, 12.06, 0.07 gr/m2 respectively.

[Hamideh Shadkami, Ghassem Habibi bibalani. Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of annual Species (Scabiosa rotata) in northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar). Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):16-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.05

 

Key words: Over ground biomass, Scabiosa rotate, and rangeland.

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6

Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of perennial Species (Lotus gebelia) in northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar)

 

Hamideh Shadkami1٭, Ghassem Habibi bibalani2

 

1. M.Sc. On Plant Systematic-Ecology, Department of Plant biology, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran

2. Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

h_shadkamie@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This area is mid arid area with natural range land grasses. Balance rainfall is yearly average area 160-250 mm. In the research Lotus gebelia L. biomass was been studied in under – over ground plant biomass in soil studding of area with measure dept of roots and height of stems, vegetal sample was collected form studying area with random plot 1m*m statistical plant during one the vegetative season in this research. Results of this research showed Lotus gebelia average root dept is about 18.71cm, average stem height is about 24.21 cm and average over ground of plant biomass is 1.65 gr-2/m2 and average under ground of plant biomass is about 0.52 gr-2/m2.

[Hamideh Shadkami, Ghassem Habibi bibalani. Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of perennial Species (Lotus gebelia) in northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar). Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):21-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.06

 

Key words: Root biomass, Lotus gebelia, rangeland and soil.

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7

Source apportionment of respirable particulate matter using principal component analysis – a case study from India

 

Suman1, Gurdeep Singh2, Asim Kumar Pal3

 

1SRF, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

2Professor & Head, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

3Associate Professor, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

sumanismd@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Principal Component based factor analysis (FA) is used to identify the sources of PM10 and to select source emission tracers by grouping the selected variables according to the common variations in order to adopt some control strategies. The development of air pollution control strategies is a wide preoccupation for human health. In order to achieve this purpose air pollution sources have to be accurately identified and quantified .Ambient air quality monitoring with particular reference to PM10 was carried over a period of one year in industrial and mining area of   Angul –Talcher region. The identification of source profiles for Angul –Talcher industrial area is achieved by a Principal Component based factor analysis (FA) using SPSS followed by a Varimax rotation technique. The higher particulate pollution in this area may be attributed to industrial activities, automobile traffic, re suspension of road dust, soil dust, and smelter. The results from this statistical method have enabled us to characterize and apportion fine particulate matter emissions on the basis of dependence of the factors on the elements. 

[Suman, Gurdeep Singh, Asim Kumar Pal. Source apportionment of respirable particulate matter using principal component analysis – a case study from India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):26-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.07

 

Keywords: PM10; source apportionment; principal component analysis; factor analysis; varimax rotation 

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8

Effect of Heavy metals on Morphological and Biochemical characteristics of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Seedlings

 

Preeti Pandey1, *, Dr. A.K. Tripathi 2

 

1 Research Scholar, Ecology & Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India)-248006

Contact No. +91-9411311838, Email: preeti.fri@gmail.com

2 Scientist-E, Ecology & Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India)-248006

Email: tripathiak@icfre.org

 

Abstract:  An investigation was conducted to study the differential action of heavy metals such as Cd, As and Pb on morphological and biochemical parameters of Albizia procera. These heavy metals at all concentration (1, 5 and 10 ppm) exhibited significant reduction in chlorophyll, crude protein, amino acid and soluble sugar quantity in leaves. These biochemical parameters showed a positive correlation with leaf area, root length, shoot length and biomass of the plant, Polyphenol, proline and ascorbic acid of leaves significantly increased over control but revealed negative correlation with root-shoot length, leaf area and biomass of plant at all treatment levels. Concentration dependent changes were observed in most of the parameters. Hence, the morphological and biochemical traits may serve to determine suitable bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution and also for the classification of the species as tolerant or sensitive to heavy metals.

[Preeti Pandey1, A.K. Tripathi. Effect of Heavy metals on Morphological and Biochemical characteristics of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Seedlings. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):33-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.08

 

Key words: Albizia procera- Biochemical indicator-Heavy metals- Toxicity

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9

Comparative Study of Biodiesels Produced from Unrefined Vegetable Oils

 

Ganiyu K. Latinwo1, David S. Aribike2 and Semiu A. Kareem3

 

1.       Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

2.       Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

3.       Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria.

kayodelatinwo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biodiesels were prepared according to standard methods from unrefined oils of cashew nut and palm kernel cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important for fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and density were measured from 100 to 15 oC, and differences in these physical properties occurred more frequently at lower temperatures when comparing the different cultivars. It was observed that their was no meaningful correlation among the biodiesels fatty acid profiles and either fuel viscosity or density as opposed to what was obtained for data of oil feedstocks. The cultivars data were also compared to biodiesel from soy. Biodiesel produced from cashew nut cultivar gives the best performance for use in diesel engines.

[Ganiyu K. Latinwo, David S. Aribike and Semiu A. Kareem. Comparative Study of Biodiesels Produced from Unrefined Vegetable Oils. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):39-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.09

 

Keywords: Cashew nut; palm kernel; viscosity; biodiesel

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10

An Assessment Of Some Anion Levels Of River Benue In Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

O.N. Maitera, A.I. Onen*

 

Department of Chemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. Email : alfredonen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The assessment of anion levels of River Benue in Adamawa state was carried in ten sampling stations. The sampling was done in the months of February, March, and April 2007, representing dry season, while the months of August, September, and October 2007, represent the wet season. The water samples collected were analysed using standard procedures. The mean concentrations of chloride, total sulphate, and total nitrate ranged from 55.2713.37 to 110.2321.41mg/l for dry season and 30.005.00 to 59.178.83mg/l for wet season, sulphate is between 18.02.05 and 35.06.05mg/l for dry season and 34.6911.2 and 72.3311.21mg/l for wet season, and total nitrate was between 2.440.23 and 4.230.22 for dry season and 14.000.22 and 22.331.34mg/l for wet season. Mean seasonal variation of NH3-N, NH4+, NH3, NO3-N, NO3- ranged between 1.310.05 and 2.020.10mg/l in dry season for NH3-N and 1.140.13 and 1.850.55mg/l for wet season, NH4+ was between 1.620.11 and 2.460.14mg/l for dry season and 1.500.19 and 2.430.43mg/l for wet season, NH3was between 1.530.10 and 2.110.09mg/l for dry season and 1.330.10 and 2.150.31mg/l for wet season, NO3-N were between 0.500.08 and 0.980.21mg/l for dry season and 0.510.16 and 0.910.04mg/l for wet season and that of NO3- was between 2.710.91 and 4.321.40 mg/l for dry season and 1.100.02 and 2.100.41mg/l for wet season. The values of the parameters were generally high in dry season than wet season; this may be due to low volume of water in the river at that time or as a result of washout from rocks or fertilizers/herbicides application from farms. The anion concentrations were found to be within the permissible limits of current WHO and NAFDAC standards.

[O.N. Maitera, A.I. Onen. An Assessment Of Some Anion Levels Of River Benue In Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):44-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.10

 

Key words: Assessment; Anions; River Benue; Parameter; Pollution.

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11

Effect of IBA and growing conditions on vegetative performance of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cuttings

 

Bani Bhushan Bhatt1*, Vishwapati Bhatt2

 

1.        Department of Horticulture, GBP UA&T, College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Hill campus Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal. 249 199, India

2.        Department of Botany, Govt P G College, Gopeshwar, Chamoli 246 401, India

bhushanbani@gmail.com , bhattvp3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations and three growing conditions (open area, under partial shade and under low cost polyhouse) on vegetative performance of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cuttings were investigated. The experiment was conducted from March 2007 to Oct 2009. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 500 ppm, performed the best, as far as the success rate is concerned while, planting the cuttings in open area was effective in increasing the success rate of the cuttings. The vegetative growth was recorded to be the highest in the cuttings planted under polyhouse conditions. The greatest sprouted bud percent (68.50) was obtained in 500 ppm followed by 1000 ppm (53.67), while lowest (36.55) occurred in control.

[Bani Bhushan Bhatt, Vishwapati Bhatt. Effect of IBA and growing conditions on vegetative performance of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cuttings. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):50-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.11

 

Key words: Kagzi lime, Vegetative propagation, Indole -3 butyric acid, Garhwal Himalaya.

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Prevalence And Drug Sensitivity Pattern Of Isolates From Wound Infection In Some Selected Hospitals In Kwara State, Nigeria

 

A.B. Opalekunde*,Y.S.Adesiji1,Y.D.Bukoye2, Ajao,A.T3.

 

*1Department of Medical microbiology and parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria,

2Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria.

3Department of Biology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s E-mail address: ahmedopalekunde@yahoo.com, +2348032290632

 

ABSTRACT: This study is designed to determine the prevalence and drug sensitivity of bacteria isolated from wound infection in Kwara States Hospitals. The results obtained from Civil Service Hospitals, Center Igboro and State Specialist Hospital Alagbado show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus aureus are the most frequent isolates which sensitive to some antibiotic such as Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime etc. and they also resistant to some antibiotics such as Ampicillin, Chloramphencol etc.

[A.B. Opalekunde, Y.S. Adesiji,Y.D. Bukoye, Ajao, A.T. Prevalence And Drug Sensitivity Pattern Of Isolates From Wound Infection In Some Selected Hospitals In Kwara State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):55-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.12

 

Key Words: Drug sensitivity, Isolate, Prevalence, Wound, Infection

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13

Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Berseem Hay By Ensiled And Dried Sweet Potato Vines On Performance Of Growing Rabbits

 

Gaafar, H.M.A.; A.I.A. Abd El-Lateif and Salwa B. Abd El-Hady

 

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

gaafar356@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Two experiments were done to study the effect of partial replacement of berseem hay by ensiled and dried sweet potato vines on the performance of growing rabbits. In the first one, 8 mature male NZW rabbits with an average body weight of 2.5 kg and 8 months old were used to determine digestibility coefficients and nutritive values of berseem hay (BH), ensiled sweet potato vines (SPVS) and dried sweet potato vines (SPVH). In the second one, 50 NZW growing rabbits of 60 days of age were used in a complete randomized design experiment with five treatments. The first group fed commercial rabbit diet including 40% BH (control diet), while in the other groups 50 or 100% of BH was replaced by SPVS and SPVH throughout the 70 days of experiment. Results of the first experiment showed that the contents of CP and NFE of SPVS were nearly similar to that of BH. While, the contents of EE and ash were higher and CF content was lower in SPVS and SPVH and CP content was lower in SPVH compared to BH. The SPVS had significantly (P<0.05) the highest digestibility coefficients of all nutrients and subsequently nutritive values followed by SPVH, while commercial diet had the lowest values. In the second experiment, The contents of OM and CF tended to decrease, but the contents of  NFE, EE and ash tended to increase in SPVS and SPVH diets compared with commercial diet. While, CP tend to decrease in SPVH diets than that of commercial diet and SPVS diets. Rabbits fed 100% SPVS diet showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest digestibility coefficients of all nutrients and subsequently nutritive values and TVFA's concentration. While, rabbits fed commercial diet recorded the highest pH value and NH3-N concentration (P<0.05). Rabbits fed 100% SPVS diet showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest final body weight, total and daily weight gain, total and net revenue and improvement, slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat weight and percentage. Rabbits fed commercial diet showed the highest average daily and total DM intake and amount of DM/kg gain, feed cost and feed cost/kg gain. Rabbits fed 50% SPVS diet showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest DM and ash contents, while those fed 100% SPVS diet had the highest CP and EE contents.

[Gaafar, H.M.A.; A.I.A. Abd El-Lateif and Salwa B. Abd El-Hady. Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Berseem Hay By Ensiled And Dried Sweet Potato Vines On Performance Of Growing Rabbits. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):60-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.13

 

Key words: NZW rabbits, SPVS, SPVH, digestibility, body weight gain, feed conversion, economic efficiency, carcass traits.

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Antifungal activity of Pithophora oedogonia against plant pathogens

 

*Pamela Sukumaran and **Thevanathan, R

 

*Department of Botany, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600 006. Tamilnadu India

pamelasukumaran@yahoo.com

**Professor CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600 025. Tamilnadu India

thevanathan@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Methanol and n-hexane extracts of the green alga, Pithophora oedogonia were tested for antiifungal activity against isolates of two plant pathogenic fungi namely, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Dreschlera oryzae. Hexane extract inhibited the radial mycelial growth of Dreschlera oryzae (< 100 ppm) In contrast, methanolic extract promoted the radial growth of the two phytopathogens. Both methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Pithophora oedogonia delayed conidial formation in Colleltotrichum lindemuthianum. Treatment with hexane extract of the alga delayed conidial initiation by 4 to 6 days. The findings suggest that the ‘nuisance alga’. Pithophora oedogonia, could serve as a potential source of biologically active compound for agricultural application.

[Pamela Sukumaran and Thevanathan, R. Antifungal activity of Pithophora oedogonia against plant pathogens. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):67-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.14

 

Keywords: Antifunal, plant pathogen, Radial mycelia growth

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Effects of Akidi (Vigna unguiculata sub spp. Sesquipedalis) Planting Density on Growth, Yields and Land Use Efficiency of Akidi/Cassava Intercrop

 

T. U. U. Ekpo1, N. U. Ndaeyo 2

 

1Agricultural Education Department, College of Education Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

dr_nundaeyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, College of Education, Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria to determine the effects of akidi (vegetable cowpea) planting density on growth, yields and productivity of akidi /cassava intercropping system in 2008 and 2009 planting seasons. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Treatments were seven akidi populations of 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, 70,000 plants/ha and a sole cassava. Akidi was also planted sole and in intercropped with cassava. Results indicated that the average plant height of 180.66 and 180.74 cm obtained from the akidi plots at 60,000 and 70,000 plants/ha was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the average of 170.12cm obtained from sole cassava. Similar trend was also observed in cassava leaf area index. A significantly (P<0.05) lowest number of pods/plant (7.37) was obtained from the intercropped plots of akidi (70,000 plants/ha). Dry seed yield of 313.00 kg/ha obtained from the sole plots of akidi (60,000 plants/ha) was significantly higher than 284.97 kg/ha obtained from intercropping akidi at the same planting density. Akidi plots at 60,000 and 70,000 plants/ha produced significantly higher cassava tuberous root yields than the yields obtained from sole cassava and from the plots of other akidi densities in the intercrop. Although akidi at 70,000 plants/ha produced the highest cassava tuberous root yield advantage by 30.1 % over sole cassava; the highest land equivalent ratio (2.34) was however obtained from akidi plots at 60,000 plants/ha. From this study, it appears that integration of optimum akidi density (60,000 plants/ha) in cassava intercrop can enhance cassava growth, tuberous root yield and increased land use efficiency.

[T. U. U. Ekpo, N. U. Ndaeyo. Effects of Akidi (Vigna unguiculata sub spp. Sesquipedalis) Planting Density on Growth, Yields and Land Use Efficiency of Akidi/Cassava Intercrop. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):72-78]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 15. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.15

 

Keywords:  Akidi; cassava; Intercrop; planting density; yields; land use efficiency.

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16

Strategies For Development Of Effective Educational Packages For The Universal Basic Education

 

C.O. OKORO

 

Faculty of Education, University Of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

omadesope@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme is a properly articulated programme intended to improve the poor condition of the educational system in Nigeria especially as it concerns literacy and skills .For this programme to achieve its laudable goals, there is need to move from topical factual and subject oriented to conceptual contextual learner- based activities that can effectively transform learners and societies. Thus this identifies three educational packages as - scientific and technological literacy, vocational and enterprise/entrepreneurship passports. These packages which are selected because of their potency in the sustenance of individuals and the society are fully discussed; recommendations and conclusion were also proffered.

[C.O. OKORO. Strategies For Development Of Effective Educational Packages For The Universal Basic Education. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):79-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 16. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.16

 

Key words: effective educational packages, universal basic education

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17

Different Rights of the Persons with Disabilities in the law Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Amir Ahmadii

 

amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Persons with disabilities should take part in peaceful societies and associations like the other people of the society that these societies include general societies that all other people take part in it and also the associations and gatherings specific for the persons with disabilities. Article 3 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights also recognizes life, freedom and security to be the right of each person.

[Amir Ahmadii. Different Rights of the Persons with Disabilities in the law Islamic Republic of Iran. Rep Opinion 2014;6(8):84-89]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 17. doi:10.7537/marsroj060814.17

 

Keywords: Right; Person; Disability; law; Islamic Republic; Iran

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 1, 2014

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