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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 6 - Issue 9, Cumulated 63, September 25, 2014, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers. doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Problems of Herbicides Application among Farmers in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria


Musa D Baba1, Ishaq D Sanchi1, Damana B Senchi1 and  Taibat A Manga2 


1Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop Production Technology, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.



Abstract: The study examined the problems of herbicides application in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting farmers proportionate to the population. Data were collected through the use structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty five (125) farmers. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation. Result revealed that 32% of the farmers are within the age bracket of 31 – 40 years, majority (64%) of the farmers were males. The result also revealed that 64% of the farmers in the study area were married, majority (80%) of the farmers in the study had one form of formal education or the other ranging from primary, secondary or tertiary education, 64% of the farmers have a farm size of 1 – 5 hectares, while about 60% of the farmers in the study area had farming experience of between 1 – 10 years. The result further confirmed that 71.2% of the farmers applied herbicides in the morning, majority (78%) of the farmers used non-selective herbicides, while on the problems associated with herbicides application 48.8% of the farmers stated that they had laboured breathing while applying herbicides. Further revealed from the result is the fact that all the farmers use one form of precautionary measure or the other before applying herbicides. However, on the factors militating against herbicides application by farmers was high cost of herbicides as it was ranked first with 45.6%. The test of hypothesis revealed that only sex (0.280**) and educational level (0.188*) were found to have significant relationship with problems of herbicide application at 1% and 5% probability levels, respectively. It is therefore recommended that Agricultural Development Project (ADP) should organize training for farmers on application of herbicides and as a way of minimizing cost of herbicides, farmers should form associations so as to pull resources together so as to buy herbicides directly from the distributors and disburse among their members.

[Musa D Baba, Ishaq D Sanchi, Damana B Senchi  and  Taibat A Manga. Problems of Herbicides Application among Farmers in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.01


Key words: Problems, Herbicides Application, Farmers, Zuru, Kebbi

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Two Cases of Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Hyderabad, Sindh: A Case Report:


Amber Mahmood, Saira Baloch


Medical Research Centre, Liaquat University of Health & Medical Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.


Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that causes muscle weakness and progressive loss of movement. It is a hereditary condition marked by progressive weakening and wasting of the muscles. This is the case report and aimed to investigate two cases of Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Hyderabad, Sindh. The patients diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy. Laboratory findings performed such as ECG, EMG, and serum AST, LDH, CK. The primary reasons are ignorance and poverty.

[Amber Mahmood, Saira Baloch. Two Cases of Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Hyderabad, Sindh: A Case Report. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):6-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.02


Keywords: Spinal muscular atrophy, Clinical investigations, case report

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Rumen Dry Matter Degradability and Preference by West African Dwarf Goats for selected Multipurpose Trees in Nigeria


Akinyemi A. Fadiyimu,* Adebowale N. Fajemisin1 and Moses O. Arigbede2


*Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure

1Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria. Tel: +234 0803 374 6415; debofajemisin@yahoo.com

2Department of Pasture and Range Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Tel: +44; arigbede2002@yahoo.com

*Corresponding author: yemifadiyimu@yahoo.com. Tel: +234 0803 355 9984


Abstract: The incorporation of trees into farming systems is a viable option to profitable and sustainable crop and livestock production. Trees help to reduce reliance on fertilizers, minimize soil erosion, maintain soil fertility, ensure plant diversity and provide a range of useful products like fodder, mulch, timber, food, medicine and crop protection. In Africa, a wide range of tree species are available but only few have been given detailed nutritive characterization taking into consideration both plant and animal factors. This study involved evaluation of seven local and four exotic multipurpose trees for proximate and mineral compositions, rumen dry matter degradability and preference by West African Dwarf goats, with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium as controls. Crude protein content varied from 17.5% for Dialium guineense to 29.9% for L. leucocephala. The average crude fibre content was 19.8%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in nutrient composition of legume and non-legume browse types. Ca content ranged from 0.02% for Alchornea cordifolia to 1.10% for Grewia pubescens while P content ranged from 0.004% for Calliandra calothyrsus to 0.2% for A. cordifolia. Potential degradation varied from 32.8% to 87.5% for D. guineeense and A. cordifolia respectively while effective degradability was highest in G. pubescens and least in Xylia xylocarpa. G. sepium was the most preferred species by WAD goats followed by D. guineense while Milletia thonningi and Enterolobium cyclocarpum were least preferred. D. guineense, Inga edulis, A. cordifolia and G. pubescens were recommended as potential ruminant feed resources.

[Akinyemi A. Fadiyimu, Adebowale N. Fajemisin and Moses O. Arigbede. Rumen Dry Matter Degradability and Preference by West African Dwarf Goats for selected Multipurpose Trees in Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):8-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.03


Keywords: Trees, degradability, preference, WAD goats, Nigeria

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THE “J-CLOCK”!...(A New theory on “Cosmo clock”)


M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.


M. Arulmani, B.E.



V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.




Abstract: It is focused that global level offices and parliaments are having their own clock in their office for time keeping culture. Different clocks show different time. Sometime clocks are not at all working due to exhaust of “Battery Energy”. If so… which clock shows correct time?... which clock is so accurate and precise?...Scientists believe that the “AGE” of origin of Universe itself could be precisely estimated through “ATOMIC CLOCK”. As such based on Big Bang theory the origin of universe was so precisely estimated as “13.7 billion years” even to the accuracy level of digit. It is focused that before commencement of any event “CLOCK” is required and to be switched on for measuring the total time of event occurred.

Is there any inbuilt clock mechanism during origin of early universe?...

i)                   Can “Atomic clock” precisely measure and predict the age of origin of Dark matters?... (Ionic behaviour)

ii)                 Can “Atomic clock” precisely measure and predict the age of origin of Nuclear matters?... (particle behaviour)

iii)                Can “Atomic clock” precisely measure and predict the age of origin of Biological matters?... (pulse behaviour)

iv)               Can “Atomic clock” preciously measures and predict the age of origin of Atomic matters?... (field and wave behaviour)

This scientific research focus that “cosmo clock” shall be considered as the universal precise clock and “J-clock” shall be considered as the clock exactly measure the absolute age of origin of all non-biological matters and biological matters of “early universe”. The philosophy of “clock” and “clock elements” shall be represented as below.

The clock shall be considered as having inbuilt oscillatory circuit (vibration) and the clock elements shall be considered as having ‘three-in-one’ in built parameters for precise measurement of ‘TIME’ and ‘SPACE’ since dark age.

i)                               Right dot shall mean minutes measurement

ii)                             Left dot shall mean seconds measurement

iii)                            Centre dot shall mean hours measurement

“The philosophy of atomic clock, conventional quartz clock, biological clock, master clock, water clock, pendulum clock, digital clock, blue clock, 12 hour clock, 24 hour clock, o’clock, optical clock, International atomic time, Greenwich mean time, coordinated universal time, atomic beam standard, fountain standard, Ion trap standard, NIST-F1, NIST-F2 standard might be generically derived from the philosophy of “J-CLOCK” and “COSMO CLOCK”.

[M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. THE “J-CLOCK”!...(A New theory on “Cosmo clock”). Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):14-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.04


2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of word “clock”?..

b)                 Philosophy of word “Age”?

c)                 Philosophy of Dark age?...

d)                 Philosophy of Nuclear age?

e)                 Philosophy of Biological age?

f)                  Philosophy of Plasma age?

g)                 Philosophy of Atomic age?

h)                 Philosophy of Evolution age?

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Integrating Microteachin g Theory + Practice in Concurrent and Consecutive Teacher Education Programmes: Benefits and Challenges.


1. Dr. B C. Ijioma, 2. Dr. M. N. Obasi & 3. Dr. P.C Ifegbo.


1. School of Natural Sciences

2. School of Social Sciences

3. School of Education,

Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri.


Abstract: Professionalism in teachers will be attained if student-teachers are exposed to best practices in content and process of teacher education curriculum to enable them acquire not only sound content knowledge but also pedagogic –content knowledge to become effective and efficient teachers. Since the acquisition of a repertoire of pedagogic skills is critical for professional standards to be attained, it becomes imperative for micro-teaching practical to be an integral part of teacher production. Unfortunately, the only course that provides these skills in a performance- based approach is lacking in the NUC – teacher education curriculum and the TRCN - PDE curriculum for teacher trainees. Microteaching practical is the only laboratory experienced approach that will provide these skills for both the concurrent and consecutive programmes. The purpose of this study therefore, is to identify the benefits and challenges of microteaching theory and practice in the teacher education programme. It further recommends that: the NUC/TRCN-PDE teacher education curricula should be reviewed in line with current best practices in teacher education.

[B C. Ijioma, M. N. Obasi, P.C Ifegbo. Integrating Microteachin g Theory + Practice in Concurrent and Consecutive Teacher Education Programmes: Benefits and Challenges. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):22-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.05


Keywords: Professionalism, best practices, repertoire of pedagogic skills.

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Studies on chemical constituents and biological activity of Pulicaria incisa subsp. Incisa (Asteraceae)


Emad A. Ewais1*, Mohamed M. Abd El-Maboud2 and Muhammad I. Haggag1


1.  Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

2.  Ecology and Range Management Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Phytochemical screening and chemical constituents of aerial parts (flower, leaf and stem) of Pulicaria incise subsp. Incisa were investigated. Soluble carbohydrates, total nitrogen, total protein, total phenolics and total flavonoids were increased in flower. Water content, organic matter, total and insoluble carbohydrates, total lipids, total tannins, total saponins and alkaloids were increased in leaf, while total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash, water soluble and insoluble ash and crude fibre were increased in stem. Preliminary phytochemical screening in aerial parts of Pulicaria revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponines, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides. Sterols were absent in stem. Antimicrobial studies by used 7 bacterial strains and 5 fungal strains showed that the plant extract greatly inhibited the growth of most of tested microbial strain. Moreover, anti tumor studies showed that the total extract of the plant produced high effect on the specific carcinoma cell.

[Ewais EA, Abd El-Maboud MM and Haggag MI. Studies on chemical constituents and biological activity of Pulicaria incisa subsp. Incisa (Asteraceae). Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):27-33]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.06


Key words: Chemical composition; Phytochemical; Pulicaria incisa subsp. Incisa; antitumor; antimicrobial.

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 Isolation and Characterization  of Extracellular Protease Producing Fungi from Tannery Effluent.


Oyeleke Samuel Bankole1, Erena Nuhu Bako 2, Manga Shuibu Bala3,  Sule Sahabi Manga4.


1.Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

2. Integrated Science Department, College Education, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto State.Sokoto State, Nigeria.

4. Department of Biological Sciences, Kebbi State University of Technology, Alero, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Email: profoyeleke@gmail.com. Phone number +2348035968297


Abstract: The isolation and characterization of extracellular protease producing fungi from tannery effluent was examined, the result reveals the isolation of 2 fungi.  Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. They were tested for their ability to produce extracellular protease  Aspergillus niger demonstrated the ability at 72 hours with enzyme activity of 0.43 ug/ml,.  The highest enzyme activity of 0.61 ug/ml was demonstrated on the 120 hours.  The effect of temperature and pH reveals that a niger at 60oC and pH 7 respectively, However the production of proteases by Aspergillus niger shows the potentiality of these organism to be used for industrial purpose, thus saving the huge foreign exchange used for its procurement.

[Oyeleke Samuel Bankole, Erena Nuhu Bako, Manga Shuibu Bala, Sule Sahabi Manga. Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Protease Producing Fungi from Tannery Effluent. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):34-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.07


Key words: Isolation, Characterization, Extracellular, Protease and Tannery effluent.

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 (A New theory on “Atheism”)

M. Arulmani, B.E.



V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.




Abstract: This scientific research article focus that the ‘supernature’ of universe and its existence shall be considered as personised form called ’PERIYAR’. The word Periyar considered derived from Proto Indo Europe root mean “GOD”. God is Atheist?... (or) Theist?... This article focus that Periyar shall be considered as GOD and ATHEIST. This research article further focus that Atheism shall be considered as the fundamental law of Supernature which shall mean “ONE GOD” rather than “NO GOD”. “Various philosophy related to Atheism, Strong Atheism, Weak Atheism, Theism, Deism, monotheism, panotheism polytheism, Henotheism, Kathenotheis, monolatrism, ponnentheism, polydeism, Autotheism, Eutherism, Dystheism, Misotheism, Transtheism, Ignosticism, egnosticism etc. shall be considered as derived from the fundamental law of ATHEISM. - Author 

[M. Arulmani, B.E., V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. PERIAR IS ATHEIST? (A New theory on “Atheism”). Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):39-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.08 

Key Words:

a)          Philosophy of Atheism?...

b)          Philosophy of Theism?...

c)           Philosophy of Ethicism?...

d)          Philosophy of Religionism?...

e)          Philosophy of Ethosism?...

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 Factor associated with Women’s Empowerment based on NDHS and NFHS data: A comparative study between Nigeria and North India.


Dharma Raj, Asabe Ibrahim


Department of Statistics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi India.


Abstract: The aim of the present study is to estimate women’s empowerment based on some autonomous factors like women’s households decision making power and their attitude towards wife beating using different variables. We have seen that in Nigeria, almost half of the population of currently married women were considered to have low empowerment and only one third are highly empowered; while in the case of North India about one fourth of the women have low empowerment and about half of them are highly empowered. Looking at women justification for wife beating, in both populations considered in this work, greater number of women opposed the idea of wife beating by husband, but there is about 12 percent higher tolerance in Nigeria compared to North India. Increase in the level education and age of respondents contributes positively to autonomy of women in both study populations. Place of residence in North India have more pronounced effect on the autonomy of women than in Nigeria. We also proposed an instrument to calculate Women’s Empowerment Index (WEI) for both populations based on the two autonomous factors, that is Household Decision Making Power (HDMP) and Attitudes Towards Wife Beating (ATWB). Result of the WEI signifies less empowerment for Nigerian women and greater empowerment for women in North India.

[Dharma Raj, Asabe Ibrahim. Factor associated with Women’s Empowerment based on NDHS and NFHS data: A comparative study between Nigeria and North India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):46-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.09


Keywords: Women’s Empowerment Index, Decision making, Attitudes.

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 Efficacy of herbicide versus manual extraction of weeds on yield attributes of rain-fed paddy (Oryza sativa L.) in Far Western Nepal


Mandev Bhatt*, Bhupendra S. Jeena**, Chandra P.S. Bohara*** and Pankaj Sah****


* Department of Botany, Siddhanath Science Campus Tribhuwan University Mahendranagar, (Nepal).

** Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, (India).

*** Department of Forestry, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, (India).

**** Department of Applied Sciences, (Applied Biology Section) Higher College of Technology (HCT) Al-khuwair PO Box 74, PC 133, Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)

Corresponding Author:

Email: bhattmd@rediffmail.com, pankaj@hct.edu.om, drpankajsah1@gmail.com


Abstract: Field investigations were carried out during 2004-2005 to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides and manual extraction of weeds in two varieties of rainfed paddy (Radha-4 & Neemai). Field experiments were conducted at farmers’ agricultural fields at Tilachaur in Mahendranagar, Nepal. A total of four experiments were laid down in randomised block design (RBD) with three replications each. Hand weeding was done twice at 25 and 50 days after broadcasted paddy sowing, and proved to be better than herbicide treatment in the controlling weeds and improving yield attributes of paddy. The mean maximum grain yield was 52.2 q ha-1 in Radha-4 and 46.4 q ha-1 in Neemai in weed-free conditions. In twice hand-weeded plots the grain yield was lower than the maximum by 9.6% in variety Radha-4 and 2.2% in Neemai. In herbicide treated plots the yield being 12.1% and 4.1% lower than weed-free plots. Weeds resulted in 42.3% and 34.7% loss in paddy yield in Radha-4 and Neemai as evident from the comparison of the unweeded and weed-free plots. The mean maximum paddy height attained in Radha-4 and Neemai was better in weed-free (TT) plots (105.1 and 133.9 cm, respectively) compared to 91.2 and 129.7 cm in unweeded plots (T0).

[Mandev Bhatt, Bhupendra S. Jeena, Chandra P.S. Bohara and Pankaj Sah. Efficacy of herbicide versus manual extraction of weeds on yield attributes of rain-fed paddy (Oryza sativa L.) in Far Western Nepal. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):55-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.10


Key words:            Paddy, weeds, yields attributes, herbicide, Nepal

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 Birds Of Three Different Forest (Sal, Pine And Oak) Habitats In Nainital District (Western Himalaya) Of Uttarakhand, India


Kamal Kant Joshi1, Dinesh Bhatt2


1 Department of Environment and Chemistry, DIT,  Dehradun, Uttarakhand India

2Avian Diversity and Bioacoustics Lab, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar 249 404, Uttarakhand, India



Abstract: The present study were made to estimate the avian fauna in terms of species richness and diversity and guild structure in forest habitats of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (350 - 2450m asl; 290 N). Field studies were conducted during January 2006 to December 2007. Total 88, 106 and 95 species were recorded from Nainital, Bhowali and Haldwani forest habitats. A checklist of 160 avian species has produced of Nainital district forest habitat. It is suggested that this study provide a base line structure for further study on species distribution in different forest habitat in Nainital district.

[Kamal Kant Joshi, Dinesh Bhatt. Birds Of Three Different Forest (Sal, Pine And Oak) Habitats In Nainital District (Western Himalaya) Of Uttarakhand, India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):59-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.11


Key words: Diversity, Richness, Nainital, Species

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 The effect of drought stress on transport trend and nutritional elements accumulation in corn plant roots


Tayeb Saki Nejad1*, Abdolmahdi Bakhshande2, Saeed Boromand Nasab3, Khoshnaz payande1


 1- Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

2- Professor Department of Physiology, Ramin Agriculture University

3- Professor Department of Irrigation, Shahid Chamran University

*Corresponding Arthur: Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com


Abstract: The research was performed in research field of Islamic Azad University in the south west of Ahwaz city in Iran with average raining 256mm/ year with dry and semi dry weather as split plat plan in completely random blocks plan (Main plot: the different volume of watering and sub plot: plant grow phases) by 4 repetitions in year 2006-7. Root sampling was done by using the drilling of three solid depth (A=0-20, B=20-40, C=40-60 cm) to determine nutritional elements nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and sodium. The transmission process nitrogen and potassium elements in different levels of water stress was from top of the root to aerobic organs and by increasing the stress stringency this moving process was fasted. Equation line gradient depth regression A of root Y=-0.239x+2.515 presents the rapid process of transmission and discharge azoth element, the most high percent of nitrogen and potassium density was in depth A, the equation line gradient of linear regression the process of moving potassium in depth A shown Y=-0.506X+2.38 that the discharge and transmission process of potassium in stress water conditions is more and faster than azoth, the phosphor moving process in the root length is low and it was same as nitrogen element with this different that the turnover volume of phosphor was lower than nitrogen and the most aggression of phosphor is in the depth C of root and it was by the more intense stress of water, the aggregation of phosphor element is not decreased considerately, the gradient of sodium linear regression equation Y=0.09x-005 shows the most high percent of sodium aggregation in the top of root, the transmission of sodium to up was very limited in the root by the water stress, the most aggregation and density of ion sodium in B, C depths and specially in C depth and the transmission process in this two highs is very little toward the A depths and the most absorption sodium has been aggregated in C depth and the sodium aggregation was increased in C depth by the more aggregation stress of water.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad, Abdolmahdi Bakhshande, Saeed Boromand Nasab, Khoshnaz payande. The effect of drought stress on transport trend and nutritional elements accumulation in corn plant roots. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):68-77]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.12


Key words: drought stress, root corn, nutritional elements, equation regression movies

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Investigation on Antimicrobial activity of Dioscorea Pentaphylla from Mid-Western Ghats, India.


Prakash G.a*,, Joy Hoskeri H.b and Hosetti B. B.a


a.                    Toxicology Lab, Department of Applied Zoology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga Dist, Karnataka State, India -577451.

b.                   Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga Dist, Karnataka State, India -577451.

Email: prakash.geriyol@gmail.com, basaling@yahoo.co.in


ABSTRACT: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant Dioscorea pentaphylla from mid Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration dependent susceptibility towards crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100μg/100μL. All the extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against S. aureus (ATCC-20852), P. aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and K. pneumoniae (MTCC-618) respectively. and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, T. rubrum, M. gypseum, T. tonsurans, M. audouini, and C. albicans with antibacterial drug Ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug Fluconozole (50μg/100μL) as the standard drug. Out of three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibition concentration against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant result against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and supported the traditional use of D. Pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

[Prakash G., Joy Hoskeri H. and Hosetti B. B. Investigation on Antimicrobial activity of Dioscorea Pentaphylla from Mid-Western Ghats, India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):78-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.13


Keywords : Antifungal, Antibacterial, Crude extracts, Dioscorea pentaphylla, MIC, Traditional medicine

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 The Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against pesticides Induced testicular toxicity. (Histopathological and Histochemical Studies)


Azza M. Gawish


Department of Animal, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: The present study envestigated the efficiency of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), in ameliorating some of biochemical and histological alternations induced by intoxication with a mixture of well known pesticides for 28 days. 4 groups of rats were treated as follows G1; untreated control animals, G2 (p-mix, consists of 1/60LD50 chloropyrifos (2mg/Kg b.wt) 1/200 LD50 of fenitrothion (2.5 mg/km b.wt). G3 ( ALA 200 mg/animal), G4 (p-mix+ALA). Blood samples were taken at, 14 and 28 days for further biochemical parameters and specimens of testes were subjected for histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. In light microscopic examinations, histopathological observation of the treated rats revealed significant alterations in the testis tissue of pesticides mixture treated group including focal mild testicular damage, blood hemorrhage and hypospermatogensis, necrosis and atrophy. Also the histological results using masson-trichrome stain revealed various fibrosis grades between the testis tissues upon the exposure to the insecticides. Immunohistochemical study, using TUNEL technique showed an increase in the incidence of positive apoptotic cells between the germ cells. Also complete depletion of the level of acid phosphatase enzyme which involve in the biosynthesis of testosterone in the testis tissue. The treatment with alpha lipoic acid showed many degrees of improvements in the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic germ cells and the interstitial cells. Also decrease in the grade of fibrosis between testis tissues. The incidence of apoptotic cells level recorded back to its normal view. Conclusion: The biochemical, hiopathological, immunohistological reports supported that the pesticides have many implicated changes on the testes and reproduction and the antioxidants like lipoic acid obtained many trials to get ameliorative effects on the toxicity of pesticides.

[Azza M. Gawish. The Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against pesticides Induced testicular toxicity. (Histopathological and Histochemical Studies). Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):84-94]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.14


Keywords: Pesticides – Reproduction - Apaptosis - Fibrosis – Antioxidants.

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 Extraction of Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions of bromide ion using 1- phenyl -3- methyl -4- trichloro acetyl pyrazolone - 5 in benzene and hexane.


*Chukwu U. John, Uzoukwu B. Augustus


*Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. Lydiuche@yahoo.com


Abstract: Extraction of Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions of bromide ion using 1- phenyl -3- methyl -4- trichloro acetyl pyrazolone - 5 (HTcP) in benzene and hexane organic medium have been studied. From the results, extraction of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions were masked by anionic complexes of the bromide ions throughout the pH range of 0 – 7 studied. However, Cu2+ ions were quantitatively extracted from aqueous solutions of bromide ions, thus presenting an analytical technique for the efficient separation of Cu2+ ions from Co2+ and Ni2+ ions. Increase in bromide ion concentration from 0.05 to 0.3M had a salting out effect on the extraction of Cu2+ ions from 97.44% to 98.79% in benzene/HTcP medium and 97.13% to 98.33% in hexane/HTcP. On application of statistical treatment using slope analysis, the values of pH1/2, log Kex and log Kd have been calculated and presented. Hence the complex formed is Cu(TcP)2. Generally, extraction of Cu2+ ions was found to be more efficient in hexane/HTcP at relatively lower pH value in comparison to extraction into benzene/HTcP, while optimal percentage yield was slightly higher in benzene/HTcP than hexane/HTcP solution. This has been attributed to lower dielectric constants of hexane (2.02) and lower dipole moment in comparison to that of benzene (2.28). Finally, molecular modeling shows that the stable structure of the ligand derivative (HTcP) was quite different in orientation from the parent ligand (1- phenyl -3- methyl -4- acyl pyrazolone – 5- HPMAP) and has been attributed to the bulky nature of the trichloro unit.

[Chukwu U. John, Uzoukwu B. Augustus. Extraction of Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions of bromide ion using 1- phenyl -3- methyl -4- trichloro acetyl pyrazolone - 5 in benzene and hexane. Rep Opinion 2014;6(9):95-101]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 15. doi:10.7537/marsroj060914.15


Keywords: buffer solutions; Liquid-liquid extraction; slope analysis

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 2, 2014. 

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