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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 6 - Issue 10, Cumulated 64, October 25, 2014, ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

A JOURNEY TO “WHITE PLANET”?

(A New theory on “White Mars”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: CONGRADULATIONS TO MOTHER INDIA!... for having reached the MARS PLANET (also called as “RED PLANET”) and become “PIONEER” in search of existence of life and possibility of Transforming future human populations into MARS PLANET for inhabitation for overcoming the earth climate issues and subsistence of Life. This scientific research article focus that “WHITE MARS” shall be considered as the only planet in the entire cosmo Universe suitable for supporting and subsistence of human life besides “EARTH PLANET”. Hence journey has to be continued till further to reach WHITE MARS near white hole J-RADIATION region of universe for further exploration. This research further focus that there are different types of Mars planet such as White Mars, Dark Mars, Blue Mars, Green Mars, Red Mars consider exist in “different galaxies” under different Environmental conditions. White mars shall be considered as the 1st stage and red mars shall be considered as the 5th stage of location in the material universe under “strong downward gravity” of different level. It is further focused that the ‘HUMAN ANCESTOR’ shall be considered lived in WHITE MARS in the early universe with extraordinary intelligence and wisdom. During the course of expanding universe the human ancestor considered TRANSFORMED TO EARTH PLANET from white mars due to varied climatic condition. The transformation shall be considered like ‘INFANT’ transformed from ‘MOTHER’S WOMB’ which is considered as ‘ONE WAY JOURNEY’ and ‘RETURN JOURNEY’ is not possible until and ‘REBIRTH’. WHITE MARS belong to white galaxy (also called milky galaxy) shall be considered as “Mother of all planets”. Other mars planets belong to Dark galaxy, Blue galaxy, Green galaxy, Red galaxy shall be considered as supporting galaxies responsible for various environmental conditions of universe and not meant for supporting inhabitation of human life”. (Author) It is focused that the living Earth Planet in the Universe considered located at the stage say ‘TAMBARAM’ and ‘Red Mars’ considers located at the stage “GUINDY”. The white mars considers located at stage of ‘PARK STATION’. Hence, further journey has to be performed through various stages of ST. THOMAS MOUNT, SAIDAPET, EGMORE to reach white Mars ultimately.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. A JOURNEY TO “WHITE PLANET”? (A New theory on “White Mars”). Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.01

 

2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “White Mars”?...

b)                 Philosophy of “Dark Mars”?...

c)                 Philosophy of “Blue Mars”?...

d)                 Philosophy of “Green Mars”?...

e)                 Philosophy of “Red Mars”?...

f)                  Philosophy of “Planet Ring”?...

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The study of simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students

 

*Parviz Asgari

 

Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

*Corresponding Arthur: Askary47@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present research investigated the simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students of Science and Research University, Ahvaz Branch. In this research, perfectionism and imposture feeling are predictable variables and general mental health is the criterion variable. The examined sample consists of 131 male and 130 female students of Ahvaz Science and Research University who were selected through multi- stage random sampling method. In order to collect data, four questionnaires of Ahvaz reality distortion Scale, Clance’s Imposture Feeling Scale, Ahvaz Perfectionism Scale and SCL 25 Scale were used. The present study is a fundamental research of correlation method and in order to analyze data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multi-variable Correlation Coefficient were utilized. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between perfectionism and imposture feeling with mental health. Moreover, the correlation between perfectionism and imposture feeling was significantly positive.

[Parviz Asgari. The study of simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):9-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.02

 

Key words: perfectionism, imposture feeling, mental health

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3

The estimating of discharge by physiographic factors in east of Gilan basins,Iran-South western of Caspian Sea.

 

Bahman Ramezani

 

Associate professor in Geography, Department Of Geography, Rasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

bahman@iaurasht.ac.ir, bahmanr2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The greatest civilization has located in marginal rivers and it has developed, the condition of Iran climate, water is an important in environmental development in recent years control of nature is for development of agricultural, obtain of industrial and drinking water. The aim of paper is recognition of relationship between discharges and physiographic factors in east of Gilan  (Lahejan- Chaboksar) with uses of 20 years data of statically period (1986-2006). The research method uses of correlation and multi regressions in selected basins between discharge and physiographic fact. The result of paper has shown that between discharge and physiographic factors has reliability relationship and between discharge and 5 variables of physiographic factors is high relationship (p-value <0/05) and the curve of comparative between fore case discharge and 5 factors model is very near and sure able.In the end of paper submitted of monthly and yearly equation too.

[Bahman Ramezani. The estimating of discharge by physiographic factors in east of Gilan basins,Iran-South western of Caspian Sea. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):15-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.03

 

Keywords: Water catchment's, East of Gilan, Correlation, Multi regression

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4

Study of 31 economically important traits in 20 silkworm Bombyx mori varieties

 

Alireza Seidavi

 

Department of Animal Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

*Corresponding Author Email: alirezaseidavi@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Aim of this experiment was study of 31 economically important traits in twenty silkworm Bombyx mori varieties. These varieties included 31, 1005, 113 (2029), 153 (Xihang-1), 511810133-3-3, F6101, 1433-15, 1126 (111), 113-K, 1003-4, M2-6-18 (109), M2-6-22 (107), 151 (103M-1-1), Xihang 2/3, M-1-1103, 7409, 107-K, 103, T5-M, and 101433-1-4. Rearing in young silkworm duration was performed by chopped leaves and paraffin paper coverage and in the adult duration was performed with leaves and branches. It was used rice straw as cocoon making structure for cocoon spinning in each replication separately. After cocoon spinning development (seven days after starting of cocoon spinning), obtained cocoons gathered and sorted based on form, thickness, clarity etc to four classes include good, middle, double and low cocoons. It was calculated ratio of each class cocoon for each replication separately. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if the differences found between treatments and the differences between treatments were significant. For analysis of variance, Tukey’s studentized range test in a complete randomized design was used at α=0.05. From obtained results, it is showed that among studied varieties, the highest level of Percentage of hatchability belonged to [107] (97.77%), and 4-1003 variety (63.07%) remained at lower level than other varieties. Other varieties were between these two groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, among studied varieties, the highest level of good cocoon number belonged to Xihang-1 (328.33), and [109] variety (159.67) remained at lower level than other varieties (P<0.05). Also, the highest level of good cocoon weight belonged to 4-1003(341.83 gr), and [7409] variety (194.09 gr) remained at lower level than other varieties (P<0.05). Finally, it is showed that the highest level of cocoon shell percentage belonged to [111] 1126 (23.11%), and k-113 variety (18.10%) remained at lower level than other varieties (P<0.05).

[Alireza Seidavi. Study of 31 economically important traits in 20 silkworm Bombyx mori varieties. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):19-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.04

 

Keywords: Silkworm, Performance, Germplasm, Cocoon, Fecundity, Disease

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Dimensions of rural women empowerment

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 

1, 2 Department of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Having investment (capital) independency enforce people to think about economic from different angles. He should study the ways for using capital, he must consult with authority and experienced people and he will investigate about relevant markets. Such things will help him to be authoritative & independent. But how rural women can get such independency? Are the women created inherently for housekeeping, parenting and working or is there any opportunity for rural women to show their skills in economic & social development? It seems that experiences which are obtained from performing financial programs in some villages in the developing countries could answer clearly to such questions. These tools have ability to change and improve human’s life, especially poor peoples. Micro loans , saving accounts , and giving various bank services , cause this belief in low income and poor family that , by accessing to these services , their income will increase ,so they can protect themselves against barriers of unexpected problems and their current level of life and also invest on nutrition , housing and their children’s education.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Dimensions of rural women empowerment. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):26-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.05

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, developing countries

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Rural women's financial self-reliance and its effects on livelihood

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe, as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. So, statistics that was represented in relation to extent of women’s activity is very lower than real extent. Because in this statistics, mostly, seasonal jobs, part time job, no wage job and their housekeeping activities, aren’t considered. rural women, have different roles and duties such as husband, mother, crops producer, participate at ranching activities, planting,maintaining, harvesting, processing, marketing and preparing food. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products, while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land, they have to work for others instead receiving wage. We can consider such women as agriculture propagator, production expert and even in some case as policy maker. Other than activity at agriculture field, women’s participation at rural development is critical and is considered in order to supply adequate and needed food.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Rural women's financial self-reliance and its effects on livelihood. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):31-34]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.06

 

Keywords: rural women, financial self-reliance

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7

Importance and Necessity of micro-credit program for rural women

 

Zeynab Behzadi

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Preparing seed and preparing them for transferring to storage, were done by women. Transplanting (most important stage in cultivating rice) and weeding were done by them, completely. And finally we should remark, their roles in cultivating wheat, before land reforms. Land reform (1962) was a breaking factor for traditional capitalism relations, and it was facilitator way for renewing agriculture and making investment relations at agriculture section. Although no land was considered for women (indeed by this, major proportions of agriculture workforces was deprived from having production instruments that they work on) but, it has affected on women’s roles in agriculture activity. By the way, lord-vassal relation was broken approximately, and peasant’s production relation and capitalist exploitation systems were established. In peasant production, (at fertile lands) farmer’s wife had to work on family land with other family members.at peasants lands; women were working out of their family farms. In capitalist exploitation systems, women workforce was considered as cheap workforce at farms. Generally, land reforms caused those women workforce is used as secondary.After Islamic revolution, although exploitation systems haven’t changed lot, but developing agriculture processes on women’s roles weren’t affectless. in cultivating, time consuming productions (e.g. rice and tobacco) women’s production roles, has remained significant and even at farms that has changed their usage to business purposes and products cash productions, women workforce is used as a cheap workforce source (as laborer). But in cultivating productions (e.g. wheat) because of using agriculture machinery in capitalist exploitation systems, we have faced with decreasing in using women workforce.

[Zeynab Behzadi. Importance and Necessity of micro-credit program for rural women. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):35-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.07

 

Keywords: women, rural, credit, empowerment

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8

Importance of micro-credit in empowerment of rural women

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Empowerment is capacity that woman can obtain in cultural and social environment, for economic independency and self reliance, by controlling over emotional decision making and far from violation. Empowering means, evolution and developing activities through non governmental organizations (NGOS) that lead empowerment to improve economic dimensions. Enabling is process that, during it, people of society do activities to overcome barriers of advancement that finally cause their domination to determine their own density. The term “enabling” means overcoming fundamental inequalities. So it is different from self-reliance. Enabling, enables individual to overcome any problematic condition and consider barriers and problems as part of life and positive campaign. Finally, enabling provides energy to overcome most intellectual barriers and external problems at private life.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Importance of micro-credit in empowerment of rural women. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):40-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.08

 

Keywords: micro-credits, empowerment, rural women

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9

Effects of Cassava Processing and Value Added Products on Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Ikwuano Area of Abia State Nigeria.

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C., Nwakwasi, R.N., Aja, O.O and Ike, C.L.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Technology, Federal University Of Technology Owerri. Email; bankausta@yahoo.com; jesus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the effects of cassava processing and the value added products on sustainable poverty alleviation as perceives by rural households in lkwuano L.G.A of Abia State. The objectives were to ascertain the perception of the farmers towards cassava processing as a strategy for poverty alleviation and ascertain the effects of cassava processing and value-added products on sustainable poverty alleviation. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was administered  to 160 randomly sampled farmers for data collection. The result showed that the processing methods of cassava in the area included grating, pressing, sieving, fermenting, dewatering, extracting and roasting. The forms cassava available included garri, fou-fou, livestock feed, starch, flour and tapioca. The constraints to the processing included insufficiency of tubers for processing, drudgery, high cost of equipment, poor technological information, poorly stilled technicians and offensive odors. The result further showed that the effects of cassava processing and value-added products on sustainable poverty alleviation were increased acreage under cultivation, income, employment, increased household food security, increased demand for cassava products and variety in cassava consumption. It was however recommended that research into the constraints de funded by governmental and non-governmental organizations for improvement on the processing techniques in addition to training technicians on the maintenance of the processing equipment.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C., Nwakwasi, R.N., Aja,O.O and Ike, C.L. Effects of Cassava Processing and Value Added Products on Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Ikwuano Area of Abia State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):45-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.09

 

Keywords: Cassava, sustainability, poverty, food security, Nigeria

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10

Effect of Access to Infrastructural Facilities on Sustainable Rural Development in Ihitte-Uboma Area of Imo State Nigeria

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J.,  Anaeto,F.C., Anyoha N.O., Aja, O.O. and Chukwunyere, A.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

Federal University of Technology Owerri.

e-mail: bankausta@yahoo.com; esus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of access to infrastructural facilities on sustainable rural development in Ihitte-Uboma LGA, of Imo State. The study centered on the identification of infrastructural facilities provided, determining the access to infrastructure for their sustainable development finding the impact of infrastructures and the factors affecting the provision of infrastructure on the study area. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting twenty villages from randomly selected ten autonomous communities in the study area. Data were gathered from ninety respondents through personal interview and the use of structured questionnaire. It revealed that the infrastructural facilities provided were mostly initiated by community members. These infrastructures were mainly carried out through self-help effort and involvement of community organizations such as, age grade, women association, and village improvement union. The contributions of Government in establishing infrastructure in this area was discovered to be minimal and most Government initiated infrastructure failed or were abandoned. The study equally revealed that access to infrastructure by respondents was high. For example, they have access to pipe-borne water, electricity and have no access to information communication technology, improved health care service. It also revealed that infrastructure has a great impact in rural development and the factors which affect the provision of infrastructure according to the respondents were lack of fund, high cost of materials and effect of government policy. It was recommended that the Government should compliment self-help efforts by providing counterpart funding to support infrastructure facilities initiated by community members.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto,F.C. Anyoha N.O., Aja, O.O. and Chukwunyere, A.I. Effect of Access to Infrastructural Facilities on Sustainable Rural Development in Ihitte-Uboma Area of Imo State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):50-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.10

 

Keywords: Infrastructure, sustainability, rural development, services, facilities

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THE PHILOSOPHY OF “HUMAN RIGHTS”?...

(A New theory on “Human gender”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research article focus that the word “HUMAN”, “WOMAN” shall be considered as having scientifically distinguished meaning closely associated with “ORGANISM EVOLUTION” in the early universe governed by NATURAL LAW. This research emphasized that in the ‘Taxonomy’ of origin of Life (in Biology), Human Kingdom shall be considered as the separate kingdom distinguished from Animal kingdom, plant kingdom. This research further stipulates than “Human”, “Woman”, shall be considered as distinguished “RACE” having distinguished legal meaning in Human Rights definition in the “INTERNATIONAL COURT OF LAW”. It is further focused that the global level organism including human shall be considered as having three gender as described below.

i)                                                       Right dot is like male gender

ii)                                                     Left dot is like female gender

iii)                                                    Center dot is like virgin gender

“The Philosophy of various terms virgin, human, woman, father, mother, son, transgender, elder, adult shall be considered scientifically having distinguished genetic value having varied anatomy and characteristics within the scope of “HUMAN RIGHT DEFINITION” It is the humble submission of the author to the “international court of law” for transparent revised definition for delivering “ERROR FREE JUDGMENT” under the roof of “INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS ACT” for the benefit of future global populations”

- M. Arulmani, Tamil Based Indian.

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.. THE PHILOSOPHY OF “HUMAN RIGHTS”?...(A New theory on “Human gender”). Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):56-62]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.11

 

2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “HUMAN”?...

b)                 Philosophy of “WOMAN”?...

c)                 Philosophy of “MALE GENDER”?...

d)                 Philosophy of “FEMALE GENDER”?...

e)                 Philosophy of “TRANSGENDER”?...

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Convergent Criterion for the Numerical Solution of the Duffin’s Equation by the One Step Euler Scheme.

 

1ADEWOLE Olukorede. O, 2ALLI Sulaimon G, 3 Taiwo O.A.

 

1,3Department of Physics & Electronics, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria.

2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: The criterion for the convergence of the Duffin’s equation with an approximate expression for the numerical solution by a one step or Euler scheme has been established. The Euler scheme is a one step numerical scheme of first order accuracy.

[ ADEWOLE Olukorede. O, ALLI Sulaimon G, Taiwo O. A. Convergent Criterion for the Numerical Solution of the Duffin’s Equation by the One Step Euler Scheme. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):63-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.12

 

Key words: Duffin’s Equation, One Step Scheme, Convergence

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Eco-Taxonomical Investigation of a Fern Genus Huperzia from Central Himalayan Glaciers of India

 

Harish Rawat 1, Y.P.S. Pangtey 2, S.C. Pant 3, Pankaj Sah 4, Stuti Sah 5 And Kamal Kishore Pande 6

 

1 Department of Botany, R H Post Graduate College, Kashipur, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand (India)

2 Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand State PIN- 263002, (India)

3 Department of Botany, R H Post Graduate College, Kashipur, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand (India)

4 Department of Applied Sciences (Applied Biology Section), Higher College of Technology, PO Box 74, PC 133, Al-Khuwair, Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)

5 College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G B Pant University of Agriculture Science and Technology Pant Nagar, Uttarakhand State (India)

6 Coordinator Biotechnology Program, MB Post Graduate College, Haldwani, Kumaun University Nainital

Uttarakhand State (India)

Email: pankaj@hct.edu.om, drpankajsah1@gmail.com, armymanharish@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present eco-taxonomic work is based on the detailed and careful collections of a Pteridophytic flora (Huperzia spp.) of the Pindari and adjacent glaciers from Indian Central Himalayas. The period of study was from year 2005 to 2009 between the altitudes, stretching from 800-2,356 m, throughout the years, particularly during rainy season, when almost all pteridophytes show abundant and luxuriant growth and development. The method of collections, pressing, poisoning and mounting was carried out thoroughly. Taxonomic treatment includes an artificial key to the identification of families, genera and species.

[Harish Rawat, Y.P.S. Pangtey, S.C. pant, Pankaj Sah, Stuti Sah and Kamal Kishore Pande. Eco-Taxonomical Investigation of a Fern Genus Huperzia from Central Himalayan Glaciers of India. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):65-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.13

 

Keywords: Ferns, Huperzia, Pindari, Himalaya, Uttarakhand, Glaciers, Pteridophytes

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Measurement Of Software Complexity In Object Oriented Systems Abstract

 

Hari Om Sharan1, Garima1, Md. Haroon1, and Rajeev Kumar2

 

1Deptt. of Computer Science, COE, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad, (India).

2Department of Computer Application, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad(U.P.) India

Email ID: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com,

 

Abstract: Our measurement for testability and complexity also shares our thought and understanding about the complexity in the object oriented system. In this document we have explained the concept of software complexity of object oriented in very sophisticated manner. Some examples are also given to support the results. This document examines the state of art in software products measurement, with focus in the object oriented approach, which has become high popular because of his benefits: quick development, re- usability, complexity management, etc., all of this, characteristics that increase directly the quality of software products.

[Hari Om Sharan, Garima, Md. Haroon, Rajeev Kumar. Measurement of Software Complexity in Object Oriented Systems. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):70-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.14

 

Keywords: Software Testing, Software Testability, Simplicity, Complexity

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Role Of Cyanocobalamin In Nutrition Ruminant: A Review

 

Hamed AminiPour*

 

Young Researchers Club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 also called cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin by prominent effects in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the structure of blood. It is one of the eight B vitamins. It is normally include in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, particularly affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. It is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis. Vitamin B12 regular of a class of chemically-related compounds, all of that have vitamin activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt. Biosynthesis of the basic structure of the vitamin in nature is only accomplished by simple organisms such as some bacteria and algae, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body. A normal synthetic form of the vitamin, cyanocobalamin, doesn't occur in nature, but is used in many pharmaceuticals and supplements, and as a food additive, thus of its stability and lower cost. In the body it is converted to the physiological forms, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, leaving behind the cyanide, albeit in minimal concentration. More lately, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin can also be found in more expensive pharmacological products and food supplements. Intrinsic factor is crucial for the normal absorption of B12, so a lack of intrinsic factor, as seen in pernicious anemia, causes a vitamin B12 deficiency. Many other subtler kinds of vitamin B12 deficiency and their biochemical effects have since been elucidated.

[H. AminiPour. Role Of Cyanacobalamin In Nutrition Ruminant: A Review. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):76-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 15. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.15

 

Keywords: Vitamin B12; anemia; metabolism; cyanocobalamin

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Comparison of soil erodibility factor using fuzzy inference system and Wischmeier nemograph methods

 

Mahdi pazhouhesh 1, Manouchehr Gorji 1, Seyed Mahmoud Taheri 2, ferydon sarmadian1, jahangard mohammadi3

 

1. Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2. Department of Statistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashad, Iran

3. Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of shahrekord, shahrekord, Iran

Mehdi_pajoohesh2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Soil erodibility factor (K- factor) is one of the most important factors on USLE model. This factor is calculated on the basis of some soil properties such as soil texture (percentage of soil particles less than 0.1 mm and percentage of coarse sand particles larger than 0.1 mm), soil organic matter, soil structure and basic permeability of the soil profile. So far, various methods have been introduced for the measurement of K- factor. The objective of this research is to determine the soil erodibility factor using fuzzy rule base system. Sixty samples were collected from sixty homogenous units based on the Wischmeier`s nomograph method. After generating the fuzzy rules and calculating the soil erodibility factor, the results were compared with those of Wischmeier`s nomograph method. The results showed that the values of K- factor calculated by the fuzzy system are quite close to the values obtained by the USLE model and therefore, the fuzzy rule base model is introduced as the most suitable site selection strategy for determining soil erodibility factor.

[Mahdi pazhouhesh, Manouchehr Gorji, Seyed Mahmoud Taheri, ferydon sarmadian, jahangard mohammadi. Comparison of soil erodibility factor using fuzzy inference system and Wischmeier nemograph methods. Rep Opinion 2014;6(10):82-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 16. doi:10.7537/marsroj061014.16

 

Keywords: Fuzzy system, rule base, sediment load

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 29, 2014
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