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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873, Monthly

Volume 6 - Issue 12, Cumulated 66, December 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers,

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

The impact of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the formation of the Islamic Awakening

 

Hemmatollah Shamoli salahchini

 

Department of Political Science, Shahreza branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran

 

Abstract: Today the developments in the Middle East, if it is on the one hand in order to the demands and needs of their people but on the other hand is representing the crystallization of greatness of February 22 and the Islamic Revolution; They were followed from the Islamic Revolution as a model, because it is based on religious doctrine, such as democracy, social justice, independence, and freedom. The Islamic Revolution can be regarded as a turning point not only In the Muslim world of awakening and liberation, but also for other nations awakening It should be noted that the influence of the Islamic Revolution was different from the formation of all Islamic movements and currents because of the differences in intellectual, cultural and geographical affinities and  etc.; The Islamic Revolution could find its position among Muslims and the emancipatory movements as a way of fighting,and have the very positive and constructive influence in awakening the Muslims. The spiritual and political influence of Islamic Revolution in the Muslim world, the liberation movements and Islamic movements, was concerned to the west and the main cause of hostile of America to the Islamic Revolution is the impact of this important event of the twentieth century in the Muslim world; and severity of the anti-colonial movements and anti-occupation in the Middle East from The day after of victory of Islamic Revolution.

[Hemmatollah Shamoli salahchini. The impact of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the formation of the Islamic Awakening. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):1-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.01

 

Key words: Islamic Awakening, Middle East, the Islamic world, Islamic Revolution, America.

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2

Assessment of Somaclonal Variation of Calli and Regenerated Plants of Three Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cultivars Using Molecular Markers

 

D. Mamdouh, Hany A. Marghany and Emad A. Ewais*

 

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*Ewais-E@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During indirect regeneration of plants, chances of somaclonal variations may arise. These variations should be identified to produce true to type plants. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sodium dodecyl sulphate - poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to assess the somaclonal variation among regenerated plantlets, an embryogenic calli produced from leaf explants compared to in vivo plants of three  cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars (Waffir F1, Beith Alpha and Fares). Five ISSR primers yielded 34 distinct and reproducible band patterns with an average of 6.8 bands per primer. Jaccard's similarity coefficients revealed presence of a relatively high genetic similarity (75%) among regenerated plantlets and in vivo plants of Beith Alpha cultivar compared to other cultivars. However, relatively high genetic variability have been recorded among calli and in vivo plants of Waffir F1 (62%) and Fares (45%) cultivars.  Protein profile derived by SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that there are variation among in vivo plants, calli and regenerated plantlets of three cucumber cultivars. The molecular weights of detected bands for all samples ranged from 23 to 107 KDa. A hundred percent (100 %) similarity between in vivo plants of Waffir and Beith Alpha cultivars as well as between their calli has been noted. The regenerated plantlets of Beith Alpha showed a relatively higher similarity of 78% with in vivo plants. Variations in protein pattern were recorded between calli and regenerated plantlets of Waffir (70%) and Beith Alpha (57%) cultivars from one side and between calli and in vivo plants from another side (67% in both cultivars). We think that leaf explant culturing influenced by the cucumber cultivar genotype and some genotypes are more susceptible to somaclonal variation, or that the in vitro instability is actually a consequence of a genotype versus culture medium interaction. Our results suggested that rapid propagation of cucumber Beith Alpha cultivar via leaf organogenesis is an acceptable method with a lower risk of somaclonal variation.

[Mamdouh D, Marghany HA and Ewais EA. Assessment of Somaclonal Variation of Calli and Regenerated Plants of Three Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cultivars Using Molecular Markers. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):8-19]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.02

 

Keywords: Cucumis sativus L.; ISSR; regenerated plants; calli; SDS-PAGE.

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3

Combined oral clomiphene citrate with pioglitazone hydrochloride improves outcome of treatment of PCOS women: A comparative Study versus oral clomiphene citrate with metformine

 

Hesham Abou Ragab MD and Hany El-klaf MD

 

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

Abouragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ovulatory outcome of combined clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation with pioglitazone hydrochloride (ACTOS) versus metformin treatment in conjunction with weight reduction dieting program. Patients & Methods: 80 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria underwent transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU), anthropometric measurements and estimation of fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin (FPI) and insulin resistance (IR) was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and hormonal profile. CC (50 mg twice daily) was given on Days 2–6 of a menstrual cycle in combination with either ACTOS (15 mg tablets once daily) or metformin (0.5 gm tablets trice daily). Estimated serum progesterone ≥25 nmol/l on Day 21 of the cycle indicates ovulation. The frequency of women got follicles >16 mm was considered as ovulation success rate. At the end of 3 months, HOMA-IR score was re-evaluated. Results: At the end of 3-months therapy, all women showed significant reduction of BMI and HOMA-IR scores compared to pre-treatment scores with non-significant difference between studied groups, but the percentage of change of HMOA-IR score was significantly higher with ACTOS compared to metformin. Ovulation was assured in 65 patients (81.3%); 36 patients (90%) received ACTOS and 29 patients (72.5%) received metformin with significant difference in favor of ACOTS. ROC curve analysis to predict the oncoming effect of insulin sensitizing drugs on ovulatory function defined the pre-treatment HOMA-IR score as a significant screening parameter. Conclusion, for PCOS women, combined CC and ACTOS therapy in association with weight reduction provides the best chance for getting regular ovulation with better biomilieu and promises for higher chances for getting pregnant.

[Hesham Abou Ragab and Hany El-klaf. Combined oral clomiphene citrate with pioglitazone hydrochloride improves outcome of treatment of PCOS women: A comparative Study versus oral clomiphene citrate with metformine. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):20-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.03

 

Keywords: PCOS, ACTOS, Metformin, Insulin resistance

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4

Civil liability for damage caused by nuclear radiation in Iran law and Jurisprudence[1]

 

Roghiyeh Passban1, Dr. Mahshid Sadat Tabaei2

 

1Graduated in LLM from department of private Law, share Qods, Science and research blank, Islamic Azad University, share Qods, Iran

2Department of Private Law, Electronic branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, university, faculty of Law, Faculty member of private

 

Abstract: It is obvious that using Atomic Energy due to the limited fossil reserves such as oil and gas for all countries, (both developed and developing) is necessary and inevitable. This research will study the effects of nuclear radiation on humans and the environment around them in 1- Overview of Nuclear Research, 2-Islamic jurisprudence foundations of legal rights and responsibilities of civil nuclear damages, 3- compensation of damages for in civil liability law and Islamic jurisprudence, 4- The effects and responsibilities for damages resulting from radiation, 5-Iran Nuclear discipline and Conclusions and will present legal suggestions.

[Roghiyeh Passban, Dr. Mahshid Sadat Tabaei. Civil liability for damage caused by nuclear radiation in Iran law and Jurisprudence. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):27-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.04

 

Keywords: Civil liability, radioactive material, Uranium, nuclear radiation, compensation.

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5

Physico-Chemical and Mineral Analysis of a commercial Morinda citrifolia juice and a Popular blackcurrant fruit Juice commonly used by Athletes in Nigeria

 

Anugweje Kc

 

Department of Health Services, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, 500102, Nigeria. E-mail: kanugweje@hotmail.com; Tel: +2348033382154

 

Abstract:The aim of the study was to evaluate the physico-chemical and mineral contents of the commercially available Morinda citrifolia juice and a popular blackcurrant fruit juice used as supplements on the performance of university athletes in Nigeria. The popular blackcurrant fruit juice was used as a placebo drink in a double-blind study because it has similar colour, flavor and taste as the commercially available Morinda citrifolia juice. Physico-chemical and mineral analysis of Morinda citrifolia and placebo juice were carried out using standard methods of AOAC. These include Specific Gravity, Phosphate – Phosphorus, Total Solid, and Total Dissolved Solid. The iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) by Flame Photometer and phosphorus (P) by Spectrophotometer. The results revealed that Morinda citrifolia juice contained iron (3.42 ppm), Zinc (1.64 ppm), Calcium (11.40 ppm), Manganese (0.733 ppm) and Magnesium (32.86 ppm), sodium (28.17 ppm), Potassium (379.97 ppm), Nitrogen (0.047%), Sodium chloride (0.09%), Sulphates (5.73%), Phosphates (0.002%) and total solids (136.60 mg/l). It also revealed that the placebo drink contained iron (2.59 ppm), Zinc (1.74 ppm), Calcium (8.80 ppm), Manganese (0.740 ppm) and Magnesium (6.58 ppm), sodium (4.74 ppm), Potassium (13.350 ppm), Nitrogen (0.021%), Sodium chloride (0.12%), Sulphates (4.56%), Phosphates (0.002%) and total solids (693.400 mg/l). The result of the mineral profile of Morinda citrifolia juice indicated that the Morinda citrifolia juice contains vital minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc and salt). Mineral analysis showed that Morinda citrifolia juice had higher mineral contents except for manganese, zinc and Na+ salt compared to the placebo juice. Physico-chemical analysis showed that Morinda citrifolia juice had higher nitrogen and sulphate contents compared to the placebo juice, while the placebo juice has higher value for total solids compared to Morinda citrifolia juice. However, both have the same phosphate contents. The compositional profile of Morinda citrifolia juice revealed that it contains vital minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc and salt).

[ANUGWEJE KC. Physico-Chemical and Mineral Analysis of a commercial Morinda citrifolia juice and a Popular blackcurrant fruit Juice commonly used by Athletes in Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):41-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.05

 

Keywords: Physico-chemicals, metals, Morinda citrifolia Juice, Placebo Juice.

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6

Why Jesus Christ Came Into The World?...

(A New theory on TIE MINISTRY”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

1.       Abstract:

“JESUS CHRIST” came into the world….

i)                                To Promote “violence”?...

ii)                              To Promote “Racism and Castism”?...

iii)                            To Promote his personality by doing “Wonders”?...

NO…     NO…                     NO…

This scientific research focus that “JESUS CHRIST” came into the world to translate meaning of “TIE MINISTRY” rather than doing emotional sermon.  The philosophy of “TIE Ministry” shall mean…

i)                    Translating the meaning of “EVERLASTING LIFE”

ii)                  Emphasizing the meaning of “HUMAN VALUE”

iii)                Focusing the meaning of “PEACE”

According to BIBLE there were so many Commandments, Covenants were given to the ancient human populations by “HEAVENLY FATHER” right from “ADAM”, “EVE” to the period of “JOESPH” “MARY” through various lineage of NOAH, ABRAHAM, JACOB MOSES, DAVID, DANIEL, SOLOMON, ISAIAH, JEREMIAH etc.

i.         Right dot is “LOVE

ii.        Left dot is “MERCY”

iii.      Centre dot is “HOPE”

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. Why Jesus Christ Came Into The World?...(A New theory on TIE MINISTRY”). Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):45-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.06

 

2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of word “TIE”?...

b)                 Philosophy of word “MINISTRY”?...

c)                 Philosophy of word “JESUS”?...

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7

A Study of Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtooni Higher Secondary Students in District Ganderbal

 

M.Y Ganaie1, Hafiz Mudasir 2

 

1.  Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2.  Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India.

hafizmudasir@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted by the investigator to Study Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtooni Higher Secondary students of District Ganderbal. For this purpose the samples were selected on the basis of random sampling technique which consisted of 120 higher secondary school students among which 60 Kashmiri (30 Male & 30 Female) and 60 Pakhtooni (30 Male & 30 Female). A standardized questionnaire developed by A.K Singh & Alpana Sengupta was administrated for this purpose. The variables included for the study includes Emotional Stability, Overall Adjustment, Autonomy, Security- Insecurity, Security- Insecurity, Self-Concept and Intelligence. Proper statistical treatment was applied in order to obtain the results. The study revealed that Kashmiri higher secondary boys are found to be emotionally stable, secure and more intelligent than Pakhtooni higher secondary boys whereas they are similar on overall adjustment, autonomy and self-concept. It has also been found that Pakhtooni girls have better overall adjustment than Kashmiri higher secondary girls. Kashmiri higher secondary students especially boys have better academic achievement than Pakhtooni higher secondary students. Kashmiri higher secondary have better academic achievement than Pakhtooni girls. However, both the groups were found to be similar on mental health.

[M.Y Ganaie, Hafiz Mudasir. A Study of Mental Health and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Pakhtooni Higher Secondary Students in District Ganderbal. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):52-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.07

 

Key words: Mental health, Academic Achievement, Higher Secondary Students, etc.

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8

Effect of Cropping Systems and Seasonal Variations on Soil Microbial Biomass and Enzymatic Activities in Arid Soils

 

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Iqbal Lone1, Muhammad Bilal Khan1, Shuaib Kaleem2, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan1

 

1.Department of Soil Science & Soil and Water Conservation, Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

2. Agricultural Adoptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab

rehmat1169@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cropping systems and seasonal variations on soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in arid soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected from the soils under wheat (Triticum aestivum) – maize (Zea mays. L) and wheat – mung bean (Vigna radiata) cropping systems. The data showed that the soil microbial biomass Carbon (MBC), Nitrogen (MBN), Phosphorous (MBP) and soil enzymes such as dehydrogenase (DH) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities varied in all seasons. Overall, summer showed more soil MBC, MBN and MBP contents and relatively more DH and AP activities as compared to the other seasons. The soil MBC contents were higher under wheat-maize cropping system, while the soil MBN and MBP contents were higher under wheat-mung bean cropping systems in Kahuta areas. But the soil AP and DH activities were more pronounced under wheat-maize and wheat-mung bean cropping systems, respectively. We suggest that the inclusion of leguminous crops in cropping system is more suitable for arid areas, which tend to sustain soil fertility and preserve soil microbial biomass.

[Rehmat Ullah, Muhammad Iqbal Lone, Muhammad Bilal Khan, Shuaib Kaleem, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan. Effect of Cropping Systems and Seasonal Variations on Soil Microbial Biomass and Enzymatic Activities in Arid Soils. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):58-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.08

 

Keywords:Cropping systems; soil enzymes in arid environment; seasonal variations; soil microbial C, N and P contents

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Studies On Adsorbent Dosage, Particle sizes and pH constraints on Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from Aqueous Solution using Modified and Unmodified Crasstrotrea Gasar (bivalve) Biomass.

 

*Osu Charles . I. and 1S.A. Odoemelam

 

*Department of Pure and industrial chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, PMB, 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria.

1Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

charsike@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution did not improve by chemical modification of Crasstrotrea Gasar biomass with oxalic acid and ethanol. Unmodified Crasstrotrea Gasar biomass was proved to be very effective adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution. As the particle sizes increases from 106-500μm, the percentage removed increases. The particle size of 500μm showed the highest removal. Also the percentage metal ions sorbed increases, as the dosage of the adsorbent increases from 0.2g to 1.0g and further increase of the adsorbent did not provide more increment in the percentage removal of the metal ions. The present study was found to be highly pH dependent process. The percentage removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was at maximal at pH 10. Since the Crasstrotrea Gasar biomass is cheap, abundantly available and environment friendly, so it can be used for metal ion removal from aqueous solution using a simple and cost effective treatment procedure.

[Osu Charles . I. and S.A. Odoemelam. Studies On Adsorbent Dosage, Particle sizes and pH constraints on Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from Aqueous Solution using Modified and Unmodified Crasstrotrea Gasar (bivalve) Biomass. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):67-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.09

 

Key words: Biosorption, heavy metals, agricultural by-product

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10

Distribution Of Organic Compounds (PAHs and BTEX) And Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) in An Oil Impacted Soils, Rivers State Nigeria.

  

1 Osu Charles I. and 2 I. A. Okoro

 

1 Department of Pure and industrial chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, PMB, 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria. charsike@yahoo.com

2 Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

 

Abstract:This paper deals with the distributions of organic compounds (PAHs and BTEX) and heavy metals  (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) concentrations in an oil impacted soils of Rivers State, Nigeria. The concentrations of organic compounds ranged from 597.340 0.02- 896.784   0.011 Mg/Kg, total PAHs; 0.030   0.006 – 0.057   0.003 Mg/Kg, BTEX and heavy metals ranged from 2.700   0.002 – 3.960   0.006 Mg/Kg, Pb; 0.460   0.003 – 0.730   0.007 Mg/Kg, Cd; 3.060   0.003 – 3.92   0.004 Mg/Kg, Zn and 92.040   0.013 – 129.400   0.031 Mg/Kg, Fe. Soil samples from Bonny had the highest total PAHs concentration (773.213   0.004 – 896.784   0.011 Mg/Kg). The BTEX concentrations were of smaller values due to the time of crude oil spillage. Total PAHs concentrations increases as depth of the soil increases and distributions of the heavy metals in the various depth has no regular pattern.

[Osu Charles . I. and I.A. Okoro. Distribution Of Organic Compounds (PAHs and BTEX) And Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) in An Oil Impacted Soils, Rivers State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):73-78]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.10

 

Key words: Oil spillage, PAHs, BTEX, Heavy metals and soils.

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 WHAT DOES MEAN “GOD”?.(A New theory on RELIGION”)

  

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

1.       Abstract:   

RELIGION” is exclusive asset of “HUMAN”?...

               i.      Animals” do not have “Religion”?...

             ii.      Plants” do not have “Religion”?...

           iii.      Planets” do not have “Religion”?...

This scientific research focus that “RELIGION” shall be considered as the “LAW OF GOD” (or) “SUPERNATURE”. In brief Religion shall alternative be considered as “SOUL” emanating Billions of “RAYS” of “J-RADIATION” (Zero hour radiation). Each ray considers composed of Three-in-one fundamental particles photon, electron, proton (Godly particles). The philosophy of super mature and the law of God shall be expressed as below.

                                 i.      Right dot is like LOVE (Proton)

                               ii.      Left dot is like FAITH (Electron)

                             iii.      Center dot is like TRUST (Photon)

 This research further aims to focus the global understanding of religion which is responsible for existence of matters of Universe.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. WHAT DOES MEAN “GOD”? (A New theory on RELIGION”) Rep Opinion 2014;6(12):79-90]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.11

 

2.      Key Words:

a)       Philosophy of “White Religion”?...

b)      Philosophy of “Dark Religion”?...

c)       Philosophy of “Blue Religion”?...

d)      Philosophy of “Green Religion”?...

e)       Philosophy of “Red Religion”?...

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12

Developing a Conceptual Framework to Assessment of E-Health Status

 

Shazma Tahseen1, Shah Muhammad Kamran2

 

1 Department of Information Technology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan.

2 School of Economics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) Wuhan, P R China.

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: E-health is an emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies. The aim of the present study suggests some factors that are directly influencing progress of e-health with factors were present in some manner that can be used to evaluate and assess e-health overall status in some specific organizations specifically in case of developing country. Methods: This study describes the components of the framework; this includes the conceptual model on the implementation, activities and contextual factors that may affect implementation, or the results it produces. Data was collected and based on literature review and qualitative approach like interviews, documents and participatory observations with informal discussions. Survey questionnaire was used to collect data from medical professionals and health care providers besides these interviews were also conducted with prominent administrative heads for expert opinion. Results and conclusions: On the basis of this study the factors which needs to considered and evaluated are accessible in categorized form; assets these components are interlinked and affecting other factors resulting effects on overall e-health in general. This conceptual framework presents an evaluation platform for e-health programs by addressing key elements that are crucial for success of a program. A complete picture of an organization can be drawn by applying this framework that organization has proper policies, appropriate infrastructure, human resource and funding before implementation of e-health programs.

[Shazma Tahseen, Shah Muhammad Kamran. Developing a Conceptual Framework to Assessment of E-Health Status. Rep Opinion 2014; 6(12):91-94]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj061214.12

 

Key words: E-Health systems, ICT, development, health policy, conceptual framework.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 2, 2014
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