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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

Volume 7 - Issue 1, Cumulated 67, January 25, 2015, ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Determination of Coliforms in Different Sources of Drinking Water in Gwagwalada, Abuja


Amaeze Ngozi Jacinta 1*, Irekeola Ahmad Adebayo 2


1.  Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria.

2.  Education Advising Center, PAS, US Embassy, Garki, Abuja-Nigeria.

ngoziamaeze@yahoo.com.sg, profahmad007@yahoo.com


Abstract: Faecal contamination of drinking water consumed within Gwagwalada was investigated. A total of 60 drinking water samples were collected from Dagiri, kutunku and Phase one areas of Gwagwalada between July – August 2011. The survey revealed that inhabitants of these areas source for drinking water from tap, well, packaged water and borehole. The drinking water samples were examined using the multiple tube fermentation method. Out of the 60 samples collected, 11 (18.3%) were contaminated with either one or more than one type of organisms. Organisms isolated include E. coli (71.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (14.3%). Of all the contaminated water samples, well water was found to be the most contaminated (i.e. 73%). The statistical analysis (ANOVA) employed revealed that the mean coliform count per 100ml of well water was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than tap, borehole, and packaged water in each of the three locations. Contrary to well, borehole samples were devoid of coliforms in every 100ml.

[Amaeze Ngozi Jacinta, Irekeola Ahmad Adebayo. Determination of Coliforms in Different Sources of Drinking Water in Gwagwalada, Abuja. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Key words: drinking water; coliform; multiple tube fermentation technique; WHO; Abuja

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Review on Diagnostic Techniques of Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia


Tadesse Birhanu1*, Ebisa Mezgebu1, Eyasu Ejeta2 and Ayele Gizachew1


1School of Veterinary Medicine, Collage of Medical and Health Science, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

2Departement of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: drbirhan@yahoo.com


Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is a major infectious disease of cattle, other domesticated animals and certain wildlife populations. It is one of the zoonotic diseases and can be diagnosed with different techniques. The currently used techniques are acid fast staining which is a cost-effective tool for diagnosing tuberculosis case and to monitor the progress of treatment and it has also drawbacks such as the low sensitivity in the immune-suppressed individuals; Immunological diagnostic techniques like tuberculin skin tests: Single Intradermal Test, Comparative Intradermal Test, Short Thermal Test and Stormont Test; Blood based diagnostic techniques like gamma interferon assays, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay, Culture of Mycobacterium and Molecular diagnostic techniques which involves Polymerase Chain Reaction, is a method that allows direct identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Spoligotyping, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Variable Number Tandem Repeats typing are the techniques used for concurrent detection and typing of mycobacterium species at strain level. Its clinical usefulness over the other techniques is determined by its rapidity, both in identifying causative bacteria and in providing molecular epidemiologic information on strains. However, it holds drawbacks of being expensive, and requiring well-equipped laboratory and skilled laboratory personnel, which are not always available in endemic areas. Thus, both conventional and molecular tools should be effectively used to diagnosis Tuberculosis.

[Tadesse Birhanu, Ebisa Mezgebu, Eyasu Ejeta and Ayele Gizachew. Review on Diagnostic Techniques of Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):7-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Key words: Ethiopia; Bovine Tuberculosis; Diagnostic Tools

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Happy Tamil New Year!...(A New theory on Thai Pongal”)


M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.


M.Arulmani, B.E.



V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




Abstract: TAMIL” means “LANGUAGE”?… “TAMIL NEW YEAR” means “BIRTH DAY” anniversary of “TAMIL”?... If so when TAMIL borns?...Most of the world nations including India are celebrating New Year day on “JANUARY 1”, based on “Gregorian”, “Julian” calendar. In Tamilnadu, based on ancient Tamil culture, some scholar observing “JANUARY 15” as New year day and some scholar observing “APRIL 14” as New year day. In CHINA, they are observing “FEBRUARY 24” as New Year day.  This scientific research focus that “THAI PONGAL” festival shall be considered closely associated with “BIRTHDAY” celebration of “J-RADIATION” (Zero hour radiation) of Cosmo Universe which shall be considered as SOUL of Universe responsible for existence of all matters of Universe including planets and solar system. In proto Indo Europe language “J-Radiation” shall also mean “Venpongal” as described below:

 i) Right dot is like “LOVE” (Kaanum Pongal)

ii) Left dot is like “MERCY” (Mattu Pongal)

iii) Centre dot is like “HOPE” (Suriya Pongal)

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. Happy Tamil New Year!...(A New theory on Thai Pongal”). Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):15-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “THAI”?...

b)                 Philosophy of Birth day of “J-RADIATION”?...

c)                 Philosophy of “FEBRUARY 24”?...

d)                 Philosophy of Back side of “MOON”?...

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Evaluation of genetic diversity among some wild populations of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. from Iran using morphological and agronomical traits


Seyed Fazel Mirahmadi 1, Mohammad Reza Hassandokht 1, Mohammad Esmail Hassani 2, Fatemeh Sefidkon 3


1. Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2. Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, Australian Technology Park, University of Sydney

3. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran

mrhassan@ut.ac.ir and mirahmadif@ut.ac.ir


Abstract: In this study, genetic diversity among 25 populations of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. collected from 12 provinces of Iran using a total of 34 morphological and agronomical characteristics including 30 quantitative and 4 qualitative traits was evaluated as a important step for possible use in the breeding programs of this medicinal plant. For this purpose, of each population 6 plants were studied. According to the results of analysis of variance, there were significant differences among the studied populations for most of traits. Also, significant positive and negative correlations were observed among evaluated traits. Based on the constructed dendrogram, all populations were clearly divided into 11 main clusters. Groups mainly have differences in yield and yield components. The importance of this work on the breeding potential of populations in question is discussed.

[Seyed Fazel Mirahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hassandokht, Mohammad Esmail Hassani, Fatemeh Sefidkon. Evaluation of genetic diversity among some wild populations of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. from Iran using morphological and agronomical traits. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):24-33]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: Achillea bieberstenii Afan.; Breeding; Genetic diversity; Medicinal plant; Morphological traits; Natural populations

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Targeting PCOS-associated Insulin Resistance: Aerobic Exercise and Hypocaloric Diet without Medications could adjust the Hyperandrogenic milieu and help Induction of Ovulation in Infertile PCOS women


Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny


Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the impact of weight reduction and exercise interventions on ovulatory function of infertile polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. Patients & Methods: 90 infertile PCOS women diagnosed depending on the Rotterdam criteria underwent anthropometric measurements and determination of body fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percent body fat (BF%) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin (FPI) and serum testosterone (Test), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured and free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) with HOMA-IR score >2 was considered insulin resistant (IR). All women performed 6-months weight-reduction dieting regimen in association with no exercise (Group A), aerobic exercise (Group B) or combined aerobic-resistance exercise (Group C). All measures were evaluated at 3 and 6-months but ovulation was monitored monthly. Results: At end of 6-months, all women showed significant change of anthropometric measures with significantly higher extent of change in groups B and C compared to group A. Also, IR was significantly modulated with significant reduction of HOMA-IR compared to pre-treatment levels; however, change was least in Group A and only 15 of 63 women were still IR. Serum testosterone and SHBG levels estimated at 6-m showed significant difference compared to baseline levels in groups B and C and all groups showed progressive decrease of FAI with significantly lower FAI level in group B compared to group A. Fifty-nine women got ovulation with ovulatory success rate of 65.6% with non-significant difference among studied groups. Conclusion: Weight reduction regimens associated with aerobic physical exercise intervention could induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity with subsequent amelioration of inhibitory effect of obesity and insulin resistance on the reproductive function and adjustment of the hyperandrogenic milieu.

[Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny. Targeting PCOS-associated Insulin Resistance: Aerobic Exercise and Hypocaloric Diet without Medications could adjust the Hyperandrogenic milieu and help Induction of Ovulation in Infertile PCOS women. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):34-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Keywords: PCOS, Dieting regimen, Exercise, Ovulation, Hyperandrogenemia

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Uterine Lower Segment Thickness as a predictor for Outcome of Vaginal Delivery in Women with Previous Cesarean Section


Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny


Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of estimation of lower uterine segment muscle thickness (LUST) using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) as a predictor for success of vaginal delivery trial in parturient with previous cesarean section (CS) and to determine the appropriate cutoff point for discriminating parturient valid for trial enrollment. Patients & Methods: Study was designed to start at 16th week of gestation including 100 multiparous parturient, TVU was conducted and LUST ≥2 mm without defects indicated good previous myometrial healing (Trial of vaginal delivery), but patients had LUST <2 mm, or abnormal thinning or the presence of myometrial defects indicated poor previous myometrial healing (Repeat CS). Intraoperatively, LUS myometrium was assessed and scored. Results: 48 parturient had LUST >2 mm, 14 had LUST=2 mm and 36 had thickness <2 mm. Fifty-seven parturient underwent trial of vaginal delivery and the trial succeeded in 39 parturient; while 18 parturient had failed trial and underwent emergency CS. Success rate for total parturient underwent trial was 68.4% and was 73% for those had LUST >2mm but was 44.4% for those had LUST =2mm. ROC curve analysis reported specificity of LUST as predictor for success of vaginal delivery trial (AUC=0.596) and LUST >2 mm as the appropriate cutoff point with AUC=0.650. Intraoperative evaluation of LUS defined 25 uteri as Class II, 11 as Class III and 5 as Class IV and ROC curve analysis defined LUST <2 mm as the appropriate cutoff point for prediction of poor LUS (AUC=0.722). Conclusion: LUST estimation using TVU is an appropriate modality for identification of patients with previous CS amenable for trial of vaginal delivery with success rate of 68.4% and at LUST >2mm as the appropriate cutoff point for success.

[Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny. Uterine Lower Segment Thickness as a predictor for Outcome of Vaginal Delivery in Women with Previous Cesarean Section. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):41-46]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Keywords: Lower uterine segment thickness, transvaginal ultrasonography, vaginal delivery, repeat cesarean section

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Role of Cooperative Sector to Strength Great Economic Companies in Guilan province, Iran


Hamidreza Alipour


Department of economic,collage of management Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran



Abstract: Lack of investment in infrastructure, constructive relationship between industrial and production centers with universities and educational institutions led to increase the rate of unemployment in the recent years. One of the best ways of providing job opportunities and sustainable development that some economists recommend, is investment and strengthening great economic companies. On this basis and with regard to resolve public officials, especially Cooperative Ministry Officials, to gain access to 25 percent share of the GNP, strengthening the cooperative enterprises, as the main goal of this study is essential. This study was conducted on documentary and survey method by using the questionnaire. Statistical population of this study was 1076 of active cooperatives in all economic sectors of the Guilan province. A total of 70 of them selected via random sampling technique. Findings indicated that factors could be promoted quality and strengthening economic agencies were into two categories: external factors (included: the government, structural changes, sources) and internal factors (included: software and hardware). Also there were several factors for small and medium size of cooperatives such as asset in circulation, equipment and industrial machinery, skilled manpower, bank loans and markets could be used to strength them.

[Hamidreza Alipour. Role of Cooperative Sector to Strength Great Economic Companies in Guilan province, Iran. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):47-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Key words: employment, great economic companies, cooperatives, Guilan

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Survey of chemical disinfectants used by poultry farmers in Imo state, Nigeria


Irene U. Chima1, Martin C. Uchegbu1, Ifeanyi C. Okoli1 and Chidiogo G. Okoli2


1Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Imo State, Nigeria

E-mail: dr_charleso@yahoo.com


Abstract: Pathogen contamination can be prevented with aid of proper health care products such as disinfectants. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of common disinfectants and disinfection practice of poultry farmers in Imo State, Nigeria, in order to generate information needed for the proper regulation of disinfectant use in the area. Primary data were generated from structured questionnaires distributed to animal health practitioners and poultry farmers in the State. Results showed that farmers choice of disinfectants were dependent on cost and availability. Z-germicide 10 (22.27%) and Izal with 9(20.45%) are more widely distributed in the various animal health outfits. This was closely followed by Lysol 6(13.63%) and Diskol 6(13.63%). Morigard 3(6.81%), Dettol and Septol 3(6.81%) appeared each in three outfits. Vox 1(2.27%) CID 20 1(2.27%) a Virkon 1(2.27%) occurred once and that is at the Avian influenza desk officer’s store. Izal 140(58.82) was more widely used by farmers followed by Z-germicide, both of which are phenolic products. Morigad with 2(2.94%) and Lysol with 91.47%0 are also phenolic products. Altogether 76.47% of disinfectants used in Imo State were of phenolic products. Most poultry farms in the State did not use disinfectant footbath. Those that used them, did not insist on workers or visitors dipping their feet in them before entering the farm house. They also did not reconstitute the disinfectants according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

[Irene U. Chima, Martin C. Uchegbu, Ifeanyi C. Okoli and Chidiogo G. Okoli. Survey of chemical disinfectants used by poultry farmers in Imo state, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):52-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Key words: Disinfectants, poultry farms, disease, Nigeria

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Essential Concepts of Life


Ma Hongbao, PhD


Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, mahongbao@gmail.com


Abstract: Life is a physical and chemical process. We are life. From ontology aspect, the world is timeless and the life exists forever as any other body in the nature. On the Earth, common life normally are: plants, animals, fungi, archaea and bacteria, viruses, etc. All the life are composed of carbon, water, etc. to form the cells form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. The life undergoes metabolism, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. An entity with the above properties is considered to be a living organism. The nature of life is that life is a process of negative entropy, evolution, autopoiesis (auto-organizing), adaptation, emergence and living hierarchy. Up to now, there is no scientific evidence to show that life body and non-life body obey the same natural laws. But, all the researches are made by the methods of biology, biochemistry and molecular biology, etc. It is very possible that the life and non-life are essential different in the biophysics, i.e. the quantum level. In the future, it is possible to make artificial life by either biological method or electronic technique.

[Ma H. Essential Concepts of Life. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):61-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Key words: entropy; eternal; evolution; existence; die; life; nature; universe

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Analysis of Enzymatic Degradation of Polymer Additives


Emmanuel Ogwal 1, Xiaoming Wu 2, Wang Hu 3


1,2,3. China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Engineering, 388 Lumo Road, Hongshan District,  Wuhan City, Hubei Province, 430074,P.R China

eogwal@gmail.com,   xmwu5610@163.com,    wanghu235@163.com


Abstract: Ability of a complex enzyme (LIQ1) to degrade two polymer compounds namely Sesbania gum and Guar gum was investigated. The study was based on an assumption that the polymer compounds dissolved in water would increase viscosity and be able to plug an artificial rock sample (made of pulverized coal) placed in a pressured chamber. The study also based on an assumption that complex enzyme (LIQ 1) would slowly degrade the polymer compounds there by reducing their viscosity and hence forth unplug the artificial rock.  Viscosity of Sesbania gum solution basing on 600 rotations per minute on the Fann V-G meter, Model 35   without complex enzyme was 40, after 6 hours, the value did not change. The viscosity of Guar gum solution was 34 and after 6 hours was still the same. This showed the polymer compounds were not auto degradable at room temperature. Mixtures of polymer compounds and enzyme mixture however showed a decrease in viscosity after one hour, Sesbania gum had reduced to 30 and Guar gum 26. The artificial rock sample was plugged with Guar Gum additive 20 minutes into the experiment and later degraded by the complex enzyme 30 minutes into the experiment. Guar gum plugged the rock after 20 minutes and was degraded after a longer time of 300 minutes into the experiment.

[Emmanuel Ogwal, Xiaoming Wu, Wang Hu. Analysis of Enzymatic Degradation of Polymer Additives. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):76-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Keywords: Sesbania Gum, Guar Gum, Complex enzyme, Plugging, Degradation

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Distribution Of Organic Compounds (PAHs and BTEX) And Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) in An Oil Impacted Soils, Rivers State Nigeria.


*Osu Charles I. and 1I.A. Okoro


*Department of Pure and industrial chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, PMB, 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria. charsike@yahoo.com

1Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria


Abstract: This paper deals with the distributions of organic compounds (PAHs and BTEX) and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) concentrations in an oil impacted soils of Rivers State, Nigeria. The concentrations of organic compounds ranged from 597.340 0.02- 896.784 0.011 Mg/Kg, total PAHs; 0.030 0.006 – 0.057 0.003 Mg/Kg, BTEX and heavy metals ranged from 2.700 0.002 – 3.960 0.006 Mg/Kg, Pb; 0.460 0.003 – 0.730 0.007 Mg/Kg, Cd; 3.060 0.003 – 3.92 0.004 Mg/Kg, Zn and 92.040 0.013 – 129.400 0.031 Mg/Kg, Fe. Soil samples from Bonny had the highest total PAHs concentration (773.213 0.004 – 896.784 0.011 Mg/Kg). The BTEX concentrations were of smaller values due to the time of crude oil spillage. Total PAHs concentrations increases as depth of the soil increases and distributions of the heavy metals in the various depth has no regular pattern.

[Osu Charles . I. and I.A. Okoro. Distribution Of Organic Compounds (PAHs and BTEX) And Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd) in An Oil Impacted Soils, Rivers State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):82-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11



Key words: Oil spillage, PAHs, BTEX, Heavy metals and soils.

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Incorporating Information Sharing in Designing a Supply Chain Model with Considering Demand Forecasting Using Markov Process


Nader Azad 1, Ardavan Mirzaie 2, Majid Amin Nayeri 1


1. Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran

2. Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: In this paper, we incorporate information flow in a supply chain model. Also for decreasing the risk of the supply chain system, we first predict the customers’ demands and then this forecasting is used as an input to the supply chain model. In this paper a markov chain model will be used to forecast the customers’ demands. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is developed for solving the supply chain problem. The results indicate that the SA method and proposed markov chain model are efficient for a wide variety of problem sizes.

[Nader Azad, Ardavan Mirzaie, Majid Amin Nayeri. Incorporating Information Sharing in Designing a Supply Chain Model with Considering Demand Forecasting Using Markov Process. Rep Opinion 2015;7(1):87-91]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12



Keywords: Supply chain model; Demand forecasting; Markov chain; Simulated annealing

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 11, 2015. 

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