Report and Opinion
ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), Monthly
7 - Issue 3, Cumulated 69, March 25, 2015
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Biohydrogen Production from Wastewater by
immobilized culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM
Veena Thakur1, S.K. Jadhav2*,
of Studies in Biotechnology, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla
University Raipur, Chhattisgarh
hydrogen is one of the revolutionary finding for the 21st
century for being, clean and green energy source. Its production
from wastewater with the simultaneous treatment of wastewater is
one of the great finding in this area, moreover by the use of
immobilized form of bacteria for biological hydrogen production
is one of the greatest finding, as after production and
treatment the immobilized bacterial cells can be easily removed,
without affecting the water quality. In this study production of
biohydrogen was carried out by using dairy and rice mill
effluent as a substrate by using Clostridium acetobutylicum
NCIM 2877 in immobilized state and it was found that maximum
production was 71.67± 0.88 ml with rice mill effluent and
52.0 ± 0.57 ml with dairy effluent at
temperature 35 0C and 33 ± 1.2 ml
and 64.33± 0.67 ml was obtained for rice mill effluent and dairy
effluent respectively at 5 pH. And also this process has
been found to be an efficient method for the treatment of
effluent in different pollution parameters after this
fermentative biohydrogen production.
[Veena Thakur, S.K. Jadhav, K.L.Tiwari.
Biohydrogen Production from Wastewater by immobilized culture of
Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877.
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):1-4].
Biohydrogen, Fermentation, Clostridium acetobutylicum
NCIM 2877, immobilized,wastewater.
Locally Planes Riemnnian
El-Said R. Lashin,
Department of Mathematics,
Faculty of applied Science, Umm Al-Qura university, Makkah,
Permanent: Mathematics Dept., Faculty of Science, AL Minofia
Theory of differentiable infinite dimensional manifolds [1-11]
evolved considerably over the last thirty years. The necessary
and sufficient condition for a Riemannian Banach manifold to be
a locally plane space will be established. Also, in this work we
proved that a Riemannian Banach manifold of constant sectional
curvature is a
locally plane space. MS classification: 53C40.
R. Lashin, Yasin Al Zubadi.
Riemnnian Banach Manifolds.
Banach manifold; Strong non-singular metric; Locally plane
space; Space of constant sectional
Assessment of Fluoride content
in ground Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
Sopan N. Shingote,
Research Student & Assistant
School of Earth Sciences, Swami
Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University,
Nanded-431606, Maharashtra India.
Abstract: The dominance of fluorosis is primarily due to
the intake of additional fluoride through drinking water. The
objectives of this study are to assessment the fluoride exposure
through drinking water. Assessment of fluoride exposure was
completed through the SPANDS technique. The present
investigation was undertaken to study the level of fluoride
contents in groundwater of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar. A whole
of 32 samples were collected from 32 villages of Rahuri Tahsil.
Among these villages, 4% drinking water samples from two
locations contain 1 mg/l of fluoride, 96% of the samples contain
fluoride 0.5 mg/l. The results indicate that the fluoride
satisfied in all the sampling stations was found within the
permissible levels as per WHO standards.
[Shingote SN, Kadam
AS. Assessment of Fluoride content in ground
Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra.
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):22-24].
Fluoride water, Groundwater Pollution, Fluoride content, Rahuri
Nephrology and Kidney
Hongbao Ma 1,
Yan Yang 1, Margaret Young 2
Brookdale University Hospital & Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY
11212, USA; 2
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Nephrology is a
major for the study and medicine of kidney. A physician whose
expert is in nephrology is a nephrologist or renal physician.
Nephrology does the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases,
which includes electrolyte disturbances, hypertension, dialysis
and renal transplant patients, etc. Nephrology deals many
contents, such as kidney systemic disorders, systemic
vasculitides, autoimmune diseases, lupus, congenital defection,
genetic problem, polycystic kidney disease, acute renal failure,
chronic kidney disease, hematuria, proteinuria, kidney stones,
hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes,
cancer-related kidney diseases.
[Ma H, Yang Y, Young
M. Assessment of
Fluoride content in ground Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar,
nephrology; renal; kidney; medicine
Energy strategy of Barak Obama
Ghasem Toraby 1,
Masoumeh Rashad 2
Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Providing energy in a clean
method not creating environmental problems for human being was
always one of the important concerns of the countries in 21th
century. America by importing about 20million oil barrel per day
is very dependent on Middle East as a region with about 60% of
the oil in the world. This dependence on Middle East oil
encountered USA with an extensive political and safety issues
during the previous decades. Here Barak Obama administration in
its strategy emphasized more on some policies such as
“Diversification”, “reserve” of fuel resources, increasing
“energy efficiency” and investing on new energies to reduce USA
dependency on Middle East oil by decreasing oil consumption.
Besides, oil consumption reduction by increasing efficiency and
using alternative energies decrease concerns especially in USA
about environmental issues, the concern that was especially
being emphasized in Obama presidential campaign.
[Ghasem Toraby, Masoumeh Rashad. Energy strategy of Barak
Obama. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):31-39].
Middle East; diversification; energy efficiency
The study of the effect of
financing methods on EPS, DPS ratios of the companies admitted
in Tehran stock exchange (TSE)
M. R. Askari 1, H.
Mohammadi 2, Abbas Mahaki Zadeh 2
Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran
Islamic Azad University, Khalij-e-Fars Branch, Khorramshahr,
One way to standardize earning is
changing it to earning per share. This importance has caused
that calculation and real earning report of each share and its
prediction according to the capital market rules become
necessary. The general aim of the research is the study of the
influence of each of financing methods on earning per share and
cash dividend per share in Tehran stock exchange (TSE) or the
study of the methods influence on earning per share and cash
dividend per share changes of TSE companies. In the current
research the followings are analyzed: The effect of stock
emission on EPS, DPS, and the effect of dept on EPS, DPS and the
effect of retained earnings on EPS, DPS. The data collection is
field method of financial statements where written data and
documents of stock exchange are used. This research is
inductive, its statistical method is of inference type, and
regression model and comparative tests are used to support the
hypotheses. In the current research, the companies admitted in
TSE are selected as statistical population. To this end, Dena
Sahm and Tadbir Pardaz softwares with the data of financial
statements of the companies admitted in stock exchange are used.
Statistical population of the research is including all the
companies admitted in TSE during the years 2001-2008.
The research results at
error level of 5% by pooled data method indicated that
hypotheses 1, 2, 5 and 5 are supported and hypotheses 3 and 6
are rejected. Thus, financing methods by stock emission and
getting loan in the admitted companies in TSE were effective on
EPS, DPS, but financing through retained earnings is not
effective on EPS and DPS.
[M. R. Askari, H. Mohammadi, Abbas Mahaki Zadeh. The study of
the effect of financing methods on EPS, DPS ratios of the
companies admitted in Tehran stock exchange (TSE).
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):40-50].
Stock Exchange; financing; earning per share; DPS; EPS
Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Studies on Olumirin
Osun State. Nigeria.
A.T., Fagbohun, E.D. and Akindolapo, O.R.
Microbiology, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
portability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesha
were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform
count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria
and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total
bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour
plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic
susceptibility were carried out using paper disc method, while
physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using
standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water
samples ranged 14.8 x 102CFU/ml - 21.3 x 103CFU/ml
while the coliform count ranged 13 -175MPN/100ml. The identified
bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were
E.coli (43.1%), Klebsiella spp (20.7%), Proteus
spp (12.1%), Salmonella spp (6.99%), Pseudomonas
spp (5.17%), Shigella spp (6.9%), and Enterococcus
spp (5.17 %). Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates
were exhibited as follow; Nalidixic acid (31%), Ampicillin
(76%), Cotrimoxazole (60%), Gentamicin (19%), Nitrofurantoin
(24%), Colitin (48%), Streptomycin (34%) and tetracycline (52%).
82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance.
The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some
mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the
water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4) mg/L, phosphate
(12.6 - 17.1) mg/L, sodium (47.8 - 87.6) mg/L, potassium (76.6 -
104.5) mg/L, chloride (59.0 - 90.2) mg/L, zinc (0.75 - 1.82)
mg/L, lead (0.12 - 0.33) mg/L, iron (0.52 - 0.60) mg/L, copper
(0.12 - 0.27) mg/L while nickel and arsenic were not detected in
any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results
with the international water standard for natural water, the
waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose
unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the
resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new
antibiotics can also be developed.
[Odeyemi, A.T., Fagbohun, E.D. and Akindolapo, O.R.
Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Studies on Olumirin
Waterfall, Erin- Ijesha, Osun State, Nigeria.
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):51-58].
Physico-chemical, Olumirin, Bacteriological, Susceptibility,
The Comparison between Effect of Foreign Exchange Rate and its
Volatility on Industrial Export: Application of "GARCH" Method
Amir Mansour Tehranchian1, Roozbeh Baloonejad Nouri2,
Professor of Economics, Faculty of
Economics, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran
student of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Mazandaran
University, Babolsar, Iran
Student of Economics, Faculty of Economics,
MazandaranUniversity, Babolsar, Iran
Abstract: In this paper, the
effect of real exchange rate and its volatility on industrial
export has been studied. For this purpose, first conditional
variance of exchange rate volatility is estimated with GARCH
method and with using statistical information relating to the
exchange rate in Iran for 1977-2008. Afterward, distributed lag
regression of industrial export with using
Koyck transformation was transformed to an auto regressive
model. Then, real exchange rate coefficients and its volatility
were estimated with ordinary least squares method. Depending on
our finding, industrial export in Iran more affected to real
exchange rate volatility in compared to real exchange rate. In
result, increases in real exchange rate volatility reduce volume
of industrial export. Instead effect of real exchange rate on
export of this section statistically is insignificant. Managing
real exchange rate, especially through control of inflation
besides other supporting policy is from the political
recommendations of this paper.
[Amir Mansour Tehranchian, Roozbeh
Baloonejad Nouri, Tahere mousavi. The Comparison
between Effect of Foreign Exchange Rate and its Volatility on
Industrial Export: Application of "GARCH" Method. Rep
Real Exchange Rate, Real Exchange Rate Volatility, Industrial
Sector Export, GARCH Method
Feasibility Assessment of
Creating an Inter-Library Loan System and Document Delivery
Services in Public Libraries of Fars Province (Iran)
Ali Biranvand 1, Hadi
Sharif Moghaddam 2
Payam Noor University, Jahrom, Iran
Payam Noor University, Mashhad, Iran
High costs related to the
preparation of resources, manpower shortages, lack of space, and
an inability in information resources have inevitably enforced
information needs for their users through resource sharing, ILL
library, database intelligence, politics, and political
resources instead of using "resource property”. This study is an
applied and descriptive study. The tool for gathering data is a
questionnaire distributed to 254 public library managers and
librarians in Fars Province. Data analysis was performed with
statistical software SPSS (version 16), using descriptive
statistics and the Friedman test. Based on our findings, 69.94
percent of librarians,and 95.9 percent of managers emphasized on
the need to implement an inter-library loan system. Activity of
libraries in Fars province in field of ILL and document delivery
services was very low (5.73 percent). Research subjects
indicated that the limitations and potential problems in
implementation included: no guarantee that prevents damage to
resources (97.3 percent), lack of consistent rules using Library
Services ILL (95 percent), lack of funding for cooperation among
libraries (92/1 percent), lack of cooperation between public
libraries in ILL library (91.3 percent), the high cost of
cooperation among libraries, non-credit provision for main
organization (89.4 percent), lack of equipment such as
computers, scanners, copiers, and faxes (89 percent), lack of
librarians familiarity with network technology and databases
(83.9 percent), lack of trust among professionals in the field
of librarianship and library document delivery services (80
percent), and lack of coordination between the center and the
library system for implementation (80 percent).
[Ali Biranvand, Hadi Sharif Moghaddam. Feasibility Assessment
of Creating an Inter-Library Loan System and Document Delivery
Services in Public Libraries of Fars Province (Iran).
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):64-71].
Library Collaboration; Inter library loan; Document delivery
services; Public libraries; Fars province
Designing Of A new CMOS high
ferquency Multiplier On Voltage Mode
Department of electrical engineering,
Islamic azad university of shoushtar
branch, Shoushtar, iran
A four-quadrant analog multiplier circuit,
for low voltage supply and high frequency, is presented. Its
advantages are as follow: it can be operating on low voltage
supply, it can use either a single power supply or two power
supplies, and all transistors used are the same dimension. The
circuit is based on 90 nm CMOS technology simulated using
HSPICE. The circuit operates using the supply voltage of ±1V and
the cut off frequency is 4.57 GHz.
[Milad Kaboli. Designing Of A new CMOS high ferquency
Multiplier On Voltage Mode. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):72-75].
Multiplier; high frequency; low voltage
China’s Energy Strategy (By
emphasize on Middle East)
Ahmad Saei (Ph.D),
International Relation, Islamic Azad University, Science &
Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: China is a
vast and overpopulated country in the eastern Asia whose energy
security and supply is the most important factor of economic
growth and consequently, economic, social and political
security. By the past decades, its leaders have understood the
key role of economic growth and development in the economic and
political security of china. Thus, they have put all their
concentration on this issue. As a result, the economic growth
rate of china has amounted to 10 percent, becoming the foremost
element of political and social stability of china. On the other
hand, maintaining this high growth rate depends on the energy
security and any disturbance in energy field not only stops the
economic growth but also makes the ground for the economic,
political and social crisis. As a result, maintaining the energy
security is of the importance in strategic goals and foreign
policy priorities of the state. Thus, the statesmen tries to
prioritize certain polices in domestic and foreign realm in
order to increase the energy security namely; diversification of
fuel sources, focusing on the domestic products, concentrating
on efficiency, establishing strategic reservoirs and investing
in oil-owned countries. The aim of this article is evaluating
the realization of these policies.
Saei, Ghasem toraby. China’s Energy Strategy
(By emphasize on Middle
East). Rep Opinion
energy security, new energies, strategic reservoirs,
diversification, energy efficiency
City and sustainability do not
Ana Monteiro 1,
Margarete Cristiane C. T. Amorim2
Department of Geography, Public Health Institute, Oporto
University, CITTA, Via Panorâmica s/nº, 4150-564 Porto,
Dpto. de Geografia – Universidade Estadual Paulista - Faculdade
de Ciências e Tecnologia
This paper reviews the meaning of
two concepts – city and sustainability – and discusses their
incompatibility. Since cities came into existence, they have
managed to survive because societies have been able to withdraw
from the ecosystem a vast amount of products at a much faster
rate than they can be replaced due to scientific and
technological advancements. The city implies accommodating a
diversity of groups of people and activities in a very
restricted space. Within the current paradigm focused on
well-being, the demands of the modern city go far beyond the
acceptable boundaries of its ecological footprint, requiring
substantial modifications to the biogeophysical structure.
Therefore, unless our concept of city is radically changed,
bringing these two ideas together will prove a difficult task,
since one is anchored in profit rates and the other is based on
respect for the rhythms of ecosystems.
[Ana Monteiro, Margarete Cristiane C. T. Amorim.
City and sustainability do not match.
Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):84-88].
Urbanization; sustainability; well-being paradigm; urban climate
The manuscripts in this issue
were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from
March 15, 2015.
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