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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), Monthly

Volume 7 - Issue 3, Cumulated 69, March 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Biohydrogen Production from Wastewater by immobilized culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877


Veena Thakur1, S.K. Jadhav2*, K.L.Tiwari3


1, 2*,3-School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh

*corresponding author –jadhav9862@gmail.com


Abstract: Biological hydrogen is one of the revolutionary finding for the 21st century for being, clean and green energy source. Its production from wastewater with the simultaneous treatment of wastewater is one of the great finding in this area, moreover by the use of immobilized form of bacteria for biological hydrogen production is one of the greatest finding, as after production and treatment the immobilized bacterial cells can be easily removed, without affecting the water quality. In this study production of biohydrogen was carried out by using dairy and rice mill effluent as a substrate by using Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877 in immobilized state and it was found that maximum production was 71.67± 0.88 ml with rice mill effluent and 52.0 ± 0.57 ml with dairy effluent at temperature 35 0C and 33 ± 1.2 ml and 64.33± 0.67 ml was obtained for rice mill effluent and dairy effluent respectively at 5 pH. And also this process has been found to be an efficient method for the treatment of effluent in different pollution parameters after this fermentative biohydrogen production.

[Veena Thakur, S.K. Jadhav, K.L.Tiwari. Biohydrogen Production from Wastewater by immobilized culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1



Key words: Biohydrogen, Fermentation, Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877, immobilized,wastewater.

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Locally Planes Riemnnian Banach Manifolds


(1) El-Said R. Lashin, (2) Yasin Al Zubadi


(1), (2) Department of Mathematics, Faculty of applied Science, Umm Al-Qura university, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

(1) Permanent: Mathematics Dept., Faculty of Science, AL Minofia University, Egypt.


Abstract: Theory of differentiable infinite dimensional manifolds [1-11] evolved considerably over the last thirty years. The necessary and sufficient condition for a Riemannian Banach manifold to be a locally plane space will be established. Also, in this work we proved that a Riemannian Banach manifold of constant sectional curvature is a locally plane space. MS classification: 53C40.

 [El-Said R. Lashin, Yasin Al Zubadi. Locally Planes Riemnnian Banach Manifolds. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):5-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2



Keywords: Banach manifold; Strong non-singular metric; Locally plane space; Space of constant sectional curvature.

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Assessment of Fluoride content in ground Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra


Sopan N. Shingote, Avinash S. Kadam.


Research Student & Assistant Professor

School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded-431606, Maharashtra India.

Email: snshingote.geo@reffdimail.com


Abstract: The dominance of fluorosis is primarily due to the intake of additional fluoride through drinking water. The objectives of this study are to assessment the fluoride exposure through drinking water. Assessment of fluoride exposure was completed through the SPANDS technique. The present investigation was undertaken to study the level of fluoride contents in groundwater of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar. A whole of 32 samples were collected from 32 villages of Rahuri Tahsil. Among these villages, 4% drinking water samples from two locations contain 1 mg/l of fluoride, 96% of the samples contain fluoride 0.5 mg/l. The results indicate that the fluoride satisfied in all the sampling stations was found within the permissible levels as per WHO standards.

[Shingote SN, Kadam AS. Assessment of Fluoride content in ground Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):22-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3



Key words: Fluoride water, Groundwater Pollution, Fluoride content, Rahuri Tahsil, Ahmednagar

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Nephrology and Kidney


Hongbao Ma 1, Yan Yang 1, Margaret Young 2


1 Brookdale University Hospital & Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA




Abstract: Nephrology is a major for the study and medicine of kidney. A physician whose expert is in nephrology is a nephrologist or renal physician. Nephrology does the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, which includes electrolyte disturbances, hypertension, dialysis and renal transplant patients, etc. Nephrology deals many contents, such as kidney systemic disorders, systemic vasculitides, autoimmune diseases, lupus, congenital defection, genetic problem, polycystic kidney disease, acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, hematuria, proteinuria, kidney stones, hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes, cancer-related kidney diseases.

[Ma H, Yang Y, Young M. Assessment of Fluoride content in ground Water of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):25-30]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4



Keywords: nephrology; renal; kidney; medicine

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Energy strategy of Barak Obama


Ghasem Toraby 1, Masoumeh Rashad 2


1. Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Providing energy in a clean method not creating environmental problems for human being was always one of the important concerns of the countries in 21th century. America by importing about 20million oil barrel per day is very dependent on Middle East as a region with about 60% of the oil in the world. This dependence on Middle East oil encountered USA with an extensive political and safety issues during the previous decades. Here Barak Obama administration in its strategy emphasized more on some policies such as “Diversification”, “reserve” of fuel resources, increasing “energy efficiency” and investing on new energies to reduce USA dependency on Middle East oil by decreasing oil consumption. Besides, oil consumption reduction by increasing efficiency and using alternative energies decrease concerns especially in USA about environmental issues, the concern that was especially being emphasized in Obama presidential campaign.

[Ghasem Toraby, Masoumeh Rashad. Energy strategy of Barak Obama. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):31-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5



Keywords: Middle East; diversification; energy efficiency

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The study of the effect of financing methods on EPS, DPS ratios of the companies admitted in Tehran stock exchange (TSE)


M. R. Askari 1, H. Mohammadi 2, Abbas Mahaki Zadeh 2


1. Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Islamic Azad University, Khalij-e-Fars Branch, Khorramshahr, Iran



Abstract: One way to standardize earning is changing it to earning per share. This importance has caused that calculation and real earning report of each share and its prediction according to the capital market rules become necessary. The general aim of the research is the study of the influence of each of financing methods on earning per share and cash dividend per share in Tehran stock exchange (TSE) or the study of the methods influence on earning per share and cash dividend per share changes of TSE companies. In the current research the followings are analyzed: The effect of stock emission on EPS, DPS, and the effect of dept on EPS, DPS and the effect of retained earnings on EPS, DPS. The data collection is field method of financial statements where written data and documents of stock exchange are used. This research is inductive, its statistical method is of inference type, and regression model and comparative tests are used to support the hypotheses. In the current research, the companies admitted in TSE are selected as statistical population. To this end, Dena Sahm and Tadbir Pardaz softwares with the data of financial statements of the companies admitted in stock exchange are used. Statistical population of the research is including all the companies admitted in TSE during the years 2001-2008. The research results at error level of 5% by pooled data method indicated that hypotheses 1, 2, 5 and 5 are supported and hypotheses 3 and 6 are rejected. Thus, financing methods by stock emission and getting loan in the admitted companies in TSE were effective on EPS, DPS, but financing through retained earnings is not effective on EPS and DPS.

[M. R. Askari, H. Mohammadi, Abbas Mahaki Zadeh. The study of the effect of financing methods on EPS, DPS ratios of the companies admitted in Tehran stock exchange (TSE). Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):40-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6



Keywords: Stock Exchange; financing; earning per share; DPS; EPS

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The Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Studies on Olumirin Waterfall, Erin- Ijesha, Osun State. Nigeria.


*Odeyemi, A.T., Fagbohun, E.D. and Akindolapo, O.R.


Department of Microbiology, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

E-mail: adebowaletoba@yahoo.com


Abstract: The portability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesha were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using paper disc method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water samples ranged 14.8 x 102CFU/ml - 21.3 x 103CFU/ml while the coliform count ranged 13 -175MPN/100ml. The identified bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were E.coli (43.1%), Klebsiella spp (20.7%), Proteus spp (12.1%), Salmonella spp (6.99%), Pseudomonas spp (5.17%), Shigella spp (6.9%), and Enterococcus spp (5.17 %). Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates were exhibited as follow; Nalidixic acid (31%), Ampicillin (76%), Cotrimoxazole (60%), Gentamicin (19%), Nitrofurantoin (24%), Colitin (48%), Streptomycin (34%) and tetracycline (52%). 82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4) mg/L, phosphate (12.6 - 17.1) mg/L, sodium (47.8 - 87.6) mg/L, potassium (76.6 - 104.5) mg/L, chloride (59.0 - 90.2) mg/L, zinc (0.75 - 1.82) mg/L, lead (0.12 - 0.33) mg/L, iron (0.52 - 0.60) mg/L, copper (0.12 - 0.27) mg/L while nickel and arsenic were not detected in any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results with the international water standard for natural water, the waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new antibiotics can also be developed.

[Odeyemi, A.T., Fagbohun, E.D. and Akindolapo, O.R. Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Studies on Olumirin Waterfall, Erin- Ijesha, Osun State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):51-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7



Key Words: Physico-chemical, Olumirin, Bacteriological, Susceptibility, Erin- Ijesha

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The Comparison between Effect of Foreign Exchange Rate and its Volatility on Industrial Export: Application of "GARCH" Method


Amir Mansour Tehranchian1, Roozbeh Baloonejad Nouri2, Tahere mousavi3


1.Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

2.PhD student of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

3.M.Sc Student of Economics, Faculty of Economics, MazandaranUniversity, Babolsar, Iran



Abstract: In this paper, the effect of real exchange rate and its volatility on industrial export has been studied. For this purpose, first conditional variance of exchange rate volatility is estimated with GARCH method and with using statistical information relating to the exchange rate in Iran for 1977-2008. Afterward, distributed lag regression of industrial export with using Koyck transformation was transformed to an auto regressive model. Then, real exchange rate coefficients and its volatility were estimated with ordinary least squares method. Depending on our finding, industrial export in Iran more affected to real exchange rate volatility in compared to real exchange rate. In result, increases in real exchange rate volatility reduce volume of industrial export. Instead effect of real exchange rate on export of this section statistically is insignificant. Managing real exchange rate, especially through control of inflation besides other supporting policy is from the political recommendations of this paper.

[Amir Mansour Tehranchian, Roozbeh Baloonejad Nouri, Tahere mousavi. The Comparison between Effect of Foreign Exchange Rate and its Volatility on Industrial Export: Application of "GARCH" Method. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):59-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8



Keywords: Real Exchange Rate, Real Exchange Rate Volatility, Industrial Sector Export, GARCH Method

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Feasibility Assessment of Creating an Inter-Library Loan System and Document Delivery Services in Public Libraries of Fars Province (Iran)


Ali Biranvand 1, Hadi Sharif Moghaddam 2


1. Payam Noor University, Jahrom, Iran

2. Payam Noor University, Mashhad, Iran



Abstract: High costs related to the preparation of resources, manpower shortages, lack of space, and an inability in information resources have inevitably enforced information needs for their users through resource sharing, ILL library, database intelligence, politics, and political resources instead of using "resource property”. This study is an applied and descriptive study. The tool for gathering data is a questionnaire distributed to 254 public library managers and librarians in Fars Province. Data analysis was performed with statistical software SPSS (version 16), using descriptive statistics and the Friedman test. Based on our findings, 69.94 percent of librarians,and 95.9 percent of managers emphasized on the need to implement an inter-library loan system. Activity of libraries in Fars province in field of ILL and document delivery services was very low (5.73 percent). Research subjects indicated that the limitations and potential problems in implementation included: no guarantee that prevents damage to resources (97.3 percent), lack of consistent rules using Library Services ILL (95 percent), lack of funding for cooperation among libraries (92/1 percent), lack of cooperation between public libraries in ILL library (91.3 percent), the high cost of cooperation among libraries, non-credit provision for main organization (89.4 percent), lack of equipment such as computers, scanners, copiers, and faxes (89 percent), lack of librarians familiarity with network technology and databases (83.9 percent), lack of trust among professionals in the field of librarianship and library document delivery services (80 percent), and lack of coordination between the center and the library system for implementation (80 percent).

[Ali Biranvand, Hadi Sharif Moghaddam. Feasibility Assessment of Creating an Inter-Library Loan System and Document Delivery Services in Public Libraries of Fars Province (Iran). Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):64-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9



Keywords: Library Collaboration; Inter library loan; Document delivery services; Public libraries; Fars province

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Designing Of A new CMOS high ferquency Multiplier On Voltage Mode


Milad Kaboli


Department of electrical engineering, Islamic azad university of shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, iran



Abstract: A four-quadrant analog multiplier circuit, for low voltage supply and high frequency, is presented. Its advantages are as follow: it can be operating on low voltage supply, it can use either a single power supply or two power supplies, and all transistors used are the same dimension. The circuit is based on 90 nm CMOS technology simulated using HSPICE. The circuit operates using the supply voltage of ±1V and the cut off frequency is 4.57 GHz.

[Milad Kaboli. Designing Of A new CMOS high ferquency Multiplier On Voltage Mode. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):72-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10



Keyword: Multiplier; high frequency; low voltage

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China’s Energy Strategy (By emphasize on Middle East)


Ahmad Saei (Ph.D), Ghasem Toraby


Department of International Relation, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: China is a vast and overpopulated country in the eastern Asia whose energy security and supply is the most important factor of economic growth and consequently, economic, social and political security. By the past decades, its leaders have understood the key role of economic growth and development in the economic and political security of china. Thus, they have put all their concentration on this issue. As a result, the economic growth rate of china has amounted to 10 percent, becoming the foremost element of political and social stability of china. On the other hand, maintaining this high growth rate depends on the energy security and any disturbance in energy field not only stops the economic growth but also makes the ground for the economic, political and social crisis. As a result, maintaining the energy security is of the importance in strategic goals and foreign policy priorities of the state. Thus, the statesmen tries to prioritize certain polices in domestic and foreign realm in order to increase the energy security namely; diversification of fuel sources, focusing on the domestic products, concentrating on efficiency, establishing  strategic reservoirs and investing in oil-owned countries. The aim of this article is evaluating the realization of these policies.

[Ahmad Saei, Ghasem toraby. China’s Energy Strategy (By emphasize on Middle East). Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):76-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11



Keywords: energy security, new energies, strategic reservoirs, diversification, energy efficiency

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City and sustainability do not match.


Ana Monteiro 1, Margarete Cristiane C. T.  Amorim2


1. Department of Geography, Public Health Institute, Oporto University, CITTA, Via Panorâmica s/nº, 4150-564 Porto, Portugal, anamonteirosousa@gmail.com

2. Dpto. de Geografia – Universidade Estadual Paulista - Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia



Abstract: This paper reviews the meaning of two concepts – city and sustainability – and discusses their incompatibility. Since cities came into existence, they have managed to survive because societies have been able to withdraw from the ecosystem a vast amount of products at a much faster rate than they can be replaced due to scientific and technological advancements. The city implies accommodating a diversity of groups of people and activities in a very restricted space. Within the current paradigm focused on well-being, the demands of the modern city go far beyond the acceptable boundaries of its ecological footprint, requiring substantial modifications to the biogeophysical structure. Therefore, unless our concept of city is radically changed, bringing these two ideas together will prove a difficult task, since one is anchored in profit rates and the other is based on respect for the rhythms of ecosystems.

[Ana Monteiro, Margarete Cristiane C. T.  Amorim. City and sustainability do not match. Rep Opinion 2015;7(3):84-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12



Keywords: Urbanization; sustainability; well-being paradigm; urban climate

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 15, 2015.

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