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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873, Monthly

Volume 7 - Issue 5, Cumulated 71, May 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Micromorphological Studies On Pavonia Odorata Willd.

 

*Poonam Sethi

 

Assistant Professor, Guru Nanak College, Chennai India.

 

Absract: Roots of Pavonia odorata Willd, Malvaceae were studied and detailed pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation was done. Morphology of the roots have been studied to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification using camera lucida diagrams, parameters presented in this paper may be proposed to establish the authenticity of this plant and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other. It is known as sugandhabala in native Indian sub-tropical areas, the roots and shoots of this plant are extremely aromatic. Ayurveda, the oldest of all healing sciences has recorded the use of Sugandhabala herb and its extract as cooling, demulcent, carminative, diaphoretic, and diuretic, fever.

[Poonam Sethi. Micromorphological Studies On Pavonia Odorata Willd. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):1-2]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.01

 

Key words: camera lucida, Pavonia, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, sugandhabala

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2

Expression of α-Amylase by Aspergillus niger: Effect of Nitrogen Source of Growth Medium

 

Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1,*, Anthonia Olufunke Oluduro2, Femi Kayode Agboola3, Patrick Ojo Olutiola4, Blythe Amanda Burkhardt5, Sheldon Jerome Segal6

 

1.  Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2.  Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3.  Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

4.  Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

5.  St. Louis University Medical School, Missouri, United States of America

6.  Director, Division of Population Sciences, The Rockefeller Foundation, Manhattan, New York, United States of America/Adjunct Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, Manhattan, New York, United States of America

ao_adejuwon@yahoo.ca, adejuwon.ao@lcu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Background: Aspergillus niger is capable of growth on suitable substrates with the elaboration of enzymes to sustain development. In the tropics, this fungus is a common contaminant of most storage products, rendering them unsuitable for their primary purpose. Materials and Methods: A defined medium with starch as carbon source and varied nitrogen source was inoculated with spore suspensions of approximately 5x105 spores per ml of Aspergillus niger. Results: Extracellular α-amylase was expressed within a period of ten days in the inoculated defined medium. Ammonium chloride was able to induce highest activity, expressed as 1,268 units/mg protein on the eighth day of inoculation of medium. Least activity were with tryptone and peptone with optimum activities expressed as 10 units/mg protein on the ninth day and 9 units/mg protein on the tenth day respectively. Conclusion: Starch as carbon source of growth with ammonium chloride as nitrogen source are good supports for production of α-amylase by Aspergillus niger. However, repression of activity is possible after the eighth day dependent on the growth medium constituents and fungal metabolites.

[Adejuwon AO, Oluduro AO, Agboola FK, Olutiola PO, Burkhardt BA, Segal SJ. Expression of α-Amylase by Aspergillus niger: Effect of Nitrogen Source of Growth Medium. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):3-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.02

 

Key words: Aspergillus niger, defined medium, α-amylase, purification

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3

Advanced Review on Anthelmintic Medicinal Plants

 

Feyisa Kuma, Tadesse Birhanu* and Eyob Hirpa

 

School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: drbirhan@yahoo.com/kiyatad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Medicinal plants have played a central part in combating many ailments in human and livestock in many indigenous communities including Africa. In Ethiopia, it is also played a significant role in treating health problems. Ethno veterinary medicine refers to people’s beliefs, knowledge, skills and practices relating to care of the animals. Helminthosis is one of the major problems of livestock production throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is especially prevalent in developing countries in association with poor management practices and inadequate control measures. Different parts of anthelmintic plants are used for varies parasitic diseases and disease conditions for example, extracts of Hagenia abyssinica, leaves of Myrsine Africana, Rhus glabrous, Jasminum abysinicum, Rhus vulgaris, Acokanthera schimperi have anthelmintic activities. However, these plants are suffering from several threats due to a number of natural and anthropogenic activities including the clear-cutting of forests, conversion of grasslands into cultivated lands, industrialization, urbanization, overgrazing, soil erosion and desertification. Dosage form of the plant is still the major problem in developing countries. Thus, it is need to determine the dosage form of anthelmintic medicinal plants.

[Feyisa Kuma, Tadesse Birhanu and Eyob Hirpa. Advanced Review on Anthelmintic Medicinal Plants. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):6-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.03

 

Key Words: Anthelmintic, Developing Countries, Medicinal Plants, Parasitic Diseases

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4

The impact of management information system on organizational agility in Ilam Telecommunication Company, Ilam province, Iran

 

Masoud Mohammadi 1, Mohammad Mahboubi2*, Maliheh Abdollahi3, Babak Rastgari Mehr 4, Sasan Ghorbani Kalkhageh5

 

[1] Educator, Library and Information Sciences, School of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

2. Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

3. MSc in Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, school of health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

4.5 Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

Email: mm59m@yahoo.com, Tel:00989126809526

 

Abstract: Introduction: today, globalization and transition from the businesses to the digital economy have made the use of information and information systems substantially more essential ever since. This study investigated the effect of management information systems (MIS) on agility. Methods: This study was cross – sectional (descriptive). 150 employees of Telecommunication Company of Ilam with bachelor's degree or higher entered this study. Data collection was done by using two questionnaires, MIS questionnaire and organizational agility questionnaire. Validity and reliability of these questionnaires were confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS, version 21. Results: according to this study, a significant relationship was found between all studied MISs and Competency and agility, and that there was a statistically significant relationship between strategic information and structured decisions systems in term of accountability, but this relationship was not significant between accountability and decision support systems. Also there was a positive significant relationship between accountability and structured decision support systems. However, no significant relationship between accountability and strategic information systems and decision support systems was observed. Conclusion: Information technology (IT) and its features such as MISs are tools which are used to improve company’s overall efficiency in a highly unstable and competitive environment. Private and public organizations need to focus on this component in respect to (in regard) the unstable and competitive conditions within the organization.

[Masoud Mohammadi, Mohammad Mahboubi, Maliheh Abdollahi, Babak Rastgari Mehr, Sasan Ghorbani Kalkhageh. The impact of management information system on organizational agility in Ilam Telecommunication Company, Ilam province, Iran. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):17-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.04

 

Keywords: organizational agility, management information systems (MISs)

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5

How do Productive Skills of Saudi Students Affect EFL Learning and Teaching

 

Dr Vipin Kumar Sharma

 

Assistant Professor

Department of English, ELC (Main Campus), Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

P.O Box 114, Postal code: 4512; Cell phone:  +966 581880160

E Mails: vksharma@jazanu.edu.sa, vipinaravali@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays, more and more people are learning English as a foreign or second language, and their key objective is to get expertise in English. This has ignited a spark in the teachers to innovate and adopt the effective methods of teaching English which is a matter of great concern today. Language acquisition involves four modules of teaching that includes Listening, Reading, Speaking and Writing. The teachers have to be dynamic and updated to teach these language skills to the students. The researcher has interviewed the participants on various aspects involved in teaching-learning process to find out the root cause of the problems encountered by students studying at Jazan University to attain the speaking and the writing skills. The problems are further critically analysed, evaluated to derive at conclusions to suggest the most appropriate measures to be taken by the language teachers to overcome the problems of the students to enhance and expertise in their productive skills.

[Vipin Kumar Sharma. How do Productive Skills of Saudi Students Affect EFL Learning and Teaching. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):24-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.05

 

Key words: Communication, Technology, Foreign language, Productive skills

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6

Pallavas Immigration?(Father Of “Dark Rice”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research focus that Pallavas race shall be considered as origin of ancient human race on the “Earth Planet” lived in KACHCHA THEEVU (3,00,000 years ago) even before emission of 1st sun rays on the earth planet. The scientific research focus that the Pallavas race shall be considered as ancient angel race migrated from DEVAS RACE of white planet (also called as mother planet of universe). The Pallavas race shall also be considered as expert in stone architect work, father of dark rice and inventor of “IDLI FORMULA”.

[M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. Pallavas Immigration? (Father Of “Dark Rice”). Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):30-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.06

 

Key Words

i)       Philosophy of Pallavas Immigration?...

ii)     Philosophy of Transgenders?...

iii)    Philosophy of Dravidian Era?...

iv)   Philosophy of January 14?...

v)     Philosophy of March 8?...

vi)   Philosophy of March 21?...

vii)  Philosophy of J-Rice?...

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7

Product Research And Development Projects For Entrepreneurship Development In Nigeria

 

Ubani Emmanuel, Ononuju, Charles, Echeme, Ibeawuchi

 

Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri – Nigeria

drecubani@yahoo.co.uk,  ononujucn@gmail.com, ibeecheme@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explores the necessity of product Research and Development (R&D) projects in the quest for entrepreneurial development so as to contribute significantly to production, venturesomeness, employment generation and economic transformation of Nigeria. Products (R&D) create jobs and prosper nations, as the results usually motivate and assist prospective and potential entrepreneurs to set up small scale business units of their own. The survey research and multistage sampling techniques were used. Based on identified factors, the data used for the study were obtained from industrial research centres and institutes. The data were subjected to analysis using Relative Importance Index (RII) model. The identified factors and their respective RII were ranked in their order of influence of products R&D projects in stimulating entrepreneurship development. The result infers that business viability and marketability of products; X6 with RII of 4.78, quality and reliability; X16 with RII of 4.77 and availability of raw materials and technology; X5 with RII of 4.73 top the list. These are to be given prime consideration in the formulation of policy and strategy for entrepreneurship development through product R&D products. The adoption and institution of products R&D initiatives will help indigenous entrepreneurs to continuously add value to products resulting from the project and broaden the scope of self development and self directed motivational changes.

[Ubani Emmanuel, Ononuju, Charles, Echeme, Ibeawuchi. Product Research And Development Projects For Entrepreneurship Development In Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):40-46]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.07

 

Key words: product research, development projects, entrepreneurship, research and development, consumers, demand.

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8

Effects of soil properties on arthropod biodiversity in dumpsites in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

 

*Popoola, 1 K.O.K, Amusat,2 A.I.

 

1Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo state.

2Department Science Laboratory Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture, Igboora, Oyo state.

*taiwo_kok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The impact of soil properties, temperature and relative humidity on arthropod species composition, abundance and diversity was investigated in Apete and Aba-eku dumpsites and in a control site in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Ten 250g size pitfalls one third filled with 5% formalin were placed in each point in order to trap and preserve the arthropods. The arthropods trapped in each pitfall were preserved in separate specimen bottle containing 70% ethanol before identification. A total of 20 soil samples were collected from the sites using Auger and analyzed for particle size distribution, bulk density, moisture content, water holding capacity, porosity, organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium, calcium in (mol/kg-1) and available iron and zinc in mg/kg-1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) were conducted to compare the mean values of the soil properties and arthropods abundance. A total of 4,763 arthropods were recorded belonging to 17 orders. Twenty six families of arthropods containing 31 species were recorded in Aba-Eku, while 24 families with 24 species were encountered in Apete and 19 families with 21 species were recorded for the control site. Soil parameters examined showed significant difference (p>0.05) across the three sites. The high percentage abundance of Dipterans (Musca domestica) and heavy metal recorded, Zinc and Iron indicates that the environments were polluted. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) showed negative correlation for the relative humidity and temperature to the arthropods abundance. The distinct taxa found in Apete and Aba-eku suggest that the organic input from residential areas around the dump sites favoured their abundance.

[Popoola, K.O.K, Amusat A.I. Effects of soil properties on arthropod biodiversity in dumpsites in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):47-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.08

 

Keywords: Arthropod, biodiversity, Soil properties, Temperature

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9

Assessment of Government Support to Cultured Fish Production in Kwara State

 

Akanbi, S.O.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, P.M.B.1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Email dipoakanbi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study examined cultured fish farms in Kwara State were an upsurge in the number of new entrants into the cultured fish business. Specifically, the study identified the nature of government support to cultured fish production in the study area assessed the level of government support to fish farmers; and highlighted the constraints to cultured fish production. Data used for this study w collected over one production cycle in 2012 using a well structured questionnaire. A total of total 63 were drawn through random sampling technique from a sampling frame of 121 registered cultured fish farmers. Analytical tools used for the study were descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, hi-square analysis and Likert-type scale. The findings of the study revealed there was a significant relationship between fish output and government intervention strategies (p<0.05) and that constraints limiting cultured fish production among the respondents were problems of poor access to electricity (90.5%), inadequate credit facility (96.8%) poor quality of water (61.9%) and lack of government support for sourcing (87.0%). The study therefore recommends that government should step up on its current level of intervention to fish farmers and create a support system by establishing a number of one-stop shops at convenient locations, so that farmers can easily access subsidized fish inputs. This support should be complemented with provision of adequate extension/advisory services on best practices in cultured fish production.

[Akanbi, S.O. Assessment of Government Support to Cultured Fish Production in Kwara State. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):53-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.09

 

Key Words: Government Support, Constraint, Cultured Fish, Kwara

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10

Separation and Adsorption of 137Cs, 85Sr and (152+154) Eu onto polyaniline Stannic Silicomolybdate in aqueous chloride medium

 

N. El-Said, H.F.Ali and *A.T.Kassem

 

Hot Labs. and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail: amanykassem00@gmail.com

Phone: 01063699770

 

Abstract: Separation and Adsorption of 85Sr, 152+154Eu and activation product of 137Cs from radioactive waste (radioactive waste our Laboratories from Egyption (ET-RR1) research reactor) was achieved, these elements are considered as hazardous materials adsorbed using polyaniline stannic silicomolybdate was developed. Interactions of 137Cs(I), 152,154Eu(III), and 85Sr(II) ions from HCl acid solutions with polyaniline stannic silicomolybdate matrix, dried at 500.10C, have been individually investigated by the batch equilibration method. The sorption behavior of the three ions showed a selectivity sequence in the following order: Cs(I) > Eu(III) > Sr(II). The break through capacities of polyaniline stannic silicomolybdate for 137Cs(I), 152,154Eu(III), and 85Sr(II) was determined and the adsorption yield of these isotopes were found to be 94.6%, 92.6% and 87% respectively. The capacity was determined to be 2.5 meq/g from results obtained in Freundlich and D-R isotherms. Adsorption capacities and mean energies calculated from D-R isotherm parameters decreased by increasing ionic strength of the prepared exchanger. The activated energy calculated from Arhenious was found to be 20.7, 18.6,16.9 KJmol-1 for 137Cs, 85Sr and 152+154 Eu respectively.

[N. El-Said, H.F. Ali and A.T. Kassem. Separation and Adsorption of 137Cs, 85Sr and (152+154) Eu onto polyaniline Stannic Silicomolybdate in aqueous chloride medium. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):60-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.10

 

Keywords: Adsorption; polyaniline Stannic Silicomolybdate ; Freundlich and D-R isotherms

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11

Expression of α-Amylase by a Tropical Strain of Penicillium rubrum: Effect of Nitrogen Source of Growth

 

Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1,*, Anthonia Olufunke Oluduro2, Femi Kayode Agboola3, Patrick Ojo Olutiola4, Sheldon Jerome Segal5

 

1.  Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2.  Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3.  Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

4.  Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

5.  Director, Division of Population Sciences, The Rockefeller Foundation, Manhattan, New York, United States of America/Adjunct Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, Manhattan, New York, United States of America

ao_adejuwon@yahoo.ca, adejuwon.ao@lcu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Background: Penicillium rubrum contains rubratoxin associated with jaundice and convulsions in man. In the tropics, this fungus is a common contaminant of cereal grains. Materials and Methods: A defined medium with starch as carbon source and varied nitrogen source was inoculated with spore suspensions of approximately 3x105 spores per ml of a tropical strain of Penicillium rubrum. Incubation was at 30oC. Results: Extracellular α-amylase was expressed within a period of ten days in the inoculated defined medium. Ammonium chloride, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, glycine, sodium nitrate, tryptone and peptone as nitrogen source supported good expression of amylase by Penicillium rubrum. However, Urea, tryptone and peptone were best nitrogen sources. Conclusion: Starch as carbon source of growth with urea, tryptone or peptone as nitrogen source will support good expression of α-amylase activity by Penicillium rubrum within ten days.

[Adejuwon AO, Oluduro AO, Agboola FK, Olutiola PO, Segal SJ. Expression of α-Amylase by a Tropical Strain of Penicillium rubrum: Effect of Nitrogen Source of Growth. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):70-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.11

 

Key words: Penicillium rubrum, defined medium, α-amylase

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12

YUGADI WISHES (Scientific Research Article)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Heart-felt Yugadi wishes is hereby conveyed to all the citizens of India of Kannadikas, Telegu, Marathi, Konkani, Mauritius. Let the “MOTHER NATURE” brings all health and courage to every one of Indian Citizens & Global Nations. In Sanskrit “YUGA” means “AGE” and “ADI” means “BEGINNING”. YUGADI means “BEGINNING OF NEW AGE”. The Ancient New Year food special shall be called as “KANJI” (organic food).

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. YUGADI WISHES (Scientific Research Article). Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):73-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.12

 

Keywords: Heart-felt Yugadi; citizen; India; Kannadikas; Telegu; Marathi; Konkani; Mauritius; MOTHER NATURE; health; YUGA; food

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13

The role of spiritual intelligence in Increase of Social capital citizens (Case study: municipality of Zahedan)

 

Shomayeh Jafarian1, Raziyeh Jafarian2

 

1a graduate student in Urban Design

2Master of Urban Planning

International University of Imam Reza

jafariyansomaye@chmail.ir

 

Abstract: This Article Efforts the Offering Implications Strong Theoretical to the Examining the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable, spiritual intelligence, Social participation, sense of place, Social capital and Consequently rule A good City Pay Up to This Way To the Decomposition And the Analysis Results And In the Metropolis Zahedan That Area Case Study This Check Is, Achieved. In terms of collecting and Strategy, J.-P. Vhsh survey (survey) analytic Solidarity is. The questionnaire was used to gather information and trying to find ways of improving Capacities and cultural guide, And stimulate community involvement, social trust and Finally, social capital. Since Capital Social Role And the Fuck Affect In the Dynamism Economy City And the In the Finally Realization Rule A good City It is, therefore, concluded that the communities With the Social capital The above And the Partnership Informed Citizenry Required Existence Sense of belonging To the Location District And the City Through spiritual intelligence Is. In this regard, to provide solutions to create an environment that increases the chance of growth in people's spiritual intelligence.

[Shomayeh Jafarian, Raziyeh Jafarian. The role of spiritual intelligence in Increase of Social capital citizens (Case study: municipality of Zahedan). Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):76-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.13

 

Keywords: spiritual intelligence, sense of belonging - social contributions - Social Capital

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14

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Transforming growth factor- alpha (TGF-alpha) in Kidney Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFA gene. As a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, TGF-α is a mitogenic polypeptide. The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a transforming growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling pathway for cell proliferation, differentiation and development. This protein may act as either a transmembrane-bound ligand or a soluble ligand. This gene has been associated with many types of cancers, and it may also be involved in some cases of cleft lip/palate.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Transforming growth factor- alpha (TGF-alpha) in Kidney Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(5):87-105]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14

doi:10.7537/marsroj070515.14

 

Key words: transforming growth factor- alpha (TGF-alpha); lipopolysaccharide (LPS); renal; life; cell

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 24, 2015.

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