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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-9873, Monthly

Volume 7 - Issue 10, Cumulated 76, October 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Analysis Of Trace Metals From Water Samples Of Siddheshwar Reservoir Near Hingoli District, Maharashtra

 

Shaikh Parveen R.* & Bhosle Arjun B.

 

School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431606 (Maharashtra) India.

E-mail: shaikh_parveen100@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Different water samples were collected during the study period of July 2009 to June 2011 from Siddheshwar dam near Hingoli, Maharashtra, followed standard methods of sampling. Two different metals were estimated by using standard method. The observed values were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by WHO to assess the levels of trace metals in surface water of the selected study area. The water was found to be excessively contaminated with iron, invariably at both the sites which is alarming. The water was deficient of zinc which is a micronutrient. The statistical parameters such as mean, minimum, maximum, variance, standard deviation and correlation of coefficient were calculated. Correlation coefficient matrix among the parameters was calculated and correlations between various parameters were worked out.

[Shaikh Parveen R. & Bhosle Arjun B. Analysis Of Trace Metals From Water Samples Of Siddheshwar Reservoir Near Hingoli District, Maharashtra. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):1-9]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.01.

 

Key words:  Heavy metals, Drinking water, Permissible limit, Siddheshwar dam

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2

Investigation level of burnout in teachers and socio-demographic factors

 

Simin Siri

 

MSc in Health Education, Tarbiat Modarres University

 

Abstract: This article deals with the problem of emotional burnout of teacher of physical culture. Studied, the dependence of the level of burnout on socio-demographic factors of teachers - education, work experience, skill level, place of residence, marital status. Revealed, that the strength of symptoms increases with length of work experience; teachers with secondary vocational or incomplete higher education, as well as a lower category, burn out stronger of their qualified colleagues. Urban teachers` burnout level is a bit higher than that of teachers in rural areas. Marital status has little effect on the level of burnout.

[Simin Siri. Investigation level of burnout in teachers and socio-demographic factors. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):10-15]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.02.

 

Key words: burnout syndrome, socio-demographic factors, symptoms of burnout, burnout phases

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3

Comparative Study Of The Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Agricultural Cooperatives In Rwanda, Case Study Of Two Rice Farmers Cooperatives Of The Southern Zone.

 

Ritha TUMUKUNDE1, Jaya Shukla2, Peter Mbabazi3

 

1 { tumukunderitha@yahoo.fr}, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda.

2 {js.jayashukla@gmail.com}, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda.

3{mbabazimbabazize@yahoo.com}, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda.

 

Abstract: This study is entitled “Comparative study of the factors affecting the sustainability of agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda”. The Government of Rwanda views cooperatives as a potential vehicle through which the cooperatives members could expand access to income-generating activities, develop their business potential, including entrepreneurial and managerial capacities through education and training; increase savings and investment, and improve social well-being with special emphasis on gender equality, housing, education, health care and community development. Agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda lead to a variety of achievements to its members, such as the supply of agricultural inputs, access to financial aid, market access among others. However, not all the formed cooperatives are fruitful to their members. Most of these cooperatives start well, members are willing to work hard for their development, they perform well in the beginning, but after a while, most of them become dormant, or even it becomes worse and they fail completely. The main objective of this research was to analyze factors affecting the sustainability of agricultural cooperatives. The present research was guided by the following specific objectives: to analyze rice production and factors of yield variation before and after joining cooperative, to examine the social factors of sustainability agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda, to identify economic factors of sustainability agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda and to identify institutional and governance factors affecting agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda. It was conducted on two farmers cooperatives located in the Southern province of Rwanda. Among those cooperatives, one is considered as a model cooperative and the other one a cooperative with poor performance. The target population from those two rice farmers’ cooperatives was 350 from Ngiryi and Nsuri cooperatives, from which a sample size of 154rice farmers was derived from Ngiryi and Nsuri cooperatives. The sampling methods used are cross-sectional survey with 154 respondents selected by systematic sampling and cluster sampling. Another method adopted in this research is participatory approach. The multiple linear regression analysis was also used to assess the level of success of cooperatives from socio-economic and institutional factors. The key findings from the field survey revealed that, the average mean of rice production in Ngiryi cooperative was 2.94 tons before farmers being grouped into cooperatives, after joining cooperative, the yield shifted up to 4.96 tons. This showed that after rice farmers were grouped into cooperatives, the yield was increased by sixty eight percent (68.7%) of the total production before joining cooperatives. The same case of Nsuri cooperative, the average yield before cooperative was 1.55 tons while after intervention of cooperatives the yield was 3.271 tons of rice. For the considered social factors, due to the level of significance of 0.01 with the p-value of 0.0000, (p-value<0.01), the analysis showed that there is significance effect of social factors on the sustainability of Ngiryi cooperative, with p-value of 0.0000 (p-value<0.01), the same was observed for Nsuri cooperative the analysis showed that there is significance effect of social factors on Nsuri cooperative. For the considered economic factors, the results from the chi-square table showed that there is significant effect of economic factors on the sustainability of Ngiryi cooperative with p-value of 0.000 which is less than to level of significance of 0.01. The Pearson chi-square from this correlations was found to be 9.562 respectively. Whereas for Nsuri cooperative the results from the chi-square table showed that there is no significance effect of economic factors on the on Nsuri cooperative. This is explained by p-value of 0.066 which is greater than the level of significance of 0.01 (P-value =0.066>0.01) and their corresponding Pearson chi-square of 3.373 respectively. In terms of the considered institutional and governance factors (the understanding of cooperative principles and concepts by cooperative leaders, decision making by cooperative leaders, understanding of the tasks by leaders and involvement of cooperative members in decision making), the results from the chi-square test of Institutional and governance factors in the case of Ngiryi cooperative showed that there is significant effect of fore mentioned factors to the sustainability of agricultural cooperatives. Whereas on the side of Nsuri cooperative, Chi-Square Tests showed that there is no significant effect of institutional and governance factors on the functioning of Nsuri cooperative. By conclusion drawn from the comparative study of two rice farmers cooperatives, the Ngiryi cooperative has better management and better performance compared to Nsuri cooperative, these were arrived by comparing level of contribution or R-square values where Ngiryi perform at 57% mean while Nsuri cooperative has succeed at 44% respectively.

[Ritha TUMUKUNDE, Jaya Shukla, Peter Mbabazi. Comparative Study Of The Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Agricultural Cooperatives In Rwanda, Case Study Of Two Rice Farmers Cooperatives Of The Southern Zone. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):16-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.03.

 

Key Words: Sustainability, Cooperatives, Socio-economic factors

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4

Rodenticides Use In Rodent Control In Upper Egypt: An Overview

 

Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky

 

Plant protection Department (Zoology), Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, Egypt

abdelalem2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rodenticides, in many situations, are the most practical and effective way to reduce a large, widespread rodent population. There are two general classes of oral rodenticides. (1) Acute rodenticides including (zinc phosphide and ……) usually kill with a single feeding. In contrast, (2) chronic or multiple-feeding rodenticides (including warfarin, diphacinone, and chlorophacinone) usually require a period (days) of feeding before killing. The distinction has become somewhat blurred because the anticoagulant group includes first generation (examples given) and second generation (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, difethialone) anticoagulants. Second generation anticoagulants are very toxic and can usually kill within several days of a single feeding. These materials are generally available for field application. Use patterns generally allow rodents to feed continuously at bait stations, however, so that second generation materials offer practical advantage in many situations. An additional group of rodent toxicants includes the fumigants (e.g., gas cartridges, aluminum phosphide, methyl bromide) which are used in building fumigation or in burrow systems that are closed after application.

[Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky. Rodenticides Use In Rodent Control In Upper Egypt: An Overview. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):36-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.04.

 

Key words: Rodenticides, zinc phosphide, warfarin, bromadiolone, brodifacoum, difethialone

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5

Comparative Evaluation Of Effects Of Leaf Extracts Of Selected Fallow Species And N.P.K (15:15:15) Fertilizer On The Performance Of Okra, Ebelmuscus Esculentus In Abuja, Nigeria.

 

Anyaegbu P. O.

 

Department of Crop Science University of Abuja, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: The study, designed to determine whether the leaf extracts of the selected fallow species in comparison with N.P.K. fertilizer (15:15:15) would improve soil fertility, reduce over dependence of farmers on in organic fertilizer for soil fertility maintenance and to assess their effects on the growth performance of Ebelmuscus esculentus (0kra), was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Abuja, Nigeria. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used. Growth and yield parameters determined were plant height, leaf area, number of leaves/plant, number of branches/plant and fresh fruit yields. Post harvest soil analysis showed that the fertility status of the soil in plots sprayed with leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia septum was moderately improved compared to those treated with N.P.K fertilizer. The yield of Abelmuscus esculentus treated with Moringa extracts were significantly (p>0.05) high (10.2 tha-1 in 2013 and 7.9 t ha -1 in 2014) compared to those given Leucaena, (6.2 t ha -1 in 2013 and5.1 t ha-1 in2014) Gliricidia (3.1t ha-1 in 2013 and 2.8 t ha-1 in 2014), Parkia (3.8 t ha-1 in 2013 and 2.5 t ha-1 in 2014) and those in the control plots (1.98 t ha-1 in 2013 and 1.6 t ha –I in 2014). Comparatively, application of N.P.K. fertilizer increased the fruit yield of Okra, (11.0 t ha-1 in 2013 and 8 t ha-1 in 2014). The insect Podagrica that feeds heavily on okra leaves was seen in control plots and in the areas given N.P.K. fertilizers. The leaves of okra stands in such areas were significantly perforated while in areas sprayed with leaf extracts especially that of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala, the insects were not seen and the leaves of the okra stands were not seriously attacked.

[Anyaegbu P. O. Comparative Evaluation Of Effects Of Leaf Extracts Of Selected Fallow Species And N.P.K (15:15:15) Fertilizer On The Performance Of Okra, Ebelmuscus Esculentus In Abuja, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):39-46]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.05.

 

Keywords: Leaf Extracts, Selected Fallow Species And N.P.K (15:15:15) Fertilizer, Okra, Ebelmuscus Esculentus, Abuja, Nigeria.

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6

Impacts of External Financing on The Risk Level of Viet Nam Electric Power Industry During and After The Global Crisis 2007-2009

 

Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

 

MBA, PhD candidate, Banking University, HCMC – GSIM, International University of Japan, Japan

dtnhuy2010@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper estimates the impacts of external financing on market risk for the listed firms in the Viet nam electric power industry, esp. after the financial crisis 2007-2009. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to estimate asset and equity beta of total 20 listed companies in Viet Nam electric power industry with a proper traditional model, we found out that the beta values, in general, for many institutions are acceptable. Second, under 3 different scenarios of changing leverage (in 2011 financial reports, 30% up and 20% down), we recognized that the risk level, measured by equity and asset beta mean, decreases (0,243) when leverage increases to 30% and vice versa. Third, by changing leverage in 3 scenarios, we recognized the dispersion of risk level increases (measured by equity beta var) if the leverage increases to 30%. Finally, this paper provides some outcomes that could provide companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in governance.

[Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy. Impacts of External Financing on The Risk Level of Viet Nam Electric Power Industry During and After The Global Crisis 2007-2009. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):47-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.06.

 

Keywords : equity beta, financial structure, financial crisis, risk, external financing, electric power industry

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7

The Suggestion of Some Comparative European Group Corporate Governance Standards After Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation

 

Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, PhD candidate, MBA1*

 

1* Banking University, HCMC, Viet Nam - Graduate School of International Management, International University of Japan, Niigata, Japan

*Corresponding Author:  e-mail: dtnhuy2010@gmail.com, Tel +84-08-39934160, SkypeID: dinhhuy121

 

Abstract: In past few years, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe and other parts of the world show some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, weak internal control system and weak audit. Though there are a few researches which have been done in the field of international corporate governance standards, we believe that this field with more rooms to explore. Therefore, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies European Group representative corporate governance (CG) standards into two (2) groups: EASD and ECODA CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including EFAMA Code and Corporate Practices from EBRD, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses ACCA and CFA principles as reference. Second, it , through analysis, shows differences between above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for European group representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards.  Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.

[Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy. The Suggestion of Some Comparative European Group Corporate Governance Standards After Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):56-70]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.07.

 

Keywords: corporate governance standards, board structure, code of best practice, financial crisis, corporate scandals, market manipulation, internal audit

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8

Renal and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) research literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC. Mammalian SREBPs are encoded by the genes SREBF1 and SREBF2. SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In cells with low levels of sterols, SREBPs are cleaved to a water-soluble N-terminal domain that is translocated to the nucleus. These activated SREBPs then bind to specific sterol regulatory element DNA sequences, thus upregulating the synthesis of enzymes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Sterols in turn inhibit the cleavage of SREBPs and therefore synthesis of additional sterols is reduced through a negative feed back loop

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Renal and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) research literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):71-100]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.08.

 

Key words: renal; sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP); research; literatures; life; cell

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9

The Significance Of Pronunciation In English Language Teaching At The University

 

Baisarina S, Zheksenbinov B, Abdrasheva B, Dzhamalieva G, Temirgaliev K, Faskhutdinova V, Alpisbaeva M, Tastekeev K.

 

Republic of Kazakhstan

 

Abstract: In many English language classrooms, teaching pronunciation is granted the least attention. When ESL teachers defend the poor pronunciation skills of their students, their arguments could either be described as a cop-out with respect to their inability to teach their students proper pronunciation or they could be regarded as taking a stand against linguistic influence. If we learn a second language in childhood, we learn to speak it fluently and without a ‘foreign accent’; if we learn in adulthood, it is very unlikely that we will attain a native accent. In this study, the researchers first review misconceptions about pronunciation, factors affecting the learning of pronunciation. Then, the needs of learners and suggestions for teaching pronunciation will be reviewed. Pronunciation has a positive effect on learning a second language and learners can gain the skills they need for effective communication in English.

[Baisarina S, Zheksenbinov B, Abdrasheva B, Dzhamalieva G, Temirgaliev K, Faskhutdinova V, Alpisbaeva M, Tastekeev K. The Significance Of Pronunciation In English Language Teaching At The University. Rep Opinion 2015;7(10):101-103]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj071015.09.

 

Key words: Pronunciation, Learning, Teaching, Misconceptions, Factors, Needs, Suggestions

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 13, 2015

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