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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 7 - Issue 11, Cumulated 77, November 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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The Effect Of Lime (Citrus Limetta) Fruit Extract On Haematological Profile Of Rabbits Infected With Trypanosomes


Nuhu M1*, Lynn M2, Bala Z1, Jantiku J3, Johnny I1 and Vivian A4


1.  State Specialist hospital, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria

2.  Infectious Diseases Hospital Zambuk, Gombe State, Nigeria

3.  Federal medical center Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

4.  Clina Lancet Laboratories Limited, Lagos State, Nigeria

Nuhu2k2@yahoo.com, lynnmaori09@gmail.com


Abstract: An in vivo study was carried out to determine the effect of lime fruits (Citrus limetta) aqueous extract on the hematological profile of Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rabbits. After ten (10) days post-infection, the extract was administered orally for three (3) weeks after dose determination and toxicity testing. Sixteen male rabbits were used for this study; they were placed into four (4) groups. Some of the rabbits were not infected but treated with the extract (Test I & II), infected and not treated with the extract (Control II) and not infected but treated with the extract(control I). All statistical analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. The result obtained showed that there is a significant difference (p<0.05) between the parameters of extract treated rabbits and non-extract treated rabbits. Hence the calls for more trails on this extract.

[Nuhu M, Lynn M, Bala Z, Jantiku J, Johnny I and Vivian A. The Effect Of Lime (Citrus Limetta) Fruit Extract On Haematological Profile Of Rabbits Infected With Trypanosomes. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.01.


Keywords: Trypanosomes, Haematological parameters, Toxicity and Citrus limeta

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Investigation study on Tundra Snow Cover Characteristic by MRS




Farhangiyan University, Resalatpardis, Zahedan, Iran



Abstract: By using tundra snow cover can influence local and regional scale surface water balance, energy fluxes, and ecosystem. At regional and hemispheric scales, the estimation of snow extent, snow depth and, snow water equivalent (SWE) is important because high latitude snow cover both forces and reacts to atmospheric circulation patterns. Remote sensing techniques have been employed to monitor the snow since the1960s when the visible light channels were used to map snow extent. Passive microwave data are the only currently operational sources for providing estimates of dry snow extent, SWE and snow depth. The overall objective of this research is to improve operational capabilities for estimating end of winter, pre-melt tundra SWE using satellite passive microwave data. We use the data located in the mountain area. The spatial distribution of snow depth, density and SWE in the study area is controlled by the interaction of blowing snow with terrain and land cover. Despite the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover, several inter-annual consistencies were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there are differences in Tb among different EASE grids and that land cover may have an influence on regional Tb. due to the complexity of snow and terrain in high resolution footprints, it was a challenge to isolate a relationship between SWE and Tb. Despite the many challenges, algorithm development should be possible at the satellite scale.

[Alirezazahedi. Investigation study on Tundra Snow Cover Characteristic by MRS. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):11-18]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.02.


Keywords:Passive Microwave Remote Sensing, Tundra Snow, hemispheric scale, microwave data

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Paclobutrazol as modulator of growth some metabolic activities and reproductive development of Solanummelongenaplants.


Mahmoud R. Sofy * and Mohamed E. Elnosary


Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt MEAEMEAE@gmail.com


Abstract: Growth, yield and some metabolic activities of Solanummelongena plants were studied in response to the treatment with paclobutrazol. The obtained results revealed that, treatments with spermidine (50 & 100 ppm) generally enhanced most of the growth and yield characteristics (shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots/ plant, number of flowers / plant, number of fruits / plant and fruits weights) of Solanummelongena plants. Results indicated that, significant increases in contents of chlorophyll (a), (b) & (a + b), carbohydrates, soluble proteins, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium throughout the experimental period. Treatment with paclobutrazol caused significantly increases in GA3, IAA and ABA.

[Sofy MR and Nosary ME. Paclobutrazol as modulator of growth, some metabolic activities and reproductive development of Solanummelongena plants. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):19-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.03.


Keywords: Paclobutrazol; Solanummelongena; metabolic activities

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Effect Of Haart On Zinc Level In Hiv Positive Women: A Nigerian Study


Dr. Victoria N. Mokwenye 1 and Dr. Raphael M. Mordi.2


1 Medical Laboratory Services, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, (UBTH), Edo State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.

E-Mail: veekmok@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study aimed at establishing the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the distribution of zinc in the body of HIV seropositive women in their reproductive ages in both follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Age ranges of 18-40years (mean 29years) were considered. The study was prospective, cross sectional and targeted for a particular group in a tertiary institution in Midwestern Nigeria. A targeted population of 100 HIV seropositive women of reproductive age group and 50 seronegative women of same age group as control were recruited into the study. They were recruited before the commencement of HAART and monitored for nine months at three months interval after initiation. The parameter that was measured was zinc distribution in both follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. Mean values and their standard errors of means (SEM) were computed on Microcal Origin 5.0 statistical software. Comparism of means was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. HAART significantly (P<0.05) elevated zinc levels in the first three months of therapy in both phases and later decreased gradually till the ninth month, with higher reductions recorded in the luteal phases at all times. Conclusion: In this group of young reproductive women, HAART led to elevated values of zinc in the first three months (repletion) of therapy with subsequent decrease thereafter and at all stages, lower in the luteal phase than follicular phase showing a tie with the type of sex hormones.

[Victoria N. Mokwenye and Raphael M. Mordi. Effect Of Haart On Zinc Level In Hiv Positive Women: A Nigerian Study. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):30-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.04.


Key words: HIV-seropositive females; Luteal; Follicular; menstrual period; Zinc level

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How does motivation influence Saudi students’ communicative competence?


Dr Vipin Kumar Sharma


Abstract: The study was undertaken to find out and analyze how motivation influences students’ communicative competence in English as a foreign language. The researcher prepared a questionnaire blended with selected items derived from Gardner’s (1985, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), Dornyei (2001b), Cheng and Dornyei (2007) and Guilloteaux and Dornyei (2008) motivational strategies framework for foreign language classrooms. The study was conducted on two groups that included 35 students from the College of Engineering and the College of Computer Sciences in one group and 50 students from College of Business Administration in the second group and the responses from EFL teachers teaching at Jazan University. The results obtained through the responses on structured questionnaire were found almost similar for both groups and both are significantly affected by motivation. The results indicated that teaching strategies supporting motivation, curriculum and course material directly affect students’ motivation and communicative competence. It also recommended few measures to counter the problems to enhance students’ communication competence (L2).

[Vipin Kumar Sharma. How does motivation influence Saudi students’ communicative competence? Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):36-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.05.


Keywords: Globalization, communicative competence, motivation, colossus.

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Impacts of Human Perturbations on the Physico-chemistry and Biological Parameters on the Water Quality of Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria.


George, Ubong Uwem1, Atakpa, Edidiong Okokon2

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

2Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: talk2georgeubong@gmail.com

Abstract: Studies on the impacts of human perturbations on the physico-chemistry and biological parameters on the water quality of cross river estuary, south eastern Nigeria was investigated between January and December, 2014 to assess the water quality of Cross River Estuary with emphasis on the physical, chemical and biological parameters. Samples were collected from three stations namely Calcemco, James Island and Parrot Island and were analyzed using standard laboratory method. Analysis of the physicochemical parameter shows that some samples were within the WHO guideline value for portable water, while others were above WHO standard. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, total dissolved solutes (TDS), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and alkalinity values of the water samples were within WHO guideline values for drinking water. BOD5 in station one was within WHO permissible limits but values obtained in station 2 and 3 were above WHO standard for portable water. Turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS) values were above WHO standard. Result shows that high total heterotrophic bacteria counts were observed in all the three station with the lowest count (3.8x104) recorded in station 1 and 3 during dry season and the highest count (5.8x104) observed in station 3 during wet season. Values obtained for THB during the study exceeds WHO permissible limits for drinking water. Enumeration of coliform counts revealed that water samples from station 1, 2 and 3 had 23MPN/100ml and 26MPN/100ml, 22MPN/100ml and 25MPN/100ml and 20MPN/100ml and 29MPN/100ml respectively for total coliform during the dry and wet season and 13MPN/100ml and 15MPN/100ml, 18MPN/100ml and 19MPN/100ml and 17MPN/100ml and 20MPN/100ml each for faecal coliform during the dry and wet season respectively. Values obtained for total coliform and faecal coliform were above WHO permissible limits. Bacteriological identification of the 74 isolates obtained from the samples showed the presence of the genera: Pseudomonas 8(10.81%), Escherichia coli 12 (16.22%), Proteus 8 (10.81%), Enterobacter 6 (8.12%), Salmonella 6 (8.12%), Shigella 4 (5.41%), Streptococcus 8 (10.81%), Vibrio 4 (5.41%), Staphylococcos aureus 6 (8.12%), and Bacillus 12 (16.22%). This study indicates that this water source is highly polluted due to high presence of faecal coliform and other parameters that were above WHO standard for drinking water. We therefore recommend adequate treatment before consumption in order to avoid epidemic of water related diseases.
[George, U. U., Atakpa, E. O. Impacts of Human Perturbations on the Physico-chemistry and Biological Parameters on the Water Quality of Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria
. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):49-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.06. 

Keywords: Impacts, human perturbations, biological parameters, physicochemical parameters, water quality, Cross River Estuary

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Development of form proportions configurations in office building skins in order to improve daylight levels using "Parametric Design Methods"


Sherif Mohammed Sabry1, Dr. Maged Mohamed Abo El-Ela2, Mamdouh Ahmed Farag3

1 Professor of architecture - Department of Architecture - Fayoum University, Egypt.

2 Lecturer of architecture - Architectural department - Fayoum University, Egypt.

3 Assistant Lecturer- Architectural department - Fayoum University, Egypt.

sma00@fayoum.edu.eg, mma10@fayoum.edu.eg, maf00@fayoum.edu.eg


Abstract: Natural daylight inside space is one of the most important affairs because of its importance in caving energy consumption and its ability to provide a comfort environment inside space for occupants. The research aims to improve daylight levels for office space in hot arid by optimizing the best skin configuration proportions with multi-functional layers that work for resolving multi objectives problem to daylight. The implementation of the simulation process is carries out by using grasshopper software which supports simulation parametric model process and DIVA as a simulation engine to space with southern orientation in Cairo, Egypt. The simulation process performed by using "sDA" and "ASE" metrics with integration of "LEED v4" criteria. The research optimized skin configuration which achieve best daylight levels that achieved (100% SDA) and (3% AS).

[Sherif Mohammed Sabry, Dr. Maged Mohamed Abo El-Ela, Mamdouh Ahmed Farag. Development of form proportions configurations in office building skins in order to improve daylight levels using "Parametric Design Methods". Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):56-62]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.07.


Key words: Skin façade proportions- Daylight simulation- parametric design- illuminance levels.

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Cyber Terrorism: Causes, Challenges and Solutions

 Muhammad Shuaib Qureshi*,1, Muhammad Bilal Qureshi2 and Vijey Thayananthan1

 1Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computing & Information Technology,
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.



Abstract: Cyber terrorism is a kind of cyber crime that is ever growing challenging threat enfolding the whole world under its attacks in one shape or another. The rate at which cyber terrorists commonly known as hackers are being generated induce extensive challenges of security, economy, and prevention mechanisms. Cyber terrorism demands massive power and economy to execute safety procedures for its prevention. Cyber security procedures provide an abstraction of protection and safety to the users and national infrastructure. However, underlying this abstraction, there are stringent requirements and challenges to facilitate safe and secure service through effective infrastructure, efficient and well designed solutions, intelligent mechanisms, and powerful approaches. This paper shortly describes and analyzes different cyber attacks, their origins, various challenges related to the cyber paradigm and asses possible protection solutions.

[Qureshi M.S, Qureshi M.B, Thayananthan V. Cyber Terrorism: Causes, Challenges and Solutions. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):63-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.08.


Keywords: Cyber security, Cyber crime, Cyber terrorism, Hacking, Cyber war

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Localizing the Kashmiri Language in the Education System of the Kashmir Valley


Javaid Aziz Bhat1* and Sameer Ahmad Kuchay


1Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar—190006 India

*Corresponding author: Javaidazizbhat@gmail.com


Abstract: The relationship between language and education is very intimate and any educational process cannot be thought of without language. The planning of languages in multilingual societies is not an easy task because of being of interest to different stakeholders like administrators, academicians, and above all, to the people. Jammu and Kashmir, like many other states of India, is a multilingual society with Kashmiri language being the most dominant language, in terms of number of speakers, in the state in general and the Kashmir valley in particular. Therefore language planning, particularly in the field of education, has always been a complicated matter in the valley because of its multilingual structure. The education system of the valley follows the national system of education spanning across three levels: Primary Education, Secondary Education, and Higher Education. The present paper is an attempt to locate the teaching/learning of the Kashmiri language at different levels of the education system in the Kashmir Valley. For locating the Kashmiri language in the education system of the valley, the model given by M.A.K. Halliday regarding the relationship between language and education, has been adopted. For the present study different ‘Reports of the Government’, in addition to the first hand experience of the researchers, have been used. The study reveals that, in spite of its introduction in schools in 2008, the Kashmiri language has not achieved the status equal to that of the other languages like, English and Urdu. The language is looked at as having low-prestige in the society which garners negative attitude among students. The study further reveals that the students are less proficient in the reading and writing modalities of the Kashmiri language which can be cited as a result of the lack of specialist teachers teaching Kashmiri and the negative attitude towards it. At the Secondary and the Higher education levels, Kashmiri as a subject is offered by a limited number of colleges and universities. At these levels language is secondary to the literature of Kashmiri. The paper therefore concludes that Kashmiri is not well-placed in the education system of the valley and proposes some recommendations for its proper planning.

[Bhat JA, Kuchay SA. Localizing the Kashmiri Language in the Education System of the Kashmir Valley. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):68-70]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.09.


Key Words: Language planning, multilingualism, prestige, language modality, language localization

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The Post-War Co-operative Development in colonial Tanzania


Somo M.L. Seimu


PhD research student at University of Central Lancashire, Preston in England

A Lecturer, Moshi University College of Co-operative, Moshi Tanzania

Address: MoCU, Sokoine Road, P.o.Box 474, Moshi. Tanzania

Email: seimu_liheta@yahoo.ca


Abstract: This paper has extensively utilised primary evidences obtained from Tanzania National Archives (TNA) to provide examine the post-war policies on the co-operative development and its implementation in Tanzania. Historically, the growth and development of the co-operative movement footprint among the natives in Tanzania before the outbreak of WWII was confined within some few geographical areas. This was so owing to the colonial hesitancy policy in promoting the policy based on political and personal interest. A policy shift was evident in the post-war years due to the intervention from the United Nation Organisation, ILO and Fabian Colonial Bureau that prompted the British colonial power to expand of co-operative movement footprint in Tanzania largely for its own economic and political interests. The intervention of the British colonial power in promoting the co-operative movement was based on the modernisation policy. However, the co-operative movement was top-down demonstrating a desire to control not only the co-operatives but also agricultural exports.

[Somo M.L. Seimu. The Post-War Co-operative Development in colonial Tanzania. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):71-77]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.10.


Key Words: Tanzania, colonial authority, co-operative movement, intervention, development

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Motivation in Selection of Open Source Software License: Economic and Social Perspective


M. Abdul Qadoos Bilal Khan1, Shahbaz Ahmed Khan Ghayyur2, Rana Nazir Ahmed3, M. Rizwan Ali Kamran4, Rizwan Khalid5, Kareemullah6


Lecturer GCUF (Layyah Campus)1, Asstt. Professor IIU Islamabad2, {Lecturer GCUF (Layyah Campus)3,4,5}, Agriculture University Faisalabad6

{aqkhan_iub@yahoo.com1, shahbaz.ahmad@iiu.edu.pk2}


Abstract: Open source software development is widely used practice of software engineering now a day. It is needed to explore the motivational factors for selection of open source software license. The objective of this research is to find out the motivational factors for selection of open source software license with respect to economic and social perspectives. Literature reported motivational factors are verified. Types of different perspectives of OSS license selection are not included in the scope of this study. The research questions are answered through survey research method. We floated the survey in both local (Pakistani) and international open source software development community. The results show motivational factors for open source software license selection with respect to economic and social perspectives according to the expectations of local (Pakistani) and international open source software development community. Literature reported motivational factors have been verified in this study. There is no significant way/process to adopt any open source software license. To choose OSS license from a huge OSS license population is concerned to the behavior of decision maker personals. These motivational factors are those on which open source software development community has made their choice of open source software license.

[M. Abdul Qadoos Bilal Khan, Shahbaz Ahmed Khan Ghayyur, Rana Nazir Ahmed, M. Rizwan Ali Kamran, Rizwan Khalid, Kareemullah. Motivation in Selection of Open Source Software License: Economic and Social Perspective. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):78-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.11.


Keywords: Open Source Software, Open Source Software Development, Open Source Software License, Open Source Software Development Community, Free Software

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Investigation on Scour Hole Around Spur Dike in a 180 Degree Flume Bend


Alireza Masjedi1, Rashid Shojaenjad 2, Mohammad Abdolabbas3


1Assist. Prof., Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Branch, Ahwaz, Iran

2MSc Student, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran

3BS Student, Islamic Azad University Branch Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran



Abstract: Investigation on scour and determination of hole of scoring are among the most important issues in spur dike designation with model spur dike was measured in a laboratory flume with 180 degree bend under clear-water. Experiments were conducted for different locations with various Froude number. In this study, the time development of the scour hole around the spur dike plates was studied. The results of the model study indicated that the maximum depth of scour is highly dependent on the experimental duration. It was observed that, with increasing time development the greatest hole of the scour was associated with 75 degree spur dike. With increasing Froude number the maximum scour length, width and depth increases.

[Alireza Masjedi, Rashid Shojaenjad, Mohammad Abdolabbas. Investigation on Scour Hole Around Spur Dike in a 180 Degree Flume Bend. Rep Opinion 2015;7(11):87-91]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj071115.12.


Keywords: Scour hole; Spur dike; 180 degree flume bend; Froude number

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 7, 2015

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