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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 7 - Issue 12, Cumulated 78, December 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Discussions and Talks: Science and Religion

 

B.N. Shanta, George Wald, Woods Hole, MA,

Stanley A. KLEIN: sklein@berkeley.edu

Online_Sadhu_Sanga@googlegroups.com

Dr. Bhakti Niskama Shanta: bns@scsiscs.org

 

Abstract: Science and religion are often taken to be incompatible- indeed mutually antagonistic. But there exists a profound middle ground, a shared territory. It is the mind, the human consciousness that underlies both. As a scientist working on mechanisms of vision in all kinds of living creatures, I came to recognize early that we have no way of approaching consciousness scientifically. Our own, personal consciousness is the primary source; and we have good reason to grant a like consciousness to our fellow humans. But once we leave the human species we have no way, scientific or otherwise, to identify certainly even the presence or absence of mind, let alone its content. Yet no consciousness, no science or religion. Both, on this planet, are exclusively human manifestations and of the deepest import to us.

[B.N. Shanta, George Wald, Woods Hole, MA, et al. Discussions and Talks: Science and Religion. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):1-11]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.01.

 

Keywords: science; religion; antagonistic; territory; mind; human

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2

A brief review of the riddle, as the consciousness

 

Peter T. Walling, MD

 

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Baylor University Medical Center, 3500 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA

 

Abstract: A synopsis of the enigma of consciousness is presented. Should the medical community become more involved in the search for answers?  Star light, star bright Do you appear in my dendrites? Do you float upon brain waves, where you can Surf on my encephalogram? Or are you in my salty neurons Some of the billions which we all own? I guess you could be in my axons Giving my brain the thoughts to act on. Or is it just synaptic fusion That helps create your strange illusion? Can brain transmitters from the nerves Produce the images we observe? I believe it is the case That you twinkle in phase space!

[Peter T. Walling. A brief review of the riddle, as the consciousness. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):12-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.02.

 

Keywords: synopsis; enigma; consciousness; medical community; star light; star bright; space

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3

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Actins are cytoskeletal proteins that regulate cell motility. Cellular actins of various species have very similar immunological and physical properties. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha actins are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is commonly used as a marker of myofibroblast formation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxin, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond. LPS is found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and elicit strong immune responses in animals.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and alpha-smooth Muscle Actin Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):15-25]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.03.

 

Key words: renal; lipopolysaccharide (LPS); toll-like receptor (TLR); alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA); life

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4

Renal Obstruction and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. It can occur suddenly, or be a long-term problem. If the blockage comes on suddenly, kidney damage is less likely if the problem is detected and treated promptly, and the damage to the kidneys goes away normally. Long-term damage to the kidneys may occur if the blockage has been present for a long time. If the problem is caused by a blockage in the bladder, the bladder may have long-term damage, which may lead to problems emptying the bladder or leakage of urine. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFA gene. As a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, TGF-α is a mitogenic polypeptide. The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a transforming growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling pathway for cell proliferation, differentiation and development. This protein may act as either a transmembrane-bound ligand or a soluble ligand. This gene has been associated with many types of cancers, and it may also be involved in some cases of cleft lip/palate.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Renal Obstruction and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):26-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.04.

 

Keywords: transforming growth factor- alpha (TGF-alpha); obstruction; renal; life; cell

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5

Renal Ureteral Obstruction and Alpha-smooth Muscle Actin (alpha-SMA) Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy urology a unilateral block of urine flow through the ureter of 1 kidney, resulting in a backup of urine, distension of the renal pelvis and calyces, and hydronephrosis etiology kidney stone, trauma, stricture in children–of one ureter causes acute unilateral obstructive uropathy; slow, progressive blockage causes chronic unilateral obstructive uropathy; either may result in permanent damage and failure of one kidney and HTN, resulting in the so-called Goldblatt kidney, which is usually asymptomic–the remaining kidney usually has functional reserve. Ureteral obstruction results in renal fibrosis in part due to inflammatory injury. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Renal Ureteral Obstruction and Alpha-smooth Muscle Actin (alpha-SMA) Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):41-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.05.

 

Key words: renal; ureteral obstruction; alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA); research; literatures; life; cell

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6

Life Eternal Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Immortality is the ability to live forever or eternal life. Natural selection has developed potential biological immortality in at least one species, the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii. Certain scientists, futurists, and philosophers have theorized about the immortality of the human body, and advocate that human immortality is achievable in the first few decades of the 21st century, whereas other advocates believe that life extension is a more achievable goal in the short term, with immortality awaiting further research breakthroughs into an indefinite future. The absence of aging would provide humans with biological immortality, but not invulnerability to death by physical trauma; although, mind uploading could solve that issue. In religious contexts, immortality is often stated to be among the promises by God (or other deities) to human beings who show goodness or else follow divine law. What form an unending human life would take, or whether an immaterial soul exists and possesses immortality, has been a major point of focus of religion, as well as the subject of speculation, fantasy, and debate. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Life Eternal Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):64-68]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.06.

 

Keywords: life; eternal; research; literature; cell

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7

Gene Knockout Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A gene knockout is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative. Also known as knockout organisms or simply knockouts, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has an unknown or incompletely known function. Researchers draw inferences from the difference between the knockout organism and normal individuals. The term also refers to the process of creating such an organism, as in "knocking out" a gene. The technique is essentially the opposite of a gene knockin. Knocking out two genes simultaneously in an organism is known as a double knockout. Similarly the terms triple knockout and quadruple knockouts are used to describe three or four knocked out genes, respectively. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Gene Knockout Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):69-92]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.07.

 

Keywords: gene; knockout; cell; life; research; literature

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8

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Obstruction Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. It is part of the system that restores the oxygen supply to tissues when blood circulation is inadequate. Serum concentration of VEGF is high in many diseases such as bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus, etc. VEGF's normal function is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, new blood vessels after injury, muscle following exercise, and new vessels to bypass blocked vessels. Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. It can occur suddenly, or be a long-term problem. If the blockage comes on suddenly, kidney damage is less likely if the problem is detected and treated promptly, and the damage to the kidneys goes away normally. Long-term damage to the kidneys may occur if the blockage has been present for a long time. If the problem is caused by a blockage in the bladder, the bladder may have long-term damage, which may lead to problems emptying the bladder or leakage of urine.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Obstruction Research Literatures. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):93-123]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.08.

 

Key words: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); life; cell; obstruction

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9

Estimating clinical record rate of Peste Des Petits Ruminants disease among sheep and goats in Egypt

 

1Mervat. M. Mahmoud 1A. R. Habashi, 1Wafaa.Abdel-Whab. 1Eman M.Baheeg, 1Nibal. M. Shouman, 1Nahed. K. Abdel-Hamid, Sahar, I.M, 1Sozan.A. Hassanein and 2Manal H. Khafagi.

 

1Elisa Unite and Virus Strain Bank, Animal Health Research Institute Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

a_habashi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reports of suspected outbreaks of Peste Des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) during 2013-2014 were investigated and biologic samples were collected for laboratory diagnostics. Swab samples were tested for specific PPRV antigen detection by Immune-capture ELISA Kits. Lung tissues from dead animals, blood buffy coat (Blood with anticoagulant) and conjunctival swabs samples were found to be the samples of the choice for PPRV outbreaks confirmations followed by the oral, nasal, and fecal swabs. The nucleotide sequence of the fragment analyzed (322bp) was compared to PPRV F gene sequences and confirmed the Egyptian 2013 outbreaks belonged to lineage 4. Few clinical PPR disease outbreaks were reported, during the 2 years periods of observation and only 52/100 (confirmed/suspected) clinical PPR virus outbreaks were confirmed: 33/58 outbreaks within the Nile delta region, 9/15 outbreaks within the Central region, 4/5 outbreaks within the Upper region, 4/16 outbreaks within the Western region and 2/6 outbreaks within the Eastern region. On the other hand the last country wide sero-survey September-November 2013 reiterated the high occurrence of recent PPR virus infection over a one year period in 6-18M old sheep and goats at both the animal and village epi-unite level. The clinical disease outbreaks were also common in sheep population which is different from some other workers, reported a PPR outbreak in a flock of sheep and goats with only the goats being affected. It was concluded that there is serious underreporting of PPR, active clinical and serological survey are the most unbiased method to determine the incidence of PPR and mirrors the pattern of results detected by passive reporting, and also PPR control strategy should be implemented.

[Mervat. M. Mahmoud A. R. Habashi, Wafaa.Abdel-Whab, Eman M. Baheeg, Nibal. M. Shouman, Nahed. K. Abdel-Hamid, Sahar, I.M, Sozan.A. Hassanein. and Manal H. Khafagi. Estimating clinical record rate of Peste Des Petits Ruminants disease among sheep and goats in Egypt. Rep Opinion 2015;7(12):124-131]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj071215.09.

 

Key words: Ic-ELISA, PPR, Outbreak, sheep and goats, Egypt, Epidemiology.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 18, 2015

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