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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 8 - Issue 7, Cumulated 85, July 25, 2016

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

A Comparison between In-Presence and Distance Learning Methods on the Knowledge of Workers in Health Centers in Amol city, 2013

 

Leila Riahi1, Asgari Heidari2

 

1. Assistant Professor and PhD in Health Care Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. MSc of Health Care Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

l.riahi@srbiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Background: Among all various activities around the country, those which are in relation with health, safety, convenience, and generally with social welfare of people have a great importance, among which, health centers are in a specific place of attention. Cooperating with and being supervised by health bureaus, the health centers are the pillars to perform health programs and also to execute health networks in Iran. In continuous medical learning programs, selection of learning method, during which the people will be streamed by learning process, is one of the problems for agencies or planners. Considering above mentioned instances, the researcher attempts to plan and perform this study and hopes to obtain effective results to improve continuous learning of practical nurses. Goal: The goal of this study is to compare in-presence learning method with distance learning method and define the effect of them on the knowledge of workers in health centers (practical nurses) in Amol City in order to reduce expenses. Study Method: The study is an applicable study from viewpoint of its goals. On the other hand, it is a descriptive study in case – control type. In this study, the researcher performs various learning programs in order to change the level of knowledge among workers of health centers and assesses this change during a comparison between primary and secondary tests. In this study, one group is control group and three groups are case groups, all of which are selected among practical nurses in Amol City by random selection method. The data is collected in two stages, before and after performance of learning program. The comparison is made by Mc Timar Test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and HSD test. Findings: According to results, it is specified that participation in classes is difficult for half of the studied units (51.7%) and 45.7% of people tend to pass their courses (studying hygiene) by distance learning methods (self-teaching + communicating with professors). Conclusion: Distance learning method has been more effective than in-presence learning method in elevation of the level of knowledge of people when trainees had been informed of final examination.

[Leila Riahi, Asgari Heidari. A Comparison between In-Presence and Distance Learning Methods on the Knowledge of Workers in Health Centers in Amol city, 2013. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):1-6]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.01.

 

Keywords: In-Presence and Distance Learning Methods, Health Centers, Amol city

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2

Oral Mesotherapy

 

Nermin Mohammed Ahmed Yussif1 and Basma Abd ElAleem El-Saadany2

 

1National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

dr_nermin_yusuf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oral mesotherapy is a valuable new option for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Its clinical efficiency in the control of various oral diseases has been reported. There are various techniques that were commonly used both inthe dermal and oral mesotherapy. Further researches are recommended to examine the usage of mesotherapy in the different oral conditions.

[Nermin Mohammed Ahmed Yussif and Basma Abd ElAleem El-Saadany. Oral Mesotherapy. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):7-12]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.02.

 

Key words: Oral mesotherapy, intralesional injection, intraepidermal injection, intramucosal injection, PRP, vitamin D, Vitamin C, hyalouronic acid.

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3

Study the Challenges of Using and Development of 5G Networks

 

Seyedeh Shabnam Jazaeri1, Reza Berangi2

 

1. M.Sc. of Computer Architecture, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran

2. Associate Professor in Mobile Telecommunications, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran

s.jazaeri.j@ieee.org

 

Abstract: The main goal of this paper is study of the challenges of using and development of 5G networks. 5G is a wireless connection built specifically to keep up with the proliferation of devices that need a mobile internet connection. It’s going to allow people send texts, make calls, and browse the web as always—and it will dramatically increase the speed at which data is transferred across the network. 5G will make it easier for people to download and upload Ultra HD and 3D video. The 5G networks are broadly characterized by three unique features: ubiquitous connectivity, extremely low latency, and very high-speed data transfer. The 5G networks would provide novel architectures and technologies beyond state-of-the-art architectures and technologies. We identify challenges in 5G networks, new technologies for 5G networks, and present a comparative study of the proposed architectures that can be categorized on the basis of energy-efficiency, network hierarchy, and network types. Interestingly, the implementation issues, e.g., interference, QoS, handoff, security–privacy, channel access, and load balancing, hugely effect the realization of 5G networks.

[Seyedeh Shabnam Jazaeri, Reza Berangi. Study the Challenges of Using and Development of 5G Networks. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):13-19]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.03.

 

Keywords: 5G networks, Mobile internet connection, QoS

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4

Study of oscillatory motion of Oberbeck pendulum and definition of rolling friction coefficient

 

Makhsudov V.G.

 

National University of Uzbekistan

 

Abstract: Annotation” A method of studying oscillatory motion and defining the rolling friction coefficient with the help of Oberbeck pendulum has been presented.

[Makhsudov V.G. Study of oscillatory motion of Oberbeck pendulum and definition of rolling friction coefficient. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):20-22]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.04.

 

Keywords: pendulum, Oberbeck pendulum, damped oscillations, friction force, rolling friction coefficient

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5

Speculation and Gambling Strategies on Earnings Management (Case study: New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street)

 

Nooshin Ghiamat

 

Azad University, Firozkooh, Iran, Masters, nooshinghiamat@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Speculation is the practice in which the speculator is engaged in risky purchase of stock without the intention to maintain it, in an attempt to profit from price movements in the shortest time possible. Wall Street stock market is the largest stock market in the United States of America and the world in terms of turnover and market capitalization. In this paper, we are going to investigate speculation and gambling strategies on earnings management of New York Stock market during the years 2008-2014. The purpose of this paper is to investigate speculation and gambling strategies on earnings management. In this paper, we have investigated earnings management in member companies of the Wall Street stock exchange. This study is carried out using speculation and gambling variables on earnings management. Among the variables, gambling has shown an inverse relationship on earnings management.

[Nooshin Ghiamat. Speculation and Gambling Strategies on Earnings Management (Case study: New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street). Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):23-28]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.05.

 

Keywords: Gambling, Earnings Management, Financial Leverage, York Stock Exchange

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6

Recall of Synonyms in Keyword-Based Information Retrieval in RICeST

 

Shapour Reza Berenjian1, Ali Reza Berenjian2

 

1. Regional Information Center for Science and Technology (RICeST), Shiraz, Iran

2. University of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to develop and introduce the outline of the software for ‘Automatic Calling of Synonyms in Keyword-based Information Retrieval in RICeST’. The software functions such that a synonym is extracted by providing every given entity. In case the entered keyword or its synonym is not meant by the operator, it could be changed or modified to do a new search. In case of variable spelling, the operator may alter the spelling and do a new search. This would help avoid information loss and elimination of relevant documents so that irrelevant documents are not retrieved. As some linguists contend, although two words may be synonymous in a chain of words, they may vary in meaning in different discursive situations after adopting new syntactic roles. Still, the present study hinges on the premise that synonyms are the words with the same meaning in a chain of words. This system was designed and implemented in the Regional Centre for Information Science and Technology (RICeST). This article reports part of the research project carried out in RICeST. This system is used on the RICeST intranet and website. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to modify the software so that

[Shapour Reza Berenjian, Ali Reza Berenjian. Recall of Synonyms in Keyword-Based Information Retrieval in RICeST. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):29-38]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.06.

 

Keywords: Synonyms, Information retrieval, RICeST

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7

Tehran’s second demographic transition, yes or no

 

Shokoofeh Kazemi

 

shokoofeh_kazemi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article is adapted from a research to examine the manifestation of second demographic transition. The sights of demographic transition have been engaged in increasing age at marriage, the increasing use of contraception, change in family structure, increase of non-nuptial birth and agreement units as the manifestation of the second demographic transition. The population change and its impact on population policy of societies is of the most important issues which should be put under serious study in the  developed and developing countries including Iran, and the changes of fertility is one of the issues that lack of attention on can have bad effect on society in future. According to the population transition theory after passing the transition (High fertility, low morality), countries come to the terms that both fertility and morality would be balanced. In the late nineteen century many French scholars remembered the significant changes which had been occurred during the population transition in the county. These changes were discussed/ considered by Van de Kaa and Lesthaeghe later.

[Shokoofeh Kazemi. Tehran’s second demographic transition, yes or no. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):39-48]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.07.

 

Keywords: examine; manifestation; demographic transition; transition; population; county

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8

TV Anchor – the pride of the nation.

 

Yulduz Zohidova

 

Independent researcher of Uzbek state world languages university

yulduz.zohidova@mail.ru

 

Abstract: All important qualities that are needed for TV anchor to perform professionally are demonstrated in the article "TV anchor - the pride of the nation". One of those skills is to have a feeling of responsibility toward an audience and information delivered, also an ability to convey it to a wide range of viewers. According to the article, journalist is not only a one who can write and demonstrate articles, statements, but also a one who has a deep feeling of love to the motherland and a pride as a representative, as being a part of his homeland; article informs about statements and suggestions of experts. Moreover, article discusses and analyzes methods of foreign broadcasters.

[Yulduz Zohidova. TV Anchor – the pride of the nation. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):49-52]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.08.

 

Key words: TV anchor, broadcaster, journalist, information, news program, audience, viewer, television, live broadcast, professional skill.

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9

The Effect of Learners' Autonomy on EFL Learners Reading Comprehension

 

Seyedeh Ezzat Zafarian1, Dr. AzadehNemati2*

 

1. Department of English Language Teaching, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

2. Department of English Language Teaching, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

*Corresponding Author

 

Abstract: This study examines the impact of learner autonomy on reading comprehension of EFL learners. To fulfill the objective of this study, 100 learners who took part in advanced classes whose score fall into the range of 48 to 60 (advanced level according to the test placement chart) were considered as the intended participants to this study. Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT) was used to homogenize the learners, and then they were given two questionnaires: Questionnaire of autonomy by Spratt, Humphreys, and Chan (2000) and Reading comprehension test derived from PET Practice Tests developed by Jenny Quintana (2003). According to the results, there was a significant positive relationship between learner autonomy and reading comprehension of EFL learners. Also running multiple regressions revealed that learner autonomy can predict reading comprehension of learners. Also, the t-test was computed to determine the significance of difference between male and female on learner autonomy questionnaire.On the basis of the above results, there is no significant difference between male and female learners in autonomy level.

[Seyedeh Ezzat Zafarian, Dr. AzadehNemati. The Effect of Learners' Autonomy on EFL Learners Reading Comprehension. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):53-58]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.09.

 

Keywords: learner autonomy, reading comprehension, EFL learners

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10

Review ideas Akhtl in legitimizing the rule of the Umayya

 

Saeed Albo Cord, Dr. Sohad Jaderi

 

Abstract: As we know, "legitimacy" in Spanish religious roots, means legitimate (and "legitimate" means "being religious" and the legitimacy of a thing, its religious faith) and his compliance with the law. But in contemporary political literature legitimacy of a term that refers to the acceptance, recognition and credibility that people are having. Amway and its believers and Andishehgostar system, the amount of algebra were thinking. Various media such as bars and rhetoric, poetry, fictional narratives and sometimes perverse interpretation and interpretation of Quranic verses and traditions, social space Bvd. rhavrd prepared to accept the ideas of deterministic belief in determinism, verification and interpretation of oppression, justifies sin and corruption, silence the crimes and atrocities and even comes with a Bvd. payan their ideas Akhtl currently under review in legitimizing the rule of the Umayyads as the role and influence thoughts and Aqayd Akhtl thoughts on the legitimacy of a regime and corrupt government deals.

[Saeed Albo Cord, Sohad Jaderi. Review ideas Akhtl in legitimizing the rule of the Umayya. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):59-65]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.10.

 

Key words: political poetry, criticism, political legitimacy, religious legitimacy, the Umayyads.

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11

Some Biophysical And Biochemcial Interactions Of Nanomaterials On Protein Oxidation In Biological System

 

Y K Lahir*, A V Chitre And P M Dongre

 

Department of Biophysics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santa Cruz (E), Mumbai-400098, India

*Corresponding author: lahiryk@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Oxidation and reduction is a ubiquitous metabolic phenomenon that reflects on the structural and functional well being of the cell, tissue, and organ, in a biological system. It symbolizes the state of functional equilibrium and organismal integrity in totality. The homeostatic state is the result of combined and coordinated interactions between prooxidants, oxidants, and antioxidants, inactivated and activated free radicals at cellular level. Proteins, alone and in conjugated form constitute a group of biomolecules that is devoted to the cellular structural and functional aspects of inter and intracellular communication. Mostly damage to proteins is non-reparable. This state of proteins results in fluctuation in enzyme affectivity, structural and functioning of protein molecules, this is likely to affect transportation and signaling mechanism within a cell and with its ambient environment. There have been reports on the cellular modifications produced due to nanomaterials; these include changes in cell membrane, cytoskeleton, conformational changes in biomolecules etc, reflecting on the changes in cellular elasticity, motility, degree of adherence, invasion etc. The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials are the basis of their varied effectiveness; there have been reports suggesting a huge influx of nanomaterials in biosystem. There appears to be a need to evaluate their impact and understand the probable mechanism involved. This may help to reduce the derogative effects. Thus it was thought imperative to over view the role of nanomaterials in protein oxidation encompassing physiological and specifically biophysical aspects in a biological system.

[Y K Lahir, A V Chitre And P M Dongre. Some Biophysical And Biochemcial Interactions Of Nanomaterials On Protein Oxidation In Biological System. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):66-71]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.11.

 

Key words: Protein-oxidation; nanomaterials; kininogen; plasma-prekallikrein; free radicals; premature- senescence; antioxidants; cellular response

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12

Jiang true singular series and Hardy-Littlewood wrong singula series

 

Jiang, Chun-Xuan

 

Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com, jcxxxx@163.com

 

Abstract: Using Jiang function we prove Jiang prime -tuple theorem with true singular series.  Hardy and Littlewood conjectured Hardy-Littlewood prime -tuple conjecture with wrong singular series.. Jiang prime -tuple theorem will replace the Hardy-Littlewood prime -tuple conjecture.

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. Jiang true singular series and Hardy-Littlewood wrong singula series. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):72-76]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.12.

Keywords: Jiang function; prime; -tuple; theorem; singular series; conjecture

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13

Design and Construction of a Tripler Circuit for a Mosquitor Zapper

 

1JUMMAI D. Makama, 2M. Alpha, 3KURE N., 4BELLO A., 5DANIEL A. Thomas, 6ISLAMIYAT S., 7ADOYI E.

 

2 & 6 Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology Minna, P.M.B 65, Minna

5. Department of Physics, Sule Lamido University, P.M.B 048, Kafin Hausa

3. Department of Physics, kaduna state university

1 & 4 Department of Physics Ahmadu Bello University

7 Department of Physics, NDA Kaduna

 

Abstract: This work is aimed at reducing the number of mosquitoes through the use of electronics. The work entails the design and construction of a high voltage tripler circuit for a mosquito Zapper which can electrocute mosquitoes. It also consists of a power supply unit which is mainly used to charge the battery. The mesh dimension is 33cm by 23cm and had one inner mesh with 2 outer ones. The controls are made up of a push button and 2 mini switches and have 2 indicators for charging and power.

[JUMMAI D. Makama, M. Alpha, KURE N., BELLO A., DANIEL A. Thomas, ISLAMIYAT S., ADOYI .E. Design and Construction of a Tripler Circuit for a Mosquitor Zapper. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):77-82]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.13.

 

Key Words: Zapper, Tripler, Mosquito

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14

The Main Principles that help to Teachers of Adults

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For most adults, being out of the classroom for even a few years can make going back to school intimidating. If they haven’t taken a class in decades, it’s understandable that they would have some degree of apprehension about what it will be like and how well they’ll do. It can be tough to be a rookie when you’ve been an expert in your field for many, many years. Nobody enjoys feeling foolish. Your job as a teacher of adult students includes being positive and encouraging. Patience helps too. Give your older students time to respond when you ask a question. They may need a few moments to consider their answer. Recognize the contributions they make, even when small. Give them words of encouragement whenever the opportunity arises. Most adults will rise to your expectations if you’re clear about them. A word of caution here. Being positive and encouraging is not the same as being condescending. Always remember that your students are adults. Speaking to them in the tone of voice you might use with a child is offensive, and the damage can be very difficult to overcome. Genuine encouragement from one person to another, regardless of age, is a wonderful point of human interaction.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. The Main Principles that help to Teachers of Adults. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):83-87]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.14.

 

Keywords: adult education, Teacher of Adults

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15

Introduction of PCR and RT-PCR

 

Ma Hongbao *, Margaret Young **, Zhu Yucui ***, Yang Yan *, Zhu Huaijie ****

 

* Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, ma8080@gmail.com; ** Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; *** Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; **** The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. jacksun689@gmail.com, yz81@columbia.edu; 011-86-150-3711-5732

 

Abstract: The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is also called quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) or kinetic polymerase chain reaction (kPCR), which is a technique to simultaneously quantify the DNA molecules. It determines whether a specific DNA sequence is present in the sample and the DNA copy numbers in the sample. It is the real-time version of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), as a modification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The procedure of RT-PCR follows the regular PCR, but the DNA is quantified after each round of amplification. The common method of quantification is the use of fluorescent dyes that intercalate with double-strand DNA, and modified DNA oligonucleotide probes that fluoresce when hybridized with a complementary DNA. RT-PCR can combine with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) at a particular time for in a particular cell or tissue.

[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. Introduction of PCR and RT-PCR. Rep Opinion 2016;8(7):88-110]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 15. doi:10.7537/marsroj080716.15.

 

Keywords: DNA; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); real-time (RT); RNA; Taq

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