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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 4, Cumulated 94, April 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

DNA-based vaccines against bacterial fish diseases: trials and prospective

 

Abdelgayed M. Younes, Alkhateib Y. Gaafar, Laila A. Mohamed, Mona S. Zaki

 

Hydrobiology department, Veterinary division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Tahoon176@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bacterial diseases of cultured fish considered the most impediments on aquaculture development causing high mortalities and huge economic losses. The aim of this review is to collect the dispersed literatures published about live attenuated, subunit and DNA vaccines against vibriosis, photobacteriosis, furunculosis, motile aeromonas septicaemia, pseudomonadiasis, yersiniosis, edwardsiellosis, enteric septicaemia of catfish, cold-water disease, columnaris disease, streptococcosis and lactococcosis. With advances in molecular biology, genetically modified vaccines have been increasingly employed against many of the fish pathogens. It is expected that some of them may be commercialized in the near future.

[Abdelgayed M. Younes, Alkhateib Y. Gaafar, Laila A. Mohamed, Mona S. Zaki DNA-based vaccines against bacterial fish diseases: trials and prospective. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):1-16]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.01.

 

Keywords: Vaccination, DNA vaccines, Bacterial fish diseases, Adjuvants, Delivery routes

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2

The effect of essential oils blends on the inhibition of the Clostridium perfringes and the rate of intestinal epithelium proliferation in broilers

 

El-shemy, Ač and Roshdy, KČ

 

1Department of Parasitology, Veterinary Research division, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2Histology and Cytology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

karamroshdy1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to study the effect of essential oils blends on the inhibition of the Clostridium perfringes and the rate of intestinal epithelium proliferation in broilers. The experiment was carried out on 12000 1-d-old unsexed Ross chickens of the same origin in experimental and control groups. All birds were vaccinated against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease. To avoid mortality from yolk sac infections birds were treated with enrofloxacin per water from d 2 to 4 of age. All birds were raised in enclosed houses with forced air ventilation. Feed was provided with pan feeders. The whole broiler houses were heated with a gas-fired system. The essential oils blends (curcumin, sage extract and piperine), while, the antibiotic used were (ampicillin, streptomycin, lincomycin and amoxycillin). This study concluded that, using of the essential oils blends in the broiler feeding for the inhibition of the clostridium perfringes can improve the weight and weight gain of the broilers with reduction in mortality rate and percentage due to improvement of feed intake and improving the intestinal epithelium growth and improving the health condition of the intestinal villi. That improve the economic return obtained from the broilers than the addition of antibiotics.

[El-shemy, A and Roshdy, K. The effect of essential oils blends on the inhibition of the Clostridium perfringes and the rate of intestinal epithelium proliferation in broilers. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):17-23]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.02.

 

Keywords: essential oils, Clostridium perfringes, intestinal, epithelium

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3

Parameter estimation accuracy of Diameter- height relationship and volume models of Entandrophragma angolensis species in Forestry Research Institute Onne.

 

Bukola Amoo Oyebade, Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun, Obinna Amadi

 

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

funmilayo.popo-ola@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height are important variables needed in volume estimation. Measurement of tree’s height is usually costly, time consuming and chances of error by the observer is highly possible while DBH measurement is easier with less measurement error. Development of models involving tree height and DBH relationship is very vital in forest mensuration. Therefore this study was based upon determination of diameter – height relationship and volume equations parameters estimation accuracy developed for Entandrophragma angolensis species in Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Onne. Tree growth variables data used for fitting the models were measured from temporary sample plots of 20m by 20m. Linear regressing technique was used to develop the models. The results reveal that positive correlations exist between DBH and height and also with volume. The developed model parameters were significant with high coefficient of determination and low standard error of the estimates. Diameter height relationship model is crucial in inventory because height can be predicted hence the high cost of determining tree height in forest inventories is reduced but the models are site and species specific.

[Oyebade B.A., Eguakun F.S., Amadi O. Parameter estimation accuracy of Diameter- height relationship and volume models of Entandrophragma angolensis species in Forestry Research Institute Onne. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):24-29]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.03.

 

Keywords: Diameter, Height, Models, Prediction, Relationship

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4

Results Of Research On Geo-Physics

 

Gangadhara Rao Irlapati

 

H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Email ID: scientistgangadhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Geophysics is the physics of the earth and its environment in soace; also the study of the earth using quantitative physical methods the geophysics refers to the earth shape, gravitational & magnetic field, internal structure and composition, dynamics and plate tectonics, oceans, atmosphere etc. I have conducted many researches in the field of geophysics and invented some related discoveries & inventions which may also be useful in understanding the extent of the use of geophysics.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results Of Research On Geo-Physics. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):30-47]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.04.

 

Key Words: earth quakes, Geoscope, monsoons

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5

Post Impact Assessment of Urbanization on Microbial Abundance and Diversity of Soils in Port Harcourt Area

 

Ruhuoma Wosu Kinika and Lucky Obukowho Odokuma

 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P. M. B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

unipas013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The impact of urbanization on microbial abundance and diversity of soils in Port Harcourt area was investigated. The Rau and Wooten tool for existing impact quantification and ranking was used. The study sites investigated were categorized into four: highly industrialized (Trans-Amadi), moderately industrialized (Waterlines), low industrialized (Mile 1) and very low industrialized (Choba) areas. Emohua, a relatively non-industrialized area was taken as control. Soil samples were taken at the depth of 0-15 cm using a soil auger. Impact quantification, evaluation and ranking were determined using the Rau and Wooten tool. The results showed variation in microbial parameter with the highest negative impact recorded in highly industrialized area (Trans Amadi); the least impact in low (Mile 1) and very low (Choba) industrialized areas. The physicochemistry of the soil showed similar impacts. Urbanization showed a reduction in the microbial population (Total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi) in diversity and abundance and an increase in some physicochemical parameters. Bacteria isolated are Staphylococcus, Serratia, Micrococcus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Bacillus while fungal genera characterized includes Mucor, Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichosporon and Sacharomyces. Mitigation actions are recommended to ameliorate the impact of urbanization on soil microbiota, especially in the highly and moderately industrialized areas. Primary treatment plants are necessary for proper wastes management as this, will not only reduce its risks on human health but also to the entire ecosystem.

[Wosu Kinika R. and L.O. Odokuma. Post Impact Assessment of Urbanization on Microbial Abundance and Diversity of Soils in Port Harcourt Area. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):48-56]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.05.

 

Key words: Urbanization, impact quantification, Primary treatment plants, microbial abundance and diversity, wastes management, Mitigation actions, Port Harcourt area, soil microbiota.

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6

Climate Change Mitigation through installing Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) in Bangladesh

 

Biplob Kanti Mondal

 

Project Manager – WASH, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Bangladesh

biplobplanner@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study envisioned to explore the role of Improved Cookstoves in mitigating climate change through exploratory research. By installing around one million cookstoves at household level, Bangladesh could save approximately 1,084 thousand metric tons of CO2e per year in which each cookstove could save over one million metric tons. The amount would be double or triple if the international standard models of cookstoves are developed, promoted and installed. By 2030, the country would save over three billion tons of CO2e through implementing the priority areas stated in Country Action Plan for Clean Cookstoves. The extra amount of CO2, moreover, would be absorbed by living tree as ICS saves over 50 percent of fuel wood. The contribution of ICS not only limited to climate change mitigation, it also has the impact to reduce indoor air pollution, save cooking time, save money used for fuel purchasing and so on. Thus, the ICS would work as a real-life changer in mitigating climate change effect, reducing health hazards and ameliorating socio-economic status as well.

[Mondal BK. Climate Change Mitigation through installing Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) in Bangladesh. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):57-61]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.06.

 

Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Improved Cookstoves, Green House Gas

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7

A Conspectus Review on Efficacy of Locally Sourced Organic Biostimulants on Enhanced Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

 

Bright Fegenyie Ereneea, Ruhuoma Wosu Kinikaa, Chinedu Azubuike Uzorb, Aloysius Emeka Okahb and Leera Solomonb

 

aDepartment of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

bDepartment of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

fegenyie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A conspectus review on the efficacy of locally sourced organic biostimulants on enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil was undertaken. Due to the consequences of environmental pollution, the remediation of the environment becomes indispensable; this can be achieved through bioremediation by biostimulation. Biostimulation is a viable option since it is cost effective, accessible and ecologically friendly. Hence, there is need for a suitable material that can be used to provide a pool of nutrients for optimum microbial growth, consequently, leading to the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from the environment. This review focuses on the efficacy of commonly sourced organic biostimulants that has been used in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. This is also aimed at developing appropriate strategy and efforts directed towards eventual manipulation of the processes of remediation, all geared towards making bioremediation technically and economically viable for comprehensive treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. It was found out that most of the bioremediation studies carried out were ex-situ studies. Also, the removal of the contaminant was not very effective when a single organic material is used. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of any organic material as an amendment to contaminated soil should be done in combination with other organic materials for its effectiveness. Also, Sewage should be treated before it application as amendment in any in-situ bioremediation study due to it concomitant health and environmental concern.

[Erenee, B. F., R. Wosu Kinika, C. A. Uzor, A.E. Okah and L. Solomon. A Conspectus Review on Efficacy of Locally Sourced Organic Biostimulants on Enhanced Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):62-69]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.07.

 

Key words: Environmental pollution, biostimulation, bioremediation, organic biostimulants

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8

Effect of shallow saline-groundwater depth in evaporation rate

 

Saied Jalily1, Saeed Boroomand Nasab2 *, Hadi Moazed2, Abd Ali Naseri2

 

1.  Department of water, Ramin University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Water Sciences Engineering Faculty. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Shallow water table conditions may be found quite extensively in arid and semi-arid environments. When the evaporative demand is greater than the ability of the soil to conduct water in the liquid phase, the soil profile above a water table exhibits a liquid-vapour discontinuity, known as the evaporation front, that affects the rate of evaporation. This is influenced by climate, soil type, crop, irrigation water quality and management practice and depth to water table. The objective of this study was to assessment of the magnitude, extent of evaporation due to capillary upward flow in bare soil with shallow water table depths by saline groundwater. In this study we were controlled and observed profiles of soil water over periods of experiment. This experiment conducted on summer of 2010. The experiments shown that rates of evaporation in the end of period were 3.17, 1.42, and 0.2 mm/day for water table depths of 300, 500, and 800 mm, respectively.

[Saied Jalily, Saeed Boroomand Nasab, Hadi Moazed, Abd Ali Naseri. Effect of shallow saline-groundwater depth in evaporation rate. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):70-75]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.08.

 

Keyword: Evaporation, Water Table, Shallow Ground Water

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9

Western North Pacific Monsoon Time Scale

(Basics of the Western North Pacific Monsoon Time Scale)

 

Gangadhara Rao Irlapati

 

H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, Telanagana State, India-500055.

Email:- scientistgangadhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon is a oceanic Monsoon driven primarily by meridional gradients of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented Monsoon trough with intense precipitation, low-level south westerlies, and upper troposphere easterlies. This Monsoon from synoptic, inter seasonal, inter annual, to inter decadal time Scales. The Western North Pacific Monsoon trough is a breeding ground for tropical cyclones and its intra seasonal and inter annual variations Largely regulate the location of tropical cyclones.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Western North Pacific Monsoon Time Scale (Basics of the Western North Pacific Monsoon Time Scale). Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):76-98]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.09.

 

Key Words: Western North Pacific Monsoon, Indian monsoon Time Scale, Chronological sequence, Main path of the Indian Monsoon Astrogeophysical/Astrometeorological Phenomena.

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10

Application Solid Poly Urethane as Coating in Oil and Gas Pipelines

 

Amir Samimi

 

Departments of Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, IRAN

amirsamimi1161@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of iso Syanate and polyol with each other, So that: Iso + polyol = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market. By various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

[Amir Samimi. Application Solid Poly Urethane as Coating in Oil and Gas Pipelines. Rep Opinion 2017;9(4):99-102]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj090417.10.

 

Keywords: Polyurethane, protection coating, gas and oil transitional pipeline, tar coating.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 6, 2017

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