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Science Journal


Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 5, Cumulated 95, May 25, 2017

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Studies on Using of Ultrafiltered Retentated Milk in Processed Cheese Making


Mansour, A. I. A., Omar, M. A. M. and EL - Dosoki, W. I.


Dairy Sciences Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Email: wahedoraby@yahoo.com


Abstract Processed cheese was made from retentated milk by using of ripening agent to accelerating flavour development. The results showed that, good-quality flavour could be obtained by using 5% mixture of commercial amino acid and lipase (ATLc132) preparation after incubation at 37C for 5 days. Mature Ras cheese used for manufacture of processed cheese was replaced by ATLc132 treated retentates at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The resultants of processed cheese were stored up to 3 months at refrigerator (6-8C) or at ambient (22-25C) temperature. The results indicated that, increasing the level of replacement mature cheese by a ripened retentate tended to increase moisture content; fat/dry matter and TVFFA in the resultant cheese, either after manufacture (control) or during storage (up to 3 months). The values are higher in processed cheese after storage than in the fresh cheese. Moreover, the increasing of the level of ripened retentate used tended to increase the numbers of total bacterial and spore former counts in all processed cheeses during storage either at refrigerator or at room temperature, as well as, fresh cheese. The total bacterial and spore former counts were higher in all processed cheese stored at room temperature than in those stored in the refrigerator. On the other hand, the experimental processed cheese showed a better appearance, structure and flavour in the fresh cheese than the cheese stored at refrigerator or at room temperature. In addition, the processed cheese can made by substitution Ras cheese by ripened retentate up to 75% in the fresh cheese, but if cheese is going to be consumed after storage, the cheeses must be stored at refrigerator temperature than at room temperature.

[Mansour, A. I. A., Omar, M. A. M. and EL - Dosoki, W. I. Studies on Using of Ultrafiltered Retentated Milk in Processed Cheese Making. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):1-6]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.01.


Key wards: Processed cheese, Ripening agents, Retentated milk, Ras cheese.

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Position of English in the Education System of Jammu and Kashmir


Habsa Rashid


Department of Education University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006

Email: hafsarashid91@gmail.com


Abstract: The state of Jammu and Kashmir, like many other states of India, is geographically varied and linguistically very rich. Geographically the state is divided into three regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. All the three regions are linguistically rich adding to the overall linguistic richness of the state. The main languages of the state are Kashmiri--dominant in Kashmir region, Dogri--dominant in the Jammu region, and Ladakhi- dominant in the Ladakh region. Besides these dominant languages there are many other minority languages in the state which include Gojri, Pahari, Kohistani, Pashtu, Hindko, Burushaski, Siram, Pogli etc. making the state of Jammu and Kashmir a multilingual state in true sense. In addition to these indigenous languages there are some foreign languages like Persian, English and Arabic that add up to the multilingual structure of the state. In the academic institutions of the state, it is the non indigenous languages that have secured better position than the indigenous languages of the state. The current paper is an attempt to localize the English language in the overall education system of Jammu and Kashmir. The paper will highlight how English has overtaken all the domains of life like media, administration and legal domain with special focus on the position of English in the education system of the state.

[R. Habsa. Position of English in the Education System of Jammu and Kashmir. Researcher 2017;9(5):7-9]. ISSN 1553-9865 (print); ISSN 2163-8950 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/researcher. 2. doi:10.7537/marsrsj090517.02.


Key Words: Language planning, multilingualism, prestige, language modality, language localization

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Prevalence and Associated Risks Factors of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Guba District of the Benishagul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia


1Birhanu Eticha and 2Alemayehu Begawi


1 Benishagulgumuz Regional State Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O. Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia; E-mail: brihanueticha12@gmail.com

2 Assosa Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, 2 Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Assosa, Ethiopia


Abstract: This study was carried out in Guba district of the Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia from February to March, 2017 to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine trypanosomosis and its vector density. Blood samples collected from 301 randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and haematological (Measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 37 (12.29%) prevalence of trypanosomosis was recorded. The infection was caused mainly by T. congolense 22/37 (59.46%), T. vivax 9/37 (24.32%) and mixed infection with T. congolense and T. vivax 6/37 (16.22%) and the infection rate was statistically significant among different trypanosome species (P<0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of infected animals was lower (18.24% 5.68) than non-infected animals (27.52% 3.82) and the variation was found statistically significant (P<0.05). Similarly, higher prevalence (17.19%) of trypanosome infection was registered in animals with poor body condition when compared to animals with medium (6.67%) and good (4.41%) body condition and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Moreover, prevalence of trypanosomosis was statistically significant among study sites and age categories of study animals (P< 0.05). In contrast sex of study animals and trypanosome infection did not show significant association (P>0.05). Glossina fuscipes and Glossina tachinoide were the tsetse fly species caught and their mean apparent density measured as flies/trap/day was 3.725. In addition, other mechanical vectors such as tabanids and haematopota were captured with flies/trap/day 2.1 and 0.375, respectively. T0 conclude, the result of the present finding reveals moderately high prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study district implying the need for strategic and participatory approach to control the vector and to minimize the impact of the disease in the study district.

[Birhanu Eticha and Alemayehu Begawi. Prevalence and Associated Risks Factors of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Guba District of the Benishagul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):10-17]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.03.


Key words: Glossina, PCV, Tabanus, Trypanosoma, Tsetse Fly.

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The New Prime theorems641-690


Jiang, Chun-Xuan


Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL34682-1577, USA

And: P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, China

jiangchunxuan@sohu.com, cxjiang@mail.bcf.net.cn, jcxuan@sina.com, Jiangchunxuan@vip.sohu.com, jcxxxx@163.com


Abstract: Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis. In this paper using Jiang function  we prove that the new prime theorems (641)-690) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution . This is the Book theorem.

[Jiang, Chun-Xuan. The New Prime theorems641-690. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):18-70]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.04.


Keywords: new; prime theorem; Jiang Chunxuan

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Common infectious abortion in cattle


 Balemual abebaw1, Habitamu adis1, Abrham ayele2


1University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

2University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of paraclinical studdy, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196



Abstract: Abortion is expulsion of a dead fetus in the middle of gestation, in cattle between 42 and 260 days of gestation. Infectious abortions in cattle are caused by Bacterial, Viral, Protozoal and Fungal diseases. In the infectious abortions, the most common that have high abortion rate or persistent infection includes Brucella abortus, Bovine viral diarrhea, Trichomonas foetus and Aspergillus fumigatus. All these causative agents bring economical loss in terms of cost of treatment, infertility, abortion, rebreeding and culling of the cows. Abortion in cattle may also involve a very considerable public health risk, as many of the pathogens responsible for abortion can pose a significant danger to human health. Thus rapid, accurate diagnosis is vital in order to be able to reduce the risk to animals and humans and to assess the degree of risk caused by potential ruminant abortifacients with zoonotic potential such as Brucella spp, listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Treatments have no value in the case of some the infectious abortion, because of intracellular natures which develop drug resistant. Therefore, effective diagnosis of infectious abortion is helpful to implement appropriate prevention and control strategies. Proper management, vaccination, education of the owner and using artificial insemination is crucial to reduce these diseases.

[Abebaw B, Adis H,. Ayele A. Common infectious abortion in cattle. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):71-77]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.05.


Keywords: Cattle, Infectious abortion, Economical loss, Zoonotic potential

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A approach for monthly relative humidity prediction of target station using neighboring stations data


Babak Mohammadi


Department of Water Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran



Abstract: This study represents a new hybrid intelligent approach by integrating multilayer perceptron (MLP) with Cuckoo algorithm (CA) for prediction of monthly relative humidity. MLP-CA was applied to predict the relative humidity of any target station using the neighboring stations data. For this purpose, monthly relative humidity time series between years 2006 and 2015 of eight meteorological stations located at north of Iran were used. The ability of the proposed approach is compared with the MLP model using three performance criteria namely, root mean square errors (RMSE), the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS), Willmott’s Index of agreement (WI). The results obtained indicated that the MLP-CA model performed significantly better than the MLP model for relative humidity prediction.

[Babak Mohammadi. A approach for monthly relative humidity prediction of target station using neighboring stations data. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):78-83]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.06.


Keywords: Cuckoo Algorithm; Hybrid model; Multilayer Perceptron; Relative humidity

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Prediction of soil temperature using artificial neural network models


Babak Mohammadi 1, Fateme Esmaeilbeyki2


1. Department of Water Engineer, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2. Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran



Abstract: the objective of this paper was to develop an Artificial neural network (ANN) model in order to predict monthly mean soil temperature for the present month by using various previous monthly mean meteorological variables. For this purpose, the measured soil temperature and other meteorological data between the years of 2000 and 2007 at Adana meteorological station were used. the soil temperatures were measured at depths of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 cm below the ground level by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). A 3-layer feed-forward Artificial neural network structure was constructed and a back-propagation algorithm was used for the training of ANNs. the models consisting of the combination of the input variables were constructed and the best t input structure was investigated. the performances of ANN models in training and testing procedures were compared with the measured soil temperature values to identify the best t forecasting model. the results show that the ANN approach is a reliable model for prediction of monthly mean soil temperature.

[Babak Mohammadi, Fateme Esmaeilbeyki. Prediction of soil temperature using artificial neural network models. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):84-88]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.07.


Keywords: Artificial neural network, meteorological variables, prediction, soil temperature

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Analysis of Costs and Returns on Maize Production among Small-scale Farmers in Osun State Nigeria


Abdulaleem M. A., Oluwatusin F.M.* and Kolawole A.O.


Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University

P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

*E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng


AbstractMaize is one of the staple food crops in Nigeria. The crop provides steady income for the teaming unemployed labour force and has the potential of bridging the food security gap among the households. This study analyzed the costs and returns on maize production among small scale farmers in Osun State Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select one hundred and eighty (180) maize producing farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis were employed to describe the socio-economic characteristics and estimate the profitability of maize enterprise respectively. The result of the analysis showed that majority (80.0%) of the respondents were male with mean age of 42.3 years. 84.5 percent were married and most could read and write. The mean household size was about 7 persons. The gross margin was estimated to be N 638,465.22 with a benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of N1.74. This implies that maize production in the study area is profitable. The major problems militating against maize production in the study area were lack of control measures against pests and diseases, poor social infrastructures coupled with high transportation cost and low market price of maize. In order to make maize production more profitable, it is recommended that government should however provide to farmers farm inputs at affordable rate.

[Abdulaleem M. A., Oluwatusin F.M. and Kolawole A.O. Analysis of Costs and Returns on Maize Production among Small-scale Farmers in Osun State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):89-92]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.08.


Keywords: Maize, costs, returns and small-scale, farmers.

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Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions among workers exposed to different industrial noise levels






AbstractBackground: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The use of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) as a precise tool for investigating the properties of cochlea has been accepted. this study was aimed to evaluate changes in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE’s caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among noise-exposed workers. Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted on 45 workers in Gol Gohar mining and industrial company. The workers were divided into three groups. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 Hz in both ears was measured in three different time intervals during the shift work. SNR of 6 dB or greater was considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measurement, spearman correlation coefficient and paired t-test, analysis were used with α = 0.05. Results: In all frequencies, in the right and left ear, the SNR values were more than 6 dB, thus 100% SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of SPL on SNR was significant for the right and left ears (p= 0.027, p<0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears at the time intervals (7:30–8:00 am) and (13:30–14:00 pm), implying that an increase in the exposure duration will lead to declined SNR values (p= 0.024). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values revealed that in both the right and left ears (in all frequencies and the three different SPLs) the values decreased during the shift work.

[Orazanbox. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions among workers exposed to different industrial noise levels. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):93-98]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.09.


Keywords: Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced, Otoacoustic Emissions, Signal-To-Noise Ratio

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Mastitis is inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland


Balemual Abebaw




Abstract: Mastitis is inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. The predominant pathogens for the disease throughout the world include staphylococcus species, streptococcus species and coliform species. The principal bacterial infection associated with ingestion of milk and milk products are caused by different bacterial genera. The bacteria that are transmitted through milk and cause disease problems in man are bacteria causing mastitis in cattle and transmissible to human when man uses raw milk from infected udder. Example of such type of bacteria includes Mycobacterium, Brucella, and Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species.

[Balemual Abebaw. Mastitis is inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Rep Opinion 2017;9(5):99-106]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj090517.10.


Key words: Mastitis, Mammary Gland and Bacterial Infections

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 11, 2017

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