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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 6, Cumulated 96, June 25, 2017

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Performance of the Penman-Monteith reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Iran

 

Babak Mohammadi

 

Department of Water Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

babakmsh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sensitivity analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in Iran is an important necessity due to better management of water in such an arid and semi-arid country. It is important to analyze the sensitivity of ET0 to weather parameters as climate seems to be changed to some degree everywhere. In this study, sensitivity of ET0 to climatic variables at the eight selected stations of Iran was investigated. To estimate the ET0, the most recommended form of the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method was used. Sensitivity of ET0 was analyzed in terms of change in mean air temperature (Tmean), actual vapor pressure (ea), wind speed (u2) and net solar radiation (Rn) within a range of 20 %, in 5 % steps, from their corresponding normal long-term values (1965–2005). Results showed that ET0 was most sensitive to Tmean at the six of the stations in annual time scale. Increase in Tmean by +20 %, caused the most increase in ET0 at Chabahar. In contrast ET0 was least sensitive to ea in most selected stations. In this study, we investigated the interaction parameters in different scenarios on ET0 at all stations in monthly and annual time scale. Results showed in annual time scale increasing Tmean and WS by 20% and decreasing ea by 20 % yielded ET0 increasing 36.4 % at Chabahar. But, in monthly time scale 10 % increase in Tmean and WS as well as 10 % decrease in Rn yielded ET0 to be increase to about 30.5 % in December at Bandar Anzali.

[Babak Mohammadi. Performance of the Penman-Monteith reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Iran. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):1-8]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.01.

 

Keywords: Evapotranspiration. Penman-Monteith. Sensitivity analysis. Iran

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2

Impact of Agricultural Programmes on Smallholder Farmers’ Inclusive Growth in Southwest Nigeria.

 

Olofinsao Abiodun1, Sekumade Adelomo1 and Ajiboye Abiodun1.

 

1. Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University P.M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

tosinolofin14@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to examine inclusive growth in agricultural projects, among smallholder farmers in Southwest, Nigeria. The study specifically describes the socio-economic characteristics of the smallholder farmers, estimates the determinants of inclusiveness of smallholder farmers in agricultural projects, measures the effectiveness of the features of Agricultural projects in supporting inclusive growth, and determines the effects of growth in the projects on farmers’ productivity. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire from ninety (90) participants and ninety (90) non-participants of three agricultural projects (FADAMA, Root and Tuber Expansion Programme and National Programme for Food Security) with guided interview. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, to bit regression, social opportunity function and t-test analysis. It was gathered from the study that most of the smallholder farmers were male (72.8 percent) with mean age of 50.9 years, they have relatively high household size of 9.0. Over 80.0 percent of the smallholder farmers had access to primary education, the mean years spent in formal education was 7.5. They have spent average of 18.4 years in farming, with standard deviation of 9.1. It was also discovered that they have access to market (60.6 percent), agricultural information (66.1 percent) and credit (52.2 percent). Farm size, educational level, farm experience, access to market, agricultural income, access to credit, access to agricultural information have positive likelihood of increasing the level of inclusiveness. But age and farm distance were negatively related. Factors that significantly affect inclusiveness among smallholder farmers were access to market at 10 percent (co efficient = 0.3), access to credit at 5 percent (co-efficient = 0.2), farm experience at 5 percent (co-efficient = 0.2), and agricultural income at 1 percent (co-efficient = 0.4). Most of the opportunities of agricultural projects were not inclusive, except increase in income and gender equity. There was significant effect of growth on farmers’ productivity. It was recommended that bottom-top approach should be used in executing agricultural projects, also capacity building should be encouraged among smallholder farmers. Smallholder farmers should be given easy access to market and credit as this will increase their level of inclusiveness in agricultural projects. The youths should be encouraged to go into farming, because they have enough strength to be included in emerging poverty reduction projects.

[Olofinsao A, Sekumade A and Ajiboye A. Impact of Agricultural Programmes on Smallholder Farmers’ Inclusive Growth in Southwest Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):9-17]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.02.

 

Keywords: Inclusive growth; Agricultural; programmes; Smallholder Farmers

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3

Review on application of nanotechnology in veterinary medicine

 

Habtamu addis

 

University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia, p.o. Box: 196

Email: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nanotechnology is research and technology development at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular levels at the scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. Nanotechnology has the potential to solve many more puzzles related to animal health, products and breeding. The applications of nanotechnology become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. There are numerous applications of nanotechnology in veterinary medicine including disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal breeding and improving and boosting animal origin food product. It provide variety of new nanomaterial and nanoparticle including nanochips, nanosenser, liopsoms, quantum dot, gold nanoparticle, magnetic nanoparticle, etc for vaccination, pathogen detection, disease diagnosis, animal breeding and provide polymeric nanoparticle, carbon nanotube, nanoshell dendrimers, etc for delivering antimicrobial nanoparticle and nanomedicine for treatment of disease. It is swiftly changing the diagnosis and treatment patterns at faster and low cost in less time duration.

[Habtamu addis. Review on application of nanotechnology in veterinary medicine. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):18-26]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.03.

 

Keywords: Diagnosis, nanomaterials, nanotechnology, treatment

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4

Different Modalities of Management of Craniopharyngiomas

 

Yousef Abd- Elgaliel Barakat1, Hamdy Mohammad Behairy1, Ibrahim Hassan Mohammad2, Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan3, Abdullah Fathy Abdullah Abd El-Wahed1

 

1Neurosurgical Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 General Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Diagnostic Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

phar3on22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the different surgical approaches ( transcranial & transnasal transphenoidal ) and adjuvant modalities (Gamma Knife, Interferon, Bleomycin, Ommaya Reservoir,…..) for treatment of craniopharyngiomas. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted in neurosurgery department in Al-Azhar University (Al-Hussein & Bab El-Sha’ariya Hospitals) during the period from June 2012 to March 2017. This work was done on twenty patients with craniopharyngioma. The patients were evaluated according to the modality of treatment used, and follow-up (by clinical, endocrinological, ophthalmological and radiological assessment) were done six months after the intervention for assessment of the results of each treatment modality. Results: The outcome of management in this work is represented as Causes of poor outcome were absence of functional vision in the four cases (case 6, 10, 12, 17) plus loss of employability in case 6 and poor school performance in case 17, but it is worth noting that poor vision and cognitive impairment were pretreatment presentations Conclusion: Beyond treatment success ratings of craniopharyngioma related to diagnostic and treatment strategies is the experience level of the neurosurgeon.

[Yousef Abd- Elgaliel Barakat, Hamdy Mohammad Behairy, Ibrahim Hassan Mohammad, Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan, Abdullah Fathy Abdullah Abd El-Wahed. Different Modalities of Management of Craniopharyngiomas. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):27-35]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.04.

 

Keywords: Different; Modality; Management; Craniopharyngiomas

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5

Economic Impact Of Foot And Mouth Disease (Fmd): A Review

 

Belege Tadesse1, 2, Wondosen Kiflie2, Malede Endashaw2

 

1.University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

2.Amedguya Sheep Breed Improvement and Multiplication Center, P.O. Box 30, North Shoa, Ethiopia

tadessebelege@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is considered as the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of its economic impact. It is endemic in many African countries including Ethiopia. The economic impact of the disease in endemic country is that it leads the loss of milk production; loss of draft power; retardation of growth; abortion and delayed breeding and mortality especially in young animals. It also leads market restrictions, use of suboptimal production technologies and costs of control. The severity of the impact varies country to country based on their disease control strategy.

[Belege Tadesse, Wondosen Kiflie, Malede Endashaw. Economic Impact Of Foot And Mouth Disease (Fmd): A Review. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):36-40]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.05.

 

Key words: FMD, economic impact

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6

Trans abdominal Uterine Artery Doppler Between 11th To 14th Week of Gestation for the Prediction Of outcome In High-Risk Pregnancies

 

Mohammed Taher Ismail, Hossam El-Din Hussein Kamel, Abd El-Rahman Mostafa Anbar, Hany Shibl Mahrous

 

Obstetrics and Genecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

hanyshebl2017@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Uterine Artery Doppler is promising. An ultrasound screening programme in high risk pregnant women, especially women with preeclampsia, would offer clinicians the opportunity to pre-empt the disease before it manifests clinically. Aim of the Work: Is to assess the value of transabdominal uterine artery Doppler ultrasound between 11-14 weeks of gestation for the prediction of outcome in pregnancies at high risk for preeclampsia. Patients and Methods: An observational study proposed to 100 women referred to antenatal clinic of Bab El-Sheriya hospital for high-risk pregnancies. Results: Abnormal uterine artery Doppler has a low positive predictive value, on the other hand its absence predict quit well the absence of preeclampsia (NPV=100%) and fetal growth restriction (NPV=100%). Conclusion: Normal uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound in the form of absence of bilateral notching and resistance index (RI)<0.80 between 11-14 weeks of gestation is strongly related to normal pregnancy outcome in women at high risk for preeclampsia. Recommendations: Normal uterine artery Doppler waveforms in the first trimester identify women who are suitable for routine antenatal care, hence the importance of uterine artery Doppler between 11-14 weeks of gestation, especially in high risk pregnancies. It is a single, easy and cheap test.

[Mohammed Taher Ismail, Hossam El-Din Hussein Kamel, Abd El-Rahman Mostafa Anbar, Hany Shibl Mahrous. Trans abdominal Uterine Artery Doppler Between 11th To 14th Week of Gestation for the Prediction Of outcome In High-Risk Pregnancies. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):41-48]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.06.

 

Key words: abdominal Uterine Artery Doppler, gestation, preeclampsia, ultrasound screening programme

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7

Epidemiological Study of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Associated Risk Factors in Odabildiglu District of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia

 

1Birhanu Eticha, 2Bosena Fantahun and 2Alemayehu Begawi

 

1 Benishangul Gumuz Regional State Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O.Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia; e-mail: brihanueticha12@gmail.com

2 Assosa Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Assosa, Ethiopia.

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Odabildiglu district of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, western Ethiopia from Sptember to October, 2016 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis, prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks and its vector density. Blood samples collected from (n=530) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 38 (7.17%) prevalence of trypanosomosis was recorded. The infection was caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense 35/38 (92.1%), Trypanosoma vivax 2/38 (5.2%) & to less extent by Trypanosoma brucei 1/38 (2.6%). The infection rate was statistically significant among the different trypanosome species (P<0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of parasitaemic animals was lower (21.23% + 3.66) than aparasitaemic animals (26.87% + 2.23) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.05). Higher prevalence (14.05%) was registered in animals with poor body condition when compared with animals with medium (3.42%) and good (4.23%) body condition and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The infection rate was higher in animals > 2 years (9.25%) when compared with animals < 2 years (1.42%) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.05). While prevalence of trypanosomosis was not statistically significant across study sites (p>0.05). Glossina morsitans submorsitans was the only tsetse fly species caught and its mean apparent density measured as f/t/d was 0.3375. In addition, other mechanical vectors such as, stomoxys, tabanids and haematopota with f/t/d of 0.3625, 0.2 and 0.1875 were recorded respectively. To conclude, the result of the present finding shows moderately high prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study sites indicating the need for strategic and integrated approach to control the vector and to minimize the impact of the disease in the study district.

[ Birhanu Eticha, Bosena Fantahun and Alemayehu Begawi. Epidemiological Study of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Associated Risk Factors in Odabildiglu District of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):49-55]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.07.

 

Key words: Odabildiglu District, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis, Tsetse fly

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8

Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in and around Bahirdar, North west Ethiopia.

 

Yirdaw Abate1, Sintayehu Mulugeta2, Beruktayet Wondu3*, Mebrie Zemene4, Kassahun Berrie4

 

1University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Veterinary Medicine.

2 University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Clinical Medicine

3*University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Unit of Biomedical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia

4University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia. P.O. BOX. 196

Wonduserk85@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 with the aim of determining the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis and assessing possible host-related risk factors in and around Bahirdar town, the capital of Amhara Regional State, North western Ethiopia. Blood samples collected from 394 randomly selected cattle of different breed, age and sexes were screened for trypanosomiasis using thin smear method. The overall prevalence of Trypanosomiasis was found to be 3.3% and Trypanosoma vivax, which is a mechanically transmissible parasite, was the only species identified. The dominant prevalence was observed in Sebatamit (5.2%) followed by Addisalem (4.7%), Bahir Dar (4.2%), Besawit (3.8%) and Zenzelima (1.8%). However; there are no positive cases detected in Robbit and Yibab Kebeles. Even though statistical significant association was not found between local and cross breed animals; high prevalence of infection was observed in local breeds (4.1%) than cross breeds (1.6%). Prevalence was slightly higher in females (3.7%) than males (2.8%). Both age groups were infected with trypanosomes butthe prevalence rate was higher in adult (3.8%) than young (1.9%). Cattle in poor body condition were highly infected (7.1%) than medium body conditioned animals (1.2%) with P<0.05 indicating a statistically significant association. The infection rate varies in months with high rate of infection recorded in November (4.9%) and December (2.3%) and no infection was found in dry months of the year. Although the presents study revealed a low prevalence in the study area, vigorous disease mitigation strategies are warranted owing to the economic implication of the disease.

[Yirdaw Abate, Sintayehu Mulugeta, Beruktayet Wondu, Mebrie Zemene, Kassahun Berrie. Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in and around Bahirdar, North west Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):56-62]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.08.

 

Key words: Bahir Dar, Bovine, Mechanical transmission, Thin smear, Trypanosoma vivax

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9

Review on Mechanism of Antimicrobial Drug resistance in Animal and Its Public Health Significance

 

Habtamu addis

 

University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

Email: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

 

Abstracts: Antimicrobials are used in livestock production as therapeutics, prophylactics, and growth promoters. These drugs assist in sustaining livestock production and in controlling bacterial pathogens that may be transferred to humans. Bacteria exhibit a number of well characterized mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials that include: modification of the antimicrobial; alteration of the drug target; decreased access of drug to target; and implementation of an alternative metabolic pathway not affected by the drug. The mechanisms of resistance are complex and depend on the type of bacterium involved (e.g. Gram–positive or Gram–negative) and the class of drug. Some bacterial species have accumulated resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes due to a combination of intrinsic and acquired processes. This has and will continue to lead to clinical failures of antimicrobial treatment in both human and animal medicine. The development of resistance can be minimized provided that a number of measures are observed to prolong the useful life of all antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. Antibiotic use should be limited to situations where they are needed and the selection of the right antibiotic should take a number of factors into account.

[Habtamu Addis. Review on Mechanism of Antimicrobial Drug resistance in Animal and Its Public Health Significance. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):63-69]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.09.

 

Key words: Antimicrobial, Bacteria, Resistance

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10

Mastitis In Domestic Animals Especially In Bovine

 

Balemual abebaw1, Abrham ayele2

 

1University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

2University of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of paraclinical studdy, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196

balemual.abebaw@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mastitis is inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. The predominant pathogens for the disease throughout the world include staphylococcus species, streptococcus species and coliform species. The principal bacterial infection associated with ingestion of milk and milk products are caused by different bacterial genera. The bacteria that are transmitted through milk and cause disease problems in man are bacteria causing mastitis in cattle and transmissible to human when man uses raw milk from infected udder. Example of such type of bacteria includes Mycobacterium, Brucella, and Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species.

[Abebaw B, Ayele A. Mastitis In Domestic Animals Especially In Bovine. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):70-78]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.10.

 

Key words: Mastitis, Mammary Gland and Bacterial Infections

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11

Study The Effect Of Various Narcotic Drugs On Sensation Of Chick. Sole And Palm Of Drugs Addict Person

 

Yamini Panwar1 And Mm Prakash2

 

1.  Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College MHOW (M.P.)

2.  Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Holkar Science College, Indore (M.P.)

 

Abstract: Present Study aimed to examine effect of various narcotic drugs. Wiz, heroine alcohol, opium, marijuana and cannabis on sensitivity of chick sole and palm of drug addict person. For this total 25 drug addict 5 addict of each drug were closely examined to observe effect of drugs on sensation of chick sole and palm of addict and concluded that heroine (Brown Sugar) showed no effect on chick sole and palm sensitivity of drug addict person Opium also showed no impact, Alcohol showed little sensation. While Marijuana and cannabis showed high sensation on chick sole and palm of addict person.

[Yamini Panwar And Mm Prakash. Study The Effect Of Various Narcotic Drugs On Sensation Of Chick. Sole And Palm Of Drugs Addict Person. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):79-80]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.11.

 

Key words: Narcotic drugs Alcohol, Opium, Marijuana Cannabis and Heroine.

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12

Profitability Of Soya Beans Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

Dolaree A Dolaree, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences. Adamawa State University Mubi. Adamawa State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s Email: jzalkwi4u@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to examine the profitability of soya bean production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the costs and returns to soya bean production and identify the major constraints to soya bean production in the study area. A multi stage random sampling techniques was used to select 80 respondents in the study area who were noted for soya beans production. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. The results showed that Soya bean production was found to be profitable as a gross margin of N109894.5/ha was achieved. Major constraints encountered by the farmers were variability in the amount of rainfall which causes spoilage and retard growth, lack of extension services, inadequate farm credit, shortage of inputs, access to land for cultivation and activities of cattle rearers. It was therefore recommended that inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and agrochemicals which were the major inputs that increase the output of soya bean production in the study area should be made available on time, in right amounts and at affordable prices to the farmer’s stakeholders in agriculture. Proper orientation and knowledge should be given to people willing to go into the cultivation of soya beans on the appropriate time of planting. Extension services should also be rendered effectively, farmers should be encouraged to join existing associations and participate fully in their activities.

[Dolaree A Dolaree, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi. Profitability Of Soya Beans Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):81-86]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.12.

 

Keywords: Profitability; Soya Bean; Production; Mubi; North; Local Government; Area; Adamawa State; Nigeria

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13

Economic Impact Of Foot And Mouth Disease (Fmd): A Review

 

Belege Tadesse1, 2, Wondosen Kiflie2, Malede Endashaw2

 

1.  University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

2.  Amedguya Sheep Breed Improvement and Multiplication Center, P.O. Box 30, North Shoa, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is considered as the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of its economic impact. It is endemic in many African countries including Ethiopia. The economic impact of the disease in endemic country is that it leads the loss of milk production; loss of draft power; retardation of growth; abortion and delayed breeding and mortality especially in young animals. It also leads market restrictions, use of suboptimal production technologies and costs of control. The severity of the impact varies country to country based on their disease control strategy.

[Belege Tadesse, Wondosen Kiflie, Malede Endashaw. Economic Impact Of Foot And Mouth Disease (Fmd): A Review. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):87-91]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.13.

 

Key words: FMD, economic impact

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14

Theoretical Study Of The Effect Of Linear Deformation On Thermal Conductivity Of Some Metal

 

Adesakin G. E.

 

Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

G-mail of corresponding author: adesakingbenga@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effects of linear deformation on thermal conductivity of different elemental metals containing monovalent, divalent, trivalent and polyvalent metals were computed and studied based on Debye model using kinetic theory of gas formalism. The electron density parameters of deformed metals under the application of different strains were obtained for different metals. The poison ratio relating the transversal compression to elongation in the direction of applied deformation for different elemental metals were computed using elastic moduli for homogeneous isotropic material for some metal. The results obtained revealed that there is a good agreement between the computed and experimental value of the thermal conductivity of metals. There is high concentration of electron in the high density region than in the lower density region these seems to suggest that thermal conductivity of metals depend on electronic concentration. The thermal conductivity of metals increases as deformation (strains) increases for all the metals investigated. This could be due to an increase in the electron collision and inter-atomic distance between the interacting electrons in the metals which force the thermal conductivity of the metals to increase as deformation increases. The effect of deformation is more pronounced on the thermal conductivity of alkaline metals than the noble and polyvalent metal this tells us that the thermal conductivity of metals depend on electronic concentration and valence electron density.

[Adesakin G. E. Theoretical Study Of The Effect Of Linear Deformation On Thermal Conductivity Of Some Metal. Rep Opinion 2017;9(6):92-98]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj090617.14.

 

Keywords: Deformation, Debye theory, Thermal conductivity, Mean free path, Electronic specific heat

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 25, 2017

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