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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 7, Cumulated 97, July 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

Investigation Legislation for Entrepreneurial Activity in Great Britain

 

Samiyeh Sardarkelari

 

Master Student of Private Law, Department of Private Law, College of Laws and Politics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

samiye.kelari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Various governmental programs of supporting entrepreneurial activity in Great Britain were considered. Normalization of entrepreneurial legislation and enactment of the Code of Entrepreneurship of Great Britain was suggested. This article deals with the statutory regulation of entrepreneurial activity in Great Britain during the period of formation and gaining independence. Chronological framework of the research covers the period between 2010s and nowadays, in which the transition to free market has taken place, the foundation for formation entrepreneurial activity in Great Britain has been being laid, legislative framework for certain sectors and institutions of law, which regulate entrepreneurial activity, has been affected.

[Samiyeh Sardarkelari. Investigation Legislation for Entrepreneurial Activity in Great Britain. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):1-5]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. X. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.0x.

 

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Activity, Legislation, Great Britain

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2

Review On The Risk of East Cost Fever on Holstein Dairy Heifers Importation from Kenya to Amhara Region of Ethiopia

 

Zerihun Fikru, Adugna Gashawu

 

University of Gondar College of Medicine and health science, Department of Public health, Gondar, Ethiopia P.O. Box: 196

Email: zerihunfikru@gmail.com

 

Abstract: East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease (TBD) of cattle whose agent is a protozoan parasite called Theileria parva. The parasite is transmitted cyclopropagatively and trans-stadially by a three-host tick called Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, which have dropped from infected cattle during the preceding stage of the life cycle. Kenya is one of the most ECF affected country come across with remarkable economic losses from its dairy industry. Ethiopia, free from both the agent and the vector, still lacks to implement animal movement bans strictly within and from neighboring countries (Kenya) which may expose the country the introduction of the vector. For a vector-borne disease whose transmission depends on environmental characteristics that influence vector dynamics, a change in the environment implies a change in the epidemiology of the disease In Kenya, ECF control has previously relied predominantly on tick control using acaricides and chemotherapy while ECF immunization is steadily being disseminated, there is a probability of entrance of the parasite with carrier or immunized imported cattle population from any ECF endemic countries. The country should impose strict measures to stop free animal movement and strong risk analysis measures while importing live animals.

[Zerihun Fikru, Adugna Gashawu. Review On The Risk of East Cost Fever on Holstein Dairy Heifers Importation from Kenya to Amhara Region of Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):6-11]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.02.

 

Key words: East Cost Fever, Holstein Dairy Heifers Risk

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Identification of poisonous Plants and their toxic effects on Livestock in and around Bako district, West Shoa Zone, Oromia regional state, Western Ethiopia

 

Yoobsan Fikadu1, Girma Kebede1, Tilahun Zenebe2, Zelalem Abera1, Tadele Kabeta1

 

1Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

Email- girmakebede27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Poisonous plants are one of the causes of livestock health problems all over the world and bring significant economic loss. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in and around Bako district West Showa Zone of Oromia regional state, Western Ethiopia from November 2015 to May 2016 with the objectives of identifying poisonous plants and their toxic effect in the study area. In order to put the objective into practice, structured questionnaires were developed and 153 individuals (139 livestock owners and 14 animal health practitioners) were interviewed on voluntary basis. The study revealed that 122 (87.8%) of livestock owners and 14 (100%) of animal health practitioner complained the presence of plant poisoning on livestock in the study area. Similarly, 37 plants were identified as having poisoning effect on livestock, among which Trifolium hybridium, Sorghum bicola, Amaranthus spp, Datura stramonium and Plantago lanceolata had the highest botanical frequency. According to the result of survey, agricultural expansion, drought, soil erosion and overgrazing predispose the livestock to plant poisoning. In the same way, almost all of the livestock were managed by extensive type of production system which allows them to browse poisonous perennial herbs on the fields. On the other hand, the livestock were poisoned by leaves and other parts of the identified poisonous plants through ingestion or contact. In conclusion, from the current study, high numbers of poisonous plants were obtained in the study area. Hence, the livestock health in the area is at high risk of exposure to these toxic plants and therefore the government should intervene to create awareness among the community about the effects of these plants and for further phyto chemical and toxicological studies and possibly pharmacological activity.

[Yoobsan Fikadu, Girma Kebede, Tilahun Zenebe, Zelalem Abera, Tadele Kabeta. Identification of poisonous Plants and their toxic effects on Livestock in and around Bako district, West Shoa Zone, Oromia regional state, Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):12-17]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.03.

 

Keywords: Botanical frequency, Ethiopia, livestock, Poisonous plants, structured questionnaire

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4

Tax (Zakat) constitution of 1998 and 2005 and as a family inheritance law for Muslims in most Muslim countries

 

Behrooz  Khaksari*  1, Bahar Khaksari 2 peiman latifi 3

 

1.  Department of law Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

Email: behrooz.nik@gmail.com

2.  Department of law Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

Email: bahar.nik2005@gmail.com

3.  Department of law Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

Email: peyman.latifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: However, according to the actual implementation of the legal punishments, it was noted that the new legislation seems to be more interested in the effective use of limited impact as opposed to the King's supporters rally that characterized the 1983 tests. (Seyed Ahmad, 1997: 220). Although no accurate statistics on the number of stoning, crucifixion, flagellation and amputation compiled between 1989 and 2008 is not available, a summary of Human Rights of 1989 confirms the hypothesis Seyed Ahmad. By strengthening the legitimacy of the regime and drag the boundary line through which other political forces to implement or outside it. (Ahmad, 1997: 222), Islamic law that is well established in many Islamic bill seemingly regime's needs for Islamic symbolism has been achieved. Now Sudan has a legal system that is characterized by high pluralism. This is a common heritage that despite the peaks and valleys of twenty years of efforts clearly evident by two important aspects: Firstly specific rules of common rule is still valid and secondly the new rules dates back to legitimate sovereignty in the context of the organization and the law book. Basically, despite the Bashir's government efforts to isolate that, the Sudanese customary law is still of great importance in rural areas. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of all cases in Sudan have been judged according to the customary law.

[Behrooz Khaksari, Bahar Khaksari peiman latifi. Tax (Zakat) constitution of 1998 and 2005 and as a family inheritance law for Muslims in most Muslim countries. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):18-21]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.04.

 

Key words: Zakat, family inheritance, law, Muslims, countries

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5

Review On Glanders

 

Tsehaye Neges1, Gebrihiwot Teklu1, Dechasa Bullo1, Tesfahun Terefe1, Demr Abebe1, Haftey Sahle1, Gashaw Enbiyale2

 

1. Candidate of Veterinary Medicine, Collage of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o.box.196. Field Physician at University of Gondar Veterinary hospital, Collage of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Ethiopia.

Email: thesunneges@gmail.com

 

Summary: This paper is mainly aimed to review the glanders disease in equine and its zoonotic potential. Glanders is highly contagious, life threatening and OIE-listed disease of equids caused by the gram negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It is transmitted mainly through physical contact. Susceptibility varies from animal to animal, amongst the family of equidae, donkeys are most susceptible, mules less so and horses still less again. Whereas birds, cattle and swine are resistant to infection, small ruminants can become infected if maintained in close contact with affected horses. Glanders is a disease of the skin, lymphatics, and respiratory tract that characterized by ulcerating lesions of skin and mucous membrane. The pathogen causes nodules and ulcerations in skin, the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Based up on the clinical manifestation and site of infection glanders have nasal, pulmonary, cutaneous and asymptomatic forms. It can be diagnosed by using different serological techniques. Due to the absence of effective antibiotic treatment and vaccine the preventive and control measure of the disease becomes too tight and controversial. Control of glanders requires testing of suspect clinical cases, and elimination of positive reactors. Burkholderia mallei is considered as biological weapon. It causes huge economic loss and having zoonotic potential. Glanders is reported in central highland of Ethiopia. As glanders is economically very important disease in equine as well as human, therefore wisely designed preventive and control measure should be conducted.

[Tsehaye N, Haftey S, Gebrihiwot T, Tesfahun T, Dechasa B, Tesfahun T, Demr A, Haftey S, Gashaw E. Review On Glanders. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):22-28]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.05.

 

Key Words: Burkholderia mallei, Equine, Glander

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Haematological and Biochemical Response of Cockerels Fed Processed Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed meal

 

Augustine, C.

 

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Email: audaggai@gmail.com; GSM +2348132946167

 

Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted for sixteen (16) weeks to investigate the effects of feeding raw and processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal based-diets on the haematological and biochemical parameters of growing cockerels. Six experimental diets were compounded to contain 0 and 20% each of the raw, boiled, soaked sprouted and fermented Senna obtusifolia seed meal, were designated T1, T2, T3 T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Two hundred and sixteen (216) cockerels were randomly allotted to the six dietary treatments in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), replicated three times with twelve (12) birds each. The chickens were managed on deep litter pens of 12 birds/2.22 M2. Data were collected on packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) and were analysed using a computer statistical package (Statistix 9.0). The results of the investigation revealed non-significant effect (P>0.05) on the haematological parameters except for the mean corpuscular volume. Some of the biochemical parameters were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. The least total protein (2.47 g/dl) and albumin (1.40 g/dl) were recorded in the group of growing cockerels fed raw Senna obtusifolia seed meal (RSOSM) based-diet. Serum enzymes and bilirubin levels were observed to be more elevated in the group of cockerels fed RSOSM. based-diets. The AST, ALT and total bilirubin level of the cockerel fed RSOSM based-diet were 14.35U/L, 7.20U/L and 13.4 mmol/L. However, significant (P<0.05) improvement of the biochemical parameters were observed in the group of growing cockerels fed the processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal based-diets, with the group fed the fermented Senna obtusifolia seed meal based-diets exhibiting better biochemical indices. It can be concluded that processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal especially the fermented seed meal has nutritional potential as feed ingredient for feeding cockerels with little or no depreciation on the haematological and biochemical indices of cockerels and is therefore recommended for feeding cockerels.

[Augustine, C. Haematological and Biochemical Response of Cockerels Fed Processed Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed meal. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):29-35]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.06.

 

Keywords: Processed; Senna obtusifolia; blood parameters; processed; cockerel

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Assessment of Food and Feeding Habit of Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Sumu Wildlife Park of Ganjuwa Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

1Kwaga, B.T., 1Gwallameji, L.B., 1Ali, A. and 2Khobe, D.

 

1 Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Modibbo Adama University of Tech., Yola.

2 Department of Animal Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi.

Correspondence Author’s GSM/email: Nos. 08027995044, 08072547283. divinetizhe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study assessed the food and feeding habit of giraffes in Sumu Wildlife Park of Ganjuwa Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The forage (woody plants) mostly preferred by the species and time used in consuming each food have not been ascertained despite the giraffe’s population in the study area hence, the need for this study which assessed the food and feeding habit of giraffe in the study area. The entire area was sub-divided into four (4) plots of one hectare each randomly selected across the study area. Data on the plant species eaten by giraffes were obtained through total counting of all individuals within the 1 hectare plots. Woody plant species mostly preferred by giraffes were obtained by ocular method measuring time spent (5 to 10 minutes and 30minutes to 1 hour) browsing each species. Data on the nutritive content (water, crude protein, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, fats and ash) of the preferred woody plant species was gathered through laboratory analysis of the plants parts following Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC) methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics (Tables of frequency, percentages, mean). The result obtained indicated that 17, 17, 19 and 17 different woody individuals were identified to have been eaten by giraffes in the 4 plots. Acacia sayel is the dominant species (24.24%, 27.59%, 27.63% and 24.06%) while Ziziphus spina-christi is the least (0.75%, 1.38%, 1.32% and 0.75%) in the 4 plots selected. 7 woody plant species were identified as the most preferred forage by the giraffes in the area. Acacia sayel formed the majority (33.17%) while Combretum apiculatum is the lowest (4.67%). Results of the nutrient value of the preferred species consumed by giraffes showed that Acacia sieberiana had the highest (62.10%) mean water content value and Combretum imberbe had the lowest (50.20%) mean value. Acacia sieberiana had the highest (30.60%) mean value of crude protein while Combretum molle had the lowest (10.30%). Combretum imberbe had the highest (27.60%) crude fibre and Acacia nilotica had the least (13.70%) mean value. Acacia nilotica had the highest (32.20%) nitrogen free extract (NFE) and Acacia sieberiana had the least 18.70%) mean value. (62.10%). Combretum molle had the highest (5.40%) mean fat value and Combretum apiculatum had the least (2.60%) mean value. Acacia nilotica had the highest (1.10%) mean ash and Acacia senegal the lowest (0.40%). Further research on the status of all the available forage plants and establishment of the species plantations are recommended.

[Kwaga, B.T., Gwallameji, L.B., Ali, A. and Khobe, D. Assessment of Food and Feeding Habit of Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Sumu Wildlife Park of Ganjuwa Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):36-43]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.07.

 

Key words: Giraffe forage, feeding, preferred food

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The Need for Anticoagulation Therapy during the Transseptal Approach of Left Sided Accessory Pathway Ablation and at What Stage of Procedure Anticoagulants Should Be Administered

 

Ayman Abd El-Aziz Fattoh, Moamed Bader, Mohamed Nab

 

Cardiology Department, National Heart Institute, Giza, Egypt

Ama_fattoh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently the treatment of choice for most patients with accessory pathway-mediated tachycardia. Left accessory pathways (AP) are the most commonly found in clinical practice and account for 40%-70% of all AP cases referred for catheter ablation. Because of the inherent risks of the approach of the heart's left chambers special technical skills are required for their [of the APs] mapping and ablation. Two major methods have been described for the approach of APs in the mitral ring: the retrograde arterial approach (RAA) which involves a peripheral arterial access, with the manipulation of the catheter in the left ventricle to map the atrioventricular ring (in this approach the atrial connection may also be mapped using retrograde catheterization of the LA) and the transeptal approach (TSA) which consists in trespassing the interatrial septum with a special catheter introducer and place the ablation catheter directly in the LA to map preferably the atrial insertion of these APs Objective: The aim of this study is to detect the need for anticoagulation therapy during the transseptal left sided Accessory Pathway (AP) ablation, and to determine at which stage of RF procedure antithrombotic drugs should be administered. The biochemical markers used in this study is direct measures of fibrinolysis (d-dimer, DD). Patients and Methods: This study is a clinical trial that was conducted in EP laboratory of National Heart Institute. This study included twenty patients referred for EP laboratory to do radiofrequncy transcatheter ablation in the left side of heart (twenty patients with left accessory pathway). All patients included in the study were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination to determine baseline heart rate and blood pressure, resting 12–lead electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, CBC, PT, PTT, Routine laboratory investigations including fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests. From each patient undergoing RF ablation, four blood samples were taken for D-dimer measurement. Initially, blood sample is obtained immediately after insertion of the venous sheaths and before introduction of the electrode catheters (baseline measurements). Subsequently, blood sample is taken on completion of EPS and mapping, just before application of the first RF ablation (post-EPS measurements). The third sample is taken after completion of the RF procedure (post-RF measurements) and before sheath removal. At 36 to 40 hours later and before discharge from the hospital, a fourth blood sample was obtained. Exclusion criteria: Patients with history of recent undergoing electrophysiological study (EPS), Patient with malignant disease, Patient with history of embolic events, recent surgery or trauma, Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation, Patients with an active thrombotic process, renal failure, cerebrovascular stroke or previously identified coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. Results: The D-dimer level in all the studied patients increased significantly (P < 0.001) from 406.5 254.1 at baseline to 934.8 656.5 after EPS and rose higher to 2406.5 1765.3 after ablation and in spite of that it decrease to 1900.4 1514.3 before discharge but it is still significantly higher than that of the baseline level (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study shows there is significant thrombogenic activity during RF catheter ablation of left accessory pathway cases, as it is evidenced by the D-dimer elevation in patients undergoing these procedures. Regarding our results, it is essential to give anticoagulation for all cases of AP during RF catheter ablation. Early heparin administration is a favorable protocol; since it seems evident that in all patients there is an incremental rise in the level of the D-dimer level after a guide wire is inserted, reaching its peak after ablation. Furthermore, it is prefereable to consider a post procedure continuation of administration of heparin, as there is persistent elevation of D-dimer level 48 hours after the procedure. Administration of anticoagulation therapy after ablation may be of possible advantage to protect patients against the risk of thromboembolic events. However, Continued and systematic evaluation of procedural anticoagulation protocols in larger and randomized studies is necessary in order to enrich the evidence platform of the ablative management of cardiac arrhythmias.

[Ayman Abd El-Aziz Fattoh, Moamed Bader, Mohamed Nab. The Need for Anticoagulation Therapy during the Transseptal Approach of Left Sided Accessory Pathway Ablation and at What Stage of Procedure Anticoagulants Should Be Administered. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):44-53]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.08.

 

Keywords: Need; Anticoagulation; Therapy; Transseptal; Approach; Ablation; Stage; Procedure; Anticoagulant

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Prevalence Of Bovine Fascioliasis In Banja Woreda Of Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

 

Gezahegn Mesele1, Melese Yenew12 and Mengestie Abebaw1

 

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box.1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia.

2 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,

melese2007yenew@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 to determine the Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Banja woreda Awi zone, Amhra Regional State. A total of 384 fecal samples were examined, 191 (49.74%) were found to be positive for Fasciolosis. Sex, age, peasant associations, breed and body condition were taken into consideration where as 42% and 51% and prevalence were recorded for young and adult animals respectively. Similarly, 52.9% and 47.1% prevalence were recorded for male and female cattle respectively. However, no statistical significance (P > 0.05) was observed in male and female. The coprological examination was indicated highest in Enjibara (21.1%), followed by %), Akayita (19.8%), Kebelie 03 (19.8%), Kessa (19.8%.) and Batambi (19.5%). There was also no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in infection rate between these kebeles. The result of the study indicated that breed had significant difference (P < 0.05) with prevalence of (30.5 %) and (69.5 %) in cross and local breeds, respectively and also (40.6%) in poor (32%) in medium and (27.3 %) in good body conditions were recorded. So the result indicates there is statistically significant difference (P<0.05). In view of the current result, Fasciolosis could be considered as a major problem in Banja Woreda and surrounding areas as the ecological factors and management conditions are suitable both for the snail intermediate host and the parasite to be maintained. Therefore Strategic demworming and Integrated control approaches involving livestock owners has to be implemented in reducing the population and activity of snail intermediate hosts to enable maximization of long-term returns from such endemic areas. further studies should be conducted in the area of the research were also recommended.

[Gezahegn Mesele, Melese Yenew and Mengestie Abebaw. Prevalence Of Bovine Fascioliasis In Banja Woreda Of Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):54-59]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.09.

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Fasciola, Banja, Bovine, Coprology

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Community Based Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Rabies In Injibara Town And Its Surroundings, Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, North-Western Ethiopia

 

Yigardush Wassihune1, Melese Yenew1, Ayalew Niguse2

 

1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box.1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia.

2Lecturer at Jigjiga university, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box.1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia.

yigardush2116wass@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Rabies is a viral disease of all warm blooded animals, which causes acute fatal encephalitis, with almost 100% case fatality rate. It is caused by rabies virus (genus Lyssa virus) which is mainly transmitted by rabid animal bites. This disease occurs in more than 150 countries and territories and about 55,000 people die of rabies every year, mostly in developing world despite that it is preventable disease by vaccination. Ethiopia is highly endemic for rabies; yet, a nationwide data on rabies has not been gathered to reveal the actual magnitude of the problem and public awareness levels. With a conviction that a handful of works on public knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in rabies be done to plan, execute any control and/or eradication programs, this study was conducted in Injibara town and its surroundings from November, 2015 to April, 2016 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on rabies and related factors. The design was: ccommunity-based retrospective, quantitative study design to assess the KAP on rabies and related factors. The entire three kebeles of the town and its surrounding rural kebeles were considered in the study. Moreover, focus group discussions were held with professional in the public and animal health facilities and information obtained was triangulated. In the 360 households interviewed, 298 (71.1%) of them were males and 102 (28.3%) females and 244 (67.8%) of subjects were between 15-35 years old and 53.3% owned dogs, only 10% of whom had responded ever vaccinating dogs. The majority of the respondents (95%) were Orthodox followed by protestant (2.8%). The total population who had good KAP was 51.1%, lower than some previous works in Ethiopia. Only 43.9% were aware that virus is the cause of rabies while 61.7% knew the appropriate transmission. About 90% were aware of its zoonotic nature, but only 68.9% were aware of the principal source- the dog. Seventy three per cent of the study subjects recognized its incurability in man and animals. About 63.3% accepted killing of stray dogs. On the other hand, 83.9% reported to have never gotten any training. About 47.2% believed visiting herbal medication was best first aid following bites. There was no statistically significant differences in KAP level and sex, educational status, religion, occupation and residence (p>0.05). However, there was strong association between KAP scores and dog presence (χ2=12.073, p=0.001). Information obtained from health facilities showed an extremely poor move and commitment from authorities in combating the problem, particularly the animal health side. The result calls for an integrated public health education, prevention of the disease via dog vaccination and population management by availing resources like PEP in the vicinity to minimize further damage.

[Yigardush Wassihune, Melese Yenew, Ayalew Niguse. Community Based Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Rabies In Injibara Town And Its Surroundings, Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, North-Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):60-67]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.10.

 

Key Words: Attitude, Community, Dog, Injibara, Knowledge, Practice, Rabies

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Serum prolactin level for early predection of precancerous and endometrial carcinoma in cases of perimenopausal and postmenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding

 

Mohamed Samir Fouad khalaf1, Mahmoud Samy Ismail1, Mohammed Said El-Shorbagy2, Mohamed Ahmed Abd Elgalil3.

 

1Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Azhar University, Egypt

2Professor of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3M. Sc. Obstetrics and Gynecology Al-azhar university Sohag teaching Hospital, Egypt

Dr_m198@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the female genital tract comprising 6% of female cancers. Aim of the work: To develop a risk prediction model to see is there role of serum prolactin level and early predection of precancerous and endomertrial carcinoma in perimenopausal and postmenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding. Material and Method: This study was conducted on 200 Patients referred to one of the participating centres because suffering of perimenopausal and postmenopausal bleeding. 100 cases with perimenpasual bleeding and 100 cases with post menepasual abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: In our study age distribution of premenopausal patients is mostly between 40-45 years (60%) and age distribution of postmenopausal patients is between 50-55 years (70%). Most of the patients perimenopausal patients in the study multiparous (95%) and the same in postmenopausal patients in the study multiparous (93%). Conclusion: The level of prolactin varies according to the type of AUB. Majority of the participants had prolactin level within the normal range. Around 25% of the participants had prolactin level above normal level in perimenpausal patients and 16%of postmenpausal patients.

[Mohamed Samir Fouad khalaf, Mahmoud Samy Ismail, Mohammed Said El-Shorbagy, Mohamed Ahmed Abd Elgalil. Serum prolactin level for early predection of precancerous and endometrial carcinoma in cases of perimenopausal and postmenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):68-72]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.11.

 

Keyword: abnormal uterine bleeding, Serum prolactin

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Study On Welfare Assessment of Cart Pulling Mule in Bahir Dar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

 

Demesiew Dressie1*, Wudu Temesgen1 and Melese Yenew2

 

1 Faculty of veterinary medicine, university of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar; Ethiopia

2 Jigjiga University; College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga; Ethiopia; P.O. Box:-1020

Email: melese2007yenew@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted from October 2010 to march 2011, in Bahir Dar town, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia with the aim of assessment of the welfare of cart pulling mules and to evaluate the economic importance of the cart mules for the owners/drivers. It was a cross sectional study design and carried out on 300 mules by direct physical examination to assess the health and behavioural parameter and on 200 owners by questionnaire to assess the management of the mule working condition, the economic contribution of cart mules and relationship between the owners and mules. The study showed almost all cart mule owners provide adequate clean water to their mules. Seventy per cent of the owners were using free grazing as a main source of feed for the mule with alone or other feeds. Majority of cart mule owners (68%) construct a house that protect only rainfall and sunlight and only 5.5% of owner provide a welfare standard housing for their mules. While most cart owners take their sick mules to veterinary clinics directly or after they try to cure themselves, 24% do nothing to their sick mules. Great Majority (78.5%) of the owners abandon their mules at the end of working life. 70.5% of respondent use their carts as the only source of income. Even though the prevalence of wound and epizootic lymphangitis accounts 63% and 33.7% respectively, in the study area, 63.5% of the owners do not give any rest when mules are affected by wound. In general the study revealed that cart mules provide livelihood for most cart owners as sole source of income. But the welfare of these animals, as seen from questionnaire survey about the management input (indirect measure) and physical examination (direct measure), was found compromised. To improve this situation education of owners about overall management of cart mules, public awareness about animal welfare, and proper attention to health of the equines by the veterinary service were recommended.

[Demesiew Dressie, Wudu Temesgen and Melese Yenew. Study On Welfare Assessment of Cart Pulling Mule in Bahir Dar Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):73-86]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.12.

 

Keywords: Bahir Dar, Cart, Epizootic lymphangitis, Equine, Mule, Welfare

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A Review On Equine Tetanus

 

1Hailehizeb Cheru, and 2Samual Abie, 3Tesfu Abtie

 

1 Lecturer at burie poly technic college department of animal health P.o. Box. 75, Burie, Ethiopia, 2 Lecturer at Hibre biher college department of animal health, Debre Markos, Ethiopia, 3Lecturer at burie poly technic college department of animal health P.o.box. 75, Burie, Ethiopia

haile12cheru12@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tetanus or lockjaw is one of acute fatal disease of equine with a high mortality rate of 50-80%. It is caused by the gram-positive, spore forming, motile, anaerobic bacteria, C.tetani, which is characterized by increased muscle tone, prolapsed third eye lid, spasm of facial masticator muscles, erect ears, exaggerated response to external stimuli, dilation of nostrils, the tail became stiff and extended, convulsion and spastic paralysis. C.tetani grows in different media only in the absence of oxygen and can produce neurotoxins that block the release of neurotransmitters for inhibitory synapses to develop spastic paralysis. Horses are very susceptive spp of the animal to tetanus. Tetanus occurs either in individual horse or as an outbreak in foals following injection and foaling. The disease has to be diagnosed on the basis of clinical sign often with the history of puncture wound or other trauma contaminated with soil or feces and based on microscopic examination, culturing, serology, laboratory animal inoculation. No necropsy finding as well as definitive ante mortem test or post mortem lesions, but we may demonstrate from necrotized tissues. The treatment of equine tetanus includes eliminating of the infectious agent, providing muscular relaxations, neutralizing the unbound toxin, and other supportive treatments like maintaining hydration, nutritional status of the horse and ensuring good footing. Active and passive immunization should be taken as control and prevention measures. This paper reviews on the general features, diagnostic approaches, and treatment, prevention and control measures of tetanus in equines.

[ Hailehizeb Cheru, and Samual Abie, Tesfu Abtie. A Review On Equine Tetanus. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):87-95]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.13.

 

Key words: C.tetani, lockjaw, equine, neurotoxins, spastic paralysis, muscular spasm

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14

E-learning in adult education

 

Mahdi Emami and Naser Talebi

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: nasertalebi99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education can be used for some aspects of most disciplines. For example, several institutions of higher education already have developed certificate programs, undergraduate programs, and graduate programs in health and physical education that are delivered using distance education methods. Eastern Oregon University, Emporia State University, Kutztown University, LaSalle University, the Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, and Virginia Tech are among institutions integrating distance technology into their physical education programs Distance education is education designed for learners who live at a distance from the teaching institution or education provider. It is the enrollment and study with an educational institution that provides organized, formal learning opportunities for students. Presented in a sequential and logical order, the instruction is offered wholly or primarily by distance study, through virtually any media.

[Mahdi Emami and Naser Talebi. E-learning in adult education. Rep Opinion 2017;9(7):96-100]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj090717.14.

 

Keywords: Distance Education, E-learning

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 4, 2017

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