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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 10, Cumulated 100, October 25, 2017

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Cost And Return Analysis Of Sugarcane Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State Nigeria

 

Anaryu. B. Wahu, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences. Adamawa State University Mubi. Adamawa State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s Email: jzalkwi4u@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study analysed the cost and return of sugarcane production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State Nigeria. The objective was to estimate the cost and returns in sugarcane production. Sample sizes of 80 sugarcane farmers were selected using multi-stage sampling technique and administered with well-structured questionnaire to generate primary data. Descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques (gross margin) were used as analytical tools for the study. Results shows that majority (97.5%) of the farmers were male and fall within the age of 41 years and above. About 25% of them had no formal education; while 75% have one form of education or the other. They cultivate average farm size of 1-2ha. The average total revenue/ha, average variables cost/ha, gross margin, average gross margin/ha, average total fixed cost/ha and the net from income were N500, 762.50, N222, 156.06, N65, 828, 933.94, N168, 852.44, N9091 and N26915.44 respectively. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that, the study area had great and substantial potential to increase sugarcane farmers’ income, if efforts are made for the widespread of new technologies.

[Anaryu. B. Wahu, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi . Cost And Return Analysis Of Sugarcane Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):1-6]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.01.

 

Keywords: Cost; Return Analysis; Sugarcane; Production; Mubi North Local Government Area; Adamawa State; Nigeria

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2

Escherichia Coli O157 Prevalence in Animals

 

Mona s. zaki1, Olfat M. Fawzy2 and Nabila Elbatrawy 3.

 

1Dept. Of Hydrobiology, 2Dept. of Biochemistry, National Research Center, 3Animal Reproduction Institute. Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: evidence to date suggests that dairy animals may be the primary reservoir of E. coli serotype 0157:H7. Further investigations of infected herds are necessary to understand the ecology of this organism in dairy and beef herds, the mechanisms by which meat and milk become contaminated, and the potential for herd-based control measures to prevent this growing public health problem.

[Mona s. zaki, Olfat M. Fawzy  and Nabila Elbatrawy. Escherichia Coli O157 Prevalence in Animals. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):7-9]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.02.

 

Keywords: Escherichia Coli O157, Meat, Milk, Beef

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3

Effect of processing methods and fermentation period on the residual content of hydrogen cyanide in Garri

 

Effiong, B.N 1 and Udofia, U.S 2

 

1 Depatment of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo.

2 Depatment of Home Economics, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Uyo, Uyo

 

Abstract: The effect of processing methods and fermentation period on the residual content of Hydrogen Cyanide was investigated in garri produced from locally grated and machine crushed cassava tubers with fermentation periods of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The result of proximate composition showed that moisture content ranged between 3.90 6.55%, protein 5.00 6.99%, fat 4.04 8.43%, crude fibre 3.04 5.83%, Ash content 2.05 3.02%, carbohydrate 78.82 84.11% and energy 411.15 391.92 k/cal. Result of the functional properties of the samples showed that bulk density varied between 0.49 0.77 (g1cm3), oil absorption 0.71 -2.32 (ml/g), water absorption 4.01-4.77 (ml/g), swelling capacity varied between 1.84 -3.63 (vol/ml). Generally, there was significant difference among all the samples analysed (p<0.5). Sensory evaluation studies showed preference for the garri produced from locally grated cassava fermented for 12 hours (A) in terms of general acceptability while the locally grated but fermented for 48 hours (E) was preferred in terms of texture and appearance. Using a nine point hedonic scale, all the samples were accepted though sample A was rated best. Hydrogen cyanide content in all the sample ranged between 3.11 15.95 (mg/kg HCN); oxalate 1.13 8.10 (m/kg), Tannin 0.11 -3.07 (mg/kg). Garri sample processed and fermented for 12 hours had concentration of hydrogen cyanide (15.24 -15.95 mg/kg HCN) higher than tolerable limits (10 -15mg/kg HCN) as stipulated by NAFDAC in Nigeria.

[Effiong, B.N and Udofia, U.S. Effect of processing methods and fermentation period on the residual content of hydrogen cyanide in Garri. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):10-16]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.03.

 

Key words: Cassava, Garri, Hydrogen cyanide, fermentation, processing

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4

Effect of salt stress on greenhouse cucumber root distribution and root tolerance index in hydroponics cultivation

 

Sanaz Yazdani1, Abd Ali Naseri 2, Abdol Rahim Hooshmand 3, Naser Alemzadeh Ansari4

 

1.Msc Student of irrigation and drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2.Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3.Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
4.Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
Yazdani_sanaz@ymail.com
 

Abstract: The current research was done in a hydroponic culture during fall and winter in 2016 in a research greenhouse in Shahid Chamran Agricultural university of Ahwaz. The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of Irrigation water salinity on root distribution and root tolerance index of greenhouse cucumber including root length, root width, root volume, and root tolerance index. The irrigation was done by drip irrigation. The applied irrigation treatments were included three water need levels of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ds/m which were performed in a randomized complete design. The results of the research showed that salt stress had a significant effect on root length in the level of 1% but had no significant effect on root volume, rot width and root resistance index. It can be concluded that we can use low quality water and nutrient solution of EC=4.5ds/m in regions which lacks high quality water to save fresh water.

[Sanaz Yazdani, Abd Ali Naseri, Abdol Rahim Hooshmand, Naser Alemzadeh Ansari . Effect of salt stress on greenhouse cucumber root distribution and root tolerance index in hydroponics cultivation. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):17-20]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.04.

 

Keywords: Cucumber; Root; Hydroponic Culture; Water Stress

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5

Review On The Role Of Bovine Somatotropin Hormone On Milk Production

 

Sabona Mulugeta, Lishan Asefa, Nagasa Fufa and Tadele Kabeta *

 

Wollega University College of Medical and Health Sciences School of Veterinary Medicine

Email: firanfiri.04@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Biotechnology has the potential to improve the productivity of animals via increase in growth, carcass quality and reduced waste through more efficient utilization of resources. Bovine somatotropin is the first biotechnological product for animal production. Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) is a supplement that increases milk production in healthy lactating cows by increasing activity and/or longevity of mammary secretary cells via Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I and coordinating metabolism of nutrients, allowing farmers to produce safe, nutritious milk without affecting milk composition. Milk from Recombinant bovine somatotropin-supplemented cows, like milk of un-supplemented cow is a good and wholesome source of vital nutrient. Supplemented cows have a greater feed intake to support their increased milk output. Commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin has no adverse effects on animal and human health. The technical constraint use of bovine somatotropin in developing countries will be the cost of bovine somatotropin, disease, lack of awareness about their use, inadequate quality Feed resources and disease condition. Cows which are subjected to poor quality management will be no response to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) supplementation. In order to economic return the recommended use of this technology is only on farms where cows are fed and managed properly.

[Sabona Mulugeta, Lishan Asefa, Nagasa Fufa and Tadele Kabeta. Review On The Role Of Bovine Somatotropin Hormone On Milk Production. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):21-27]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.05.

 

Keywords: biotechnology, dairy cows, milk production, recombinant bovine somatotropin hormone

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Prevalence of ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Jimma Horro district Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia

 

Jiregna Dugassa* Abdu Imana Abraham Kebede

 

Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, college of medical and health sciences, P.O. Box, 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

E-mail: Jiregnadu@gmail.com, Mobile phone no=+251-921-180-037

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with ovine gastrointestinal nematode infestation by faecal examination of 384 sheep from four different Peasant associations (PAs) of Jimma Horro district, Kellem Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Out of the total sampled sheep, 69 (17.9%) had a gastrointestinal nematode infection. Coprological examination showed that Strongyloides (11.9%) were the most frequently recovered nematode eggs followed by Trichuris (5.9%). The eggs per gram (EPG) count were determined using modified McMaster technique. Accordingly, 27 (39.2%), 24 (34.8%) and 18 (26.1%) of the sheep were lightly, moderately and heavily infested respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between age, body condition scores and season (p < 0.05) with prevalence and eggs per gram (EPG) counts, but no between the sexes. In addition, there was a significant difference (p< 0.05) in prevalence among months of the study period. From all the sheep examined in the four PAs, Akko Jirru (31.3%) showed the higher GIT prevalence of nematode infection and samples from Nunnu Innaro (10.4%) showed lower pre-valence of GIT infection of nematodes. There was also statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode infection of sheep between the four PAs. Due to its important health problem and impact on production in the study area, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of gastrointestinal nematode infection with further studies on species identification and larval ecology.

 [Jiregna Dugassa  Abdu Imana  Abraham Kebede. Prevalence of ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Jimma Horro district Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):28-35]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.06.

 

Key words: Gastro intestinal, Infection, Jimma Horro, Nematodes, Prevalence

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7

Seed Treatment: A Good Tool for Potato Crop Management

 

Anoop Badoni

 

Department of Agriculture, Quantum Global Campus, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India

badonianna@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present report is based on the effect of various seed treatments on the yield attributes of potato crop. Higher yield and proper tuber size in terms of seed potato and ware potato is a very important aspect to full fill the requirement of seed potato producers/ farmers and for all the population of the country, because of increasing consumption of potato day by day. The poor fertilizer management i.e. improper use of manures and fertilizers is one of the reasons for poor yield. Dormancy of potato tuber is defined as the physiological state in which autonomous sprout will not occur, even when the tuber is placed under ideal conditions for sprout growth. So Seed treatment may be an important substitute for soil fertilization and a good tool in crop management to maximize yields of crops.

[Anoop Badoni. Seed Treatment: A Good Tool for Potato Crop Management. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):36-39]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.07.

 

Key words: Seed treatment, potato, thio-urea and KMB

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8

Harmful impact of using mobile phone by youngsters

 

Nighat khurseed, Omm-e-hany, Asia Neelam

 

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi

hany786@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mobile phones are commonly used by adolescents. The aim of this study was to clarify associations between duration of mobile phone use and psychological mood in adolescent. This cross-sectional study included 15 largest shopping malls (amongst which Rabi shopping centre Tariq road, KFC (Millennium shopping mall), Mac Donald (Hyderi), Hyper star, Gulf shopping center, Cineplex, are worth mentioning. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on, school year, hours of mobile phone use, psychological mood status, and possible confounders. Overall associations between hours of mobile phone use and total scores were significant for ‘Depressed mood', 'Tension and excitement’ and ‘Fatigue’.

[Nighat khurseed, Omm-e-hany, Asia Neelam. Harmful impact of using mobile phone by youngsters. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):40-43]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.08.

 

Keywords: Adolescent, Cellular phone, Cross-sectional studies and Mood disorders

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9

Response of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed Meal to Varying Soaking Periods

 

Augustine, C.

 

Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

Email: audaggai@gmail.com, GSM +2348132946167

 

Abstract: A laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the effects of varying soaking period on the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors of Senna obtusifolia seeds soaked in water. The seed were subjected to different soaking periods of 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Each representative sample was analysed in triplicates for the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors using standard laboratory procedure. The results indicated a decreasing trend for some of the proximate composition, amino acid profile and level of anti-nutritional factors as the soaking period progresses. Crude protein for instance was observed to decrease from 25.33 to 20.08% and ash 4.11 to 3.01%. The amino acid contents and level of anti-nutritional factors indicated a similar reduction trend. Methionine and lysine decreased from 2.55 to 1.78 g/100g and 1.19 to 0.64g/100g, respectively. While tannins and oxalates decreased from 5.42 to 2.59g/100 g and 1.95 to 0.18g/100g/, respectively. It can be concluded that soaking treatments for up to 24 hours slightly reduced the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of the anti-nutritional factors of Senna obtusifolia seeds. However, soaking for up to 24 hours was more effective in reducing levels of the anti-nutritional factors with less depreciation in the nutritional properties of Senna obtusifolia seeds and is therefore recommended for processing of Senna obtusifolia seeds. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Senna obtusifolia seeds soaked beyond 24 hours.

[Augustine, C. Response of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seed Meal to Varying Soaking Periods. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):44-47]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.09.

 

Keywords: Tropical sickle pod, varying soaking period, proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors

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Study on the Prevalence of GIT Nematode Infection of Small Ruminants in Kurmuk Woreda, Assosa Zone of Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia.

 

1Umer Yasin, 2Bihonegn Wodajnew, 2 Dejen Tsehaineh

 

1 Kurmuk Woreda Agricultural Development Office, Mobile phone: +251913155826

2 Livestock & Fishery Resource Development Agency of Agricultural Bureau, Assosa, Po. Box 30, Mobile Phone: +251920832273, Email: wodajbihonegn19@yahoo.com

[Corresponding Author: Umer Yasin & Bihonegn Wodajnew: umeryasin31@gmail.com wodajbihonegn19@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to June 2017 in kurmuk woreda, Assosa Zone of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia with the objective of determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematodes in Small ruminants. A total of 384 faecal samples were examined using flotation techniques. Out of the total sampled small ruminants (384), 82(21.35%) small ruminants were infested by Gastro intestinal nematodes. The current study showed that age-wise prevalence of nematodes infestation showed no significant difference on both species. However, prevalence of nematodes infestation was significantly higher in young goat (23.8%) & sheep (33.3%) than adult goat (18.2%) & sheep (20.4%). The host species-wise analysis of the data didn’t reveal statistical significant association (X2 = 1.55 & P > 0.05) with prevalence of GI nematodes infestation between both host species of small ruminants. However, higher prevalence of GIT parasites was observed in sheep (26%) than in the goat (20%). The present investigation has revealed significant seasonal variation in the prevalence of nematodes infestation during the study period. In this regard, the prevalence of GIT nematode in wet season (24.9%) was higher than in dry season (17%). Thus, it depicts significantly higher (P = 0.0004) prevalence of nematodes infestation in both hosts during wet season compared to dry season. Gender-wise analysis of the data revealed high significant difference (P = 0.0003) in prevalence of GI nematodes infestation between male and female hosts in both species of small ruminants. In this study, a significant difference was observed in prevalence of nematode infection in relation to body condition score where a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes parasites were recorded in poor and medium body conditioned animals as compared to animals having good body condition. Thus, the current study has explored association of parasitic infestation with various risk factors encompassing gender, age, season, body condition score (body weight) and host species. As recognized in this study, GI nematodes are one of the major problems that could hamper health and productivity of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of gastrointestinal nematode infection with further studies on species identification and larval ecology.

[ Umer Yasin,  Bihonegn Wodajnew,  Dejen Tsehaineh. Study on the Prevalence of GIT Nematode Infection of Small Ruminants in Kurmuk Woreda, Assosa Zone of Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia.. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):48-59]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.10.

 

Key-words: Small ruminant, Nematode, Prevalence, Kurmuk district, Benishangul Gumuz

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Hydatidosis: Prevalence and Assessment of Financial Loss on Bovine Slaughtered at Bedele Municipal Abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia

 

1* Masire Mesay, 2 Bihonegn Wodajnew, 3Hawi Jaleta

 

1* & 3 Wollega university, college of medical and health science school of veterinary medicine, P.O. box 391, nekemte, Ethiopia. Mobile Phone: +251921829946

2 Livestock & Fishery Resource Development Agency of Agricultural Bureau, Benishangul Gumuz Region, Assosa, Ethiopia. Mobile Phone: +251920832273, PO.Box 30, Email: wodajbihonegn19@yahoo.com

[Corresponding author: Masire Mesay, Bihonegn Wodajnew]

 

Abstract: Hydatidosis is the infection of humans and animals caused by the larval stages of genus Echinococcus. A cross- sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at Bedele municipal abattoir, Ilubabore Zone of Oromia Regional State, Southwest Ethiopia. It was aimed to determine the prevalence and estimate financial losses due to hydatid cyst as result of organ condemnation and carcass weight reduction. From the total of 409 cattle examined, 72(17.6 %) were found positive for hydatid cyst infection in one or more of its organs. There was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) with in age group and body conditions score of the animals. However, there were no significant variation observed in sex and origin of animals. Hydatid cyst count and characterization was conducted based on routine meat inspection with laboratory test. The anatomical distribution of the cysts indicated as 143(49.8%) in lung, 130(45.3%) in liver, 3(1.05%) in heart, 6(2.1%) in kidney and 5(1.74%) spleen, respectively. From the 287 cysts collected 65(22.65%), 222(77.35%) are calcified and non-calcified respectively and 107(47.37%), 71(31.98%), and 44(20.65%) were found as small, medium and large cysts respectively. The fertility rate was higher in lung 15 (10.5%) than in liver 10(7.7%) and the rate of calcification is higher in liver 65(50%) than in lung 9(6.3%). The total annual economic loss due to the direct and indirect losses was estimated to be 267,922.42 ETB or ($12,758.21) per annum. This indicated that hydatidosis is a major disease causing significant economic losses in the study area; Control strategies should be initiated taking into account the social, cultural and the economic condition of the people.

[Masire Mesay,   Bihonegn Wodajnew,  Hawi Jaleta . Hydatidosis: Prevalence and Assessment of Financial Loss on Bovine Slaughtered at Bedele Municipal Abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):60-68]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.11.

 

Key words: Bedele, Bovine, Financial loss, Hydatidosis, Prevalence.

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Effects of Varying Soaking Periods followed by Boiling on the Chemical Composition of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seeds

 

Augustine C.

 

Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

Email: audaggai@gmail.com, GSM +2348132946167

 

Abstract: A laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the effects of Varying soaking periods followed by boiling for one hour on the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors of Senna obtusifolia seeds. The representative seed samples were subjected to different soaking periods of 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours followed by boiling each for one hour. Each representative sample was analysed in triplicates for the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors using standard laboratory procedure. The results indicated a decreasing trend for the proximate composition, amino acid profile and level of anti-nutritional factors as the soaking period progresses. Crude protein for instance was observed to decrease from 25.33 to 21.86% crude fibre 11.77 to 6.18% and ash 4.11 to 2.17%. The amino acid contents and level of anti-nutritional factors indicated a similar reduction trend. Methionine and lysine decreased from 2.58 to 0.78g/100g and 1.18 to 0.41g/100g, respectively. While tannins and oxalates for instance decreased from 5.44 to 2.31g/100g and 1.95 to 0.39g/100g, respectively. It can be concluded that soaking for up to 24 hours followed by boiling for one hour is more effective in reducing the level of anti-nutritional factors with little depreciation on the nutritional qualities of Senna obtusifolia seed meal. It is also important to use the processed seeds in a feeding trial with a view to evaluate its feeding values in livestock.

[Augustine C.. Effects of Varying Soaking Periods followed by Boiling on the Chemical Composition of Tropical Sickle Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Seeds. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):69-72]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 12. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.12.

 

Keywords: Senna obtusifolia, varying soaking period, chemical properties

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Investigating the percentage of ownership of the CEO and the size of the company with More financing for IPOs

 

Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamal Abadi1, Seyedh Arezoo Mozafari2, Ftemeh Shirgholami3

 

1(corresponding author), department of accounting, Yazd science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

3Financial expert of University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

mohsen8203934@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: They use various investments which require different finance methods to have close competition with the other firms. The present study seeks to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and overinvestment of IPO firms. The population of this study is composed of the firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange, which has been initially listed on the stock exchange. The sample constitutes of the listed firms from 2005 to 2012. The collected data is analyzed by using the multivariate regression method. The findings reveal that there is a significant direct relationship between CEO ownership and the overinvestment of IPO firms. It is further found that CEO duality and overinvestment are directly associated.

[Hamid Reza Ranjbar Jamal Abadi, Seyedh Arezoo Mozafari, Ftemeh Shirgholami. Investigating the percentage of ownership of the CEO and the size of the company with More financing for IPOs. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):73-78]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 13. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.13.

 

Keywords: directly associated, Overinvestment, Board Members, CEO ownership

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An Analysis Of The Economy Of Pineapple Marketing Among Rubber- Based Farmers

 

Haliru, Y. Umar; Toryila, M. and Abolagba, E.O

 

Research Outreach Department, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria

Correspondence e-mail: haliru.umar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study investigated the economy of pineapple fruit marketing in Edo State. A structural questionnaire was used to solicit information from sixty (60) randomly selected pineapple fruits marketers from the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 93% of the respondents were below 60 years with an average of 42 years, 82% educated and 87% had less than 20 years experience fruit marketing. The study further revealed that the respondents had a total N 130,000 as marketing cost per annum and generated a total revenue of N 2,260,000 per annum. The Gross Margin per respondent was N 35,500.00, while the marketing efficiency ratio (MER) and the profitability ratio (PR) were 1.06 and 9.83 respectively. This implies that pineapple fruit marketing in the study area was profitable and efficient. Based on the major constraints (insufficient credit and fruits spoilage) facing the respondents in the pineapple fruit marketing business, the study recommended that they should organize themselves into registered cooperative societies for self financial support and to be able to have easy access to financial institutions and government and other credit agencies. The marketers should endeavor to provide adequate storage and processing facilities as well as power supply alternative sources to avoid deterioration of the pineapple fruits in order to increase their returns on capital invested.

[Haliru, Y. Umar; Toryila, M. and Abolagba, E.O . An Analysis Of The Economy Of Pineapple Marketing Among Rubber- Based Farmers. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):79-83]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 14. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.14.

 

Key Words: Intercrop, Gross Margin, Marketing Efficiency, Pineapple.

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Synthesis and characterization of size tunned CdS Quantum dots

 

Dr Jyotsna Chauhan*, Dr varsha Rani Mehto, Deepika Soni

 

*HOD Department of Nanotechnology, Rajiv Ganhi Techanical University, Bhopal (M.P.), India

*Corresponding authors E-mail- jyotsnachauhan2006@gmail.com

 

Abstract: CdS nanoparticles are synthesized using chemical precipitation at room temperature. Cadmium sulfide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest for their practical applications in up to electronics and photonics. The optical properties get modified due to the confinement of charge carrier within the nanoparticles. The physical and chemical properties of thus nanoparticles are found to be size dependent. The crystallite sizes of cadmium sulfide crystals were estimated from the peaks of XRD. The optical properties of the samples were estimated by UV visible spectroscopy. The functional groups present in the synthesized CdS materials are identified by FTIR analysis. XRD is used to carry out the structural characterization of the nanoparticles. The coloration of the nanoparticle is directly linked to the band gap. The color of the emitted light depends on the size of the quantum dots, the larger the quantum dots size, the redder the light.

[Dr Jyotsna Chauhan, Dr varsha Rani Mehto, Deepika Soni. Synthesis and characterization of size tunned CdS Quantum dots. Rep Opinion 2017;9(10):84-93]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 15. doi:10.7537/marsroj091017.15.

 

Keywords: XRD; FTIR; UV; chemical precipitation method

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2017 Marsland Press