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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

(Rep Opinion)

ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online), doi prefix:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Issue 11, Cumulated 101,  November 25, 2017

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Theoretical Study Of The Refractive Index Of A Deformed Metal

 

Adesakin G. E.

 

Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

G-mail of corresponding author: adesakingbenga@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this work, a generalized model developed by Kumar and Singh (2010) for calculating the refractive index and energy band gap of different semiconducting material is extended to the study of the effect of linear deformation on the refractive index of metals by using the free electron theory to obtain the energy gap of metals and used in this work. The electron density parameters of deformed metals under the application of different strains were obtained for different metals. The poison ratio relating the transversal compression to elongation in the direction of applied deformation for different elemental metals were computed using elastic moduli for homogeneous isotropic material and used in this work. The result obtained revealed that the refractive index of metals increases as the electron density parameter increases with the metals in the high density region having low refractive index while metals in the low density region has high refractive index. This could be due to the fact that refractive index of metals depend on the electronic concentration. There is agreement between the experimental and computed value of refractive index. The experimental value used in this work is theoretically obtained from solid state physics by Charles Kittel. The refractive index of all the metals investigated in this work increases as deformation increases. This increase in refractive index of all the metals could be due to an increase in the inter-atomic spacing between the electrons in the metals which forces the refractive index of all the metals to increase as deformation increases.

[Adesakin G. E. Theoretical Study Of The Refractive Index Of A Deformed Metal. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):1-7]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 1. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.01.

 

Keywords: deformation, energy gap, semiconductor, poison ratio, refractive index, valence electron, frequency, electronic concentration.

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Investigating the effect of partial root zone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on tomato leaf components in hydroponic culture

 

Mohammad Hooshmand1, Mohammad Albaji 2, Saeed Boroomand nasab 3, Naser Alam zadeh Ansari4

 

1. M.Sc student of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. moham.m72@gmail.com

2. Asistant professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3. Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

4. Associate Professor of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: This research was carried out in the greenhouse complex of agriculture in shahid chamran university of ahvaz in 2016. This study has investigated the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and partial root zone drying (PRD) on tomato under hydroponic culture conditions. The treatments of experiment consisted of five treatments: RDI irrigation at 85 and 70% of plant water requirement and PRD irrigation at 85 and 70% of the plant water requirement, and control treatment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that methods and different levels of deficit irrigation on indicators of fresh weight of leaves, dry weight of leaves, leaves water content, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area ratio (LAR) and leaf number does not have a significant effect. The highest leaf components was observed in PRD85 treatments and the lowest in PRD70 treatments. According to the results, PRD85 treatment seems to be the best treatment for the formation of tomato leaves in hydroponic culture.

[M. Hooshmand, M. Albaji, S. Boroomand nasab and N. Aalmzadeh Ansari. Investigating the effect of partial root zone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on tomato leaf components in hydroponic culture. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):8-13]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 2. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.02.

 

Keywords: Partial root zone drying, Tomato, Deficit irrigation, Hydroponics

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Synthesis and characterization and comparative studies of Ni, Cu, Mn, Co, Fe doped ZnO

 

Jyostna Chauhan*1, Varsha R Mehto2 and Shikha gangwar

 

1HOD SONT, Rajiv Ganhi Techanical University, Bhopal (M.P.)

2Rajiv Ganhi Techanical University, Bhopal (M.P.)

*Corresponding author: jyotsnachauhan2006@gmail.com

 

Abstract: ZnO is a typical II-IV semiconductor exhibiting excellent electrical, optical and chemical properties with band gap energy (EG) of 3.1-3.4 eV. It has a very large excitation binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature, which is very close to that of TiO2. It is considered to be more suitable for photocatalysis applications due to its high photosensitivity, and chemical stability. Recently, special interest has been shown in its morphology as ZnO can form various nanostructures suitable for a variety of applications in UV-shielding materials, gas sensors, biosensors, semiconductors, piezoelectric devices, field emissions displays, photocatalytic degradations of pollutants and antimicrobial treatments [1-3]. Several physical parameters such as surface area, particle size, surface charge, and zeta potential of a material are very important for its applications and functions. These physical factors of nanoparticles govern the stability, persistence and chemical or biological activities inside the living cells. ZnO nanoparticles are non-toxic, bio-safe and biocompatible and have been found in many biological applications in daily life. ZnO has been used extensively in the formulation of many personal care products such as calamine lotion, sunscreen lotion etc [4]. In this paper, novel electrical, mechanical, chemical and optical properties are introduced, which are largely believed to be the result of surface and quantum confinement effects [5].

[Jyostna Chauhan, Varsha R Mehto  and Shikha gangwar. Synthesis and characterization and comparative studies of Ni, Cu, Mn, Co, Fe doped ZnO. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):14-29]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 3. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.03.

 

Keywords: Synthesis; characterization; comparative study; Ni; Cu; Mn; Co; Fe; ZnO

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Strategies to Develop Communicative Competence in English among Undergraduate Students of Jazan University

 

Dr. Sobhana Nandyal Panduranga (Faculty), Ms. Seham Arishi (Head)

 

Dept. of English, College of Sciences & Arts, Samtah Campus, Jazan University, KSA

sobhananandyal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present research study aimed to analyze, design material and conduct an intervention program to develop Communicative competence in English among undergraduate students of Jazan University. It comprised of both survey and experimental types of research. Survey included 30 English teachers and 100 student participants from three campuses (Academic Campus-2, Al-Dayer and Samtah) of Jazan University. Questionnaires were administered to measure the existing level of physical facilities, instructional facilities, classroom activities, students’ evaluation and needs of students in English classrooms. Experimental study adopted pretest and post test research design. Competency based achievement test and questionnaires were the instruments to collect data from the students. The experimental sample included 90 student participants from Department of English, Samtah campus. The sample was divided into two groups, experimental and controlled. A teaching package (Teaching and Learning Material) was designed based on Communicative approach to develop communicative competence in English among the students of the experimental group. The statistical techniques that were used were measures of central tendency, chi-square test,’t’ test and ANOVA.

The results and findings indicated a significant improvement in the subjects’ communicative competence during the period of the research study. Communicative activities were based on Communicative learning and Co-operative learning, as they are effective communication strategies in an ESL classroom to improve communicative competence in English among the students. The student-student interaction helped to obtain ideas and negotiate with each other. They were enriched with potential in using appropriate vocabulary and expressions in real life communication. This created a beneficial/congenial environment/interactive ambiance for the subjects to learn the target language. Exposure to target language helped the subjects to become competent in communication.

The research study suggested a model comprising of language competence, socio-linguistic competence and pragmatic competence that will lead to an overall development of communicative competence in English. In a broader context, the research findings recommended that the students should practice more based on the suggested plan to eventually develop communicative competence in English. It has also proposed curricular reforms in the English curriculum of undergraduates. If the recommendations could be implemented well, it will greatly benefit the English Language Teaching and learning process in the near future.

[Sobhana Nandyal Panduranga, Seham Arishi. Strategies to Develop Communicative Competence in English among Undergraduate Students of Jazan University. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):30-47]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 4. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.04.

 

Key Words: Communicative competence, communicative approach, communicative activities & ELT.

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Major causes of organ condemnation in cattle and sheep slaughtered at Motta abattoir North-West Ethiopia.

 

Birara Ayalneh1, Balemual Abebaw2

 

1. College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Paraclinical Studies, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

2. College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: The Study was conducted from July 2011 up to September 2011 to determine the major causes of organ condemnation at Matta abattoir. Through meat inspection procedures requires two steps. Ante mortem inspection attempts to avoid introduction of clinically diseased animals in to the slaughter. During postmortem inspection liver, lung, heart, kidney and tongue as well as carcass were thoroughly inspected by visualization, palpation and systemic incision. The major pathological findings detected in the organ during postmortem inspection were calcification, hydatidcyst, fasciolosis, abscess, nephritis, imperfect bleeding and C. bovis were detected in the organ. A total of 110 cattle and 17 ovine were inspected during ante mortem inspection and the following abnormalities were diagnosed. Bovine horn damage 1(0.9%) was diagnosed and passed for emergency slaughter through post mortem examination. Examination of 110 cattle was studied during post mortem examination and the result revealed that 48(43.6%) liver total condemnation, 10(9.1%) lung total condemnation, 11(10%) liver partial condemnation, 7(6.4%) partial condemnation of lung, 1(0.9%) partial condemnation of kidney, 1(0.9%) total condemnation of heart. And also 17 ovine was studied during post mortem inspection and the result revealed that 5(29.4%) liver total condemnation, 6( 35.3 %) liver partial condemnation, 1(5.9%) total condemnation of kidney, 1(5.9%) tongue conditionally approved, due to gross abnormalities.

[Birara Ayalneh, Balemual Abebaw. Major causes of organ condemnation in cattle and sheep slaughtered at Motta abattoir North-West Ethiopia.. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):48-52]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 5. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.05.

 

Key words: Ante mortem, Bovine, Condemnation, Motta abattoir, Organ, Ovine, Post mortem

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Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Pawi District of the Benishngul Gumuz Region, North Western Ethiopia

1Muleta Kubi 1Birhanu Eticha, and 2Akenaw Wogari

1 Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Pawi Woreda Agriculture Office, Almu, Ethiopia.
1 Benishangul Gumuz Regional State Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O.Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia; e-mail: brihanueticha12@gmail.com
2 Wollega University School of Health Science and Veterinary Medicine, Nekemte, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in Pawi district of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, North-western Ethiopia from November 2016 to February 2017 to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis, prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks of the disease. Blood samples collected from (n=300) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffycoat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 22 (7.33%) prevalence was recorded. The infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense 10/22 (45.45%), Trypanosoma vivax 6/22(27.27%), Trypanosoma vivax, 3/22(33.64%), Trypanosoma brucie and 3/22 (13.64%) mixed infection with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax was recoreded. The infection rate amongst trypanosomes species was found statistically significant (P<0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of the parasitaemic animals was lower (19.16% + 4.51) than aparasitaemic animals (27.92 % + 3.01) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.05). An overall 176/300 (58.67 %) prevalence of anemia was recorded and it was significantly higher (90.90%) in infected cattle than in non-infected (9.9 %). Higher prevalence 14/117(11.97 %) was registered in animals with poor body condition when compared to animals with medium 5/113(4.42%) and good 3/70(4.29%) body condition and it was found statistically significant (P<0.05). Significant association was not recorded within study sites, age categories and between sex groups (P> 0.05) of study animals. In conclusion, the result of the current study showed that the disease is economically important in the study district calling for devising strategic and participatory control efforts.
[Muleta K., Birhanu E. and Akenaw W. Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Pawi District of the Benishngul Gumuz Region, North Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):53-59]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 6. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.06.

Key words: Pawi District, PCV, Risk Factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis.

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A study on Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Associated Risk Factors in Bulen District of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia

1Ferede Zalka 2Birhanu Eticha, and 3Wolkite Fargosa

1 Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Bulen Woreda Agriculture Office, Bulen, Ethiopia.
2 Benishangul Gumuz Regional State Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Agency, P.O. Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia; e-mail: brihanueticha12@gmail.com
3 Wollega University School of Veterinary medicine, Nekemte, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out from December 2016 to March, 2017 in Bulen district of the Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia to determine prevalence of bovine trypanosomosi and associated risk factors. Blood samples collected from (n= 306) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall,18/306(5.88%) prevalence was recorded. The infection was caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense 11/18(66.11%), Trypanosoma vivax 6/18(13.5%) andto less extent by Trypanosoma brucei 1/18(5.56%). The infection rate was statistically significant among difference trypanosome species (P<0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of parasitaemic animals was lower (18.21% + 4.11) than aparasitaemic animals (28.12% +2.67) and the variation wasstatistically significant (P>0.05). Higher prevalence 11/80 (13.75%) was registered in animals with poor body condition animals when compared with animals medium 5/147(3.40%) and good 2/77(2.60%) body condition and the difference was found statistically significant (p<0.05). Incontrast, prevalence oftrypanosomosis was not statistically significant across study sites, amongage categories and between sex groups (P> 0.05). To wrapup, the result of the present finding shows moderately high prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study sites indicating the need for strategic and integrated approach to control the vector and to minimize the impact of the disease in the study district.
[Ferede Z, Birhanu E, and Wolkite F. A study on Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Associated Risk Factors in Bulen District of the Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):60-67]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 7. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.07.

Keywords: Bulen District, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis

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8

Impact of Social Context in Online Shopping Behaviour

 

Dr. J. Sekkizhar1, R.N. Balamurugan2, Dr. D. Jublee3

 

1Assistant Professor (SG), PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore, India

E-mail: sekkizhar@psgim.ac.in

2Assistant Professor (SG), PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore, India

E-mail: bala@psgim.ac.in

3Professor Karunya University Business School, Coimbatore, India

 

Abstract: Purpose The primary aim of this paper is to how social context such as family, external factors and interpersonal factors would impact on the attitude, trust, shopping enjoyment and shopping experience in online shopping. Design/methodology/approach The descriptive study was conducted through using survey questionnaire and sampling technique is Snowball. Findings Online consumer shopping behavior comes by attitude, trust, shopping enjoyment and shopping experience which is directly influenced by social context. Research limitations/implications Providing a brief review online retailing is an extremely ambitious especially given the amount of literature that has been published in this area. When some variables are considered, it is inevitable that many important pieces of work will have been either missed or underplayed. Consequently, there is a need for follow-up studies that aim to confirm certain theories. Originality/value: This study presents one of the attempting to do modeling the theoretical relation between the variables under study.

[J. Sekkizhar, R.N. Balamurugan, D. Jublee. Impact of Social Context in Online Shopping Behaviour. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):68-73]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 8. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.08.

 

Keywords: Online shopping, consumer behavior, Social context, Attitude, Trust, Shopping enjoyment and Shopping experience

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The study of the economic effects of smuggling goods in the country

Seyed Mahmoud Mosavi1, Dr. Amir Dibaie2*

1,2 Department of law, Faculty of Humanities, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran
Corresponding Author: Dr. Amir Dibaie 2*
richard_m.aron@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trafficking in the secret transfer of point to another is one thing that can be done a variety of different shapes and hidden arrangements. In terms of customs and other government collection, the purpose of trafficking, ferret goods from payment of taxes and duties And transfer and its sales are illegal and prohibited. It is strong in the Third World under the direction and management of global and of course the control and management aspects related to The political dimension of national security, economic and socio-cultural and is connected to the arrogant powers for the purpose of profit and plunder of national resources in developing countries and tapping the policy and The wide-spread movement have begun and in this way to steal the country's resources. No doubt smuggling economy- The production, investment, exports and employment have affected and their impact on it. The most important negative effect of smuggling, its impact on investment. In the meantime, some products organized and directed with the aim of attacking the values and ethical standards and are trafficked to the country in terms of cultural and And increase the gap, wasting national resources, weakening efficiently, reducing hopes of national and public security to reduce the negative consequences of trafficking was political Iran shares borders with seven countries to have foreign (through land border) with different cultures and contrary to Iranian-Islamic culture has always been, Some special attention to economic and physical exploitation and also attracted the attention of others to Politically and culturally and hit the Islamic Republic of Iran was and is (like Turkey and Armenia Culturally and adherence to ethics in rank very low in comparison with the cultural communities affected by the rich culture of Islam). n this article smuggling economic effects on the country's economic system is reviewed and assessed.
[Seyed Mahmoud Mosavi, Amir Dibaie. The study of the economic effects of smuggling goods in the country. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):74-78]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 9. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.09.

Key words: Smuggling, economic effects, economic security, policy, legislative, confront and combat the trafficking phenomenon.

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Review on the Epidemiology of African Horse Sickness

Enyiew Alemnew Alamerew, Andualem Yimmer and Habtamu Addis

Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center, Livestock Research Directorate
gmail: alemnewenyiew@gmail.com

 

Abstract: African horse sickness (AHS) virus causes a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod-borne disease of equines and occasionally of dogs. The virus is widely distributed across sub-Saharan African where it is transmitted between susceptible vertebrate hosts by the vectors. These are usually considered to be species of Culicoides biting midges but mosquitoes and/or ticks may also be involved to a greater or lesser extent. Periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its sub-Saharan enzootic zones but until recently does not appear to have been able to maintain itself outside these areas for more than 2-3 consecutive years at most. This is probably due to a number of factors including the apparent absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the vectors and the efficiency of control measures (vaccination and vector abatement). Natural infection occurs in Equidae, the most severe disease occurring in horses, with mules, donkeys and zebras showing lesser degrees of susceptibility in that order. AHS has both a seasonal and an epizootic cyclical incidence. The disease most commonly occurs in late summer to early autumn, and after periods of drought followed by heavy rains because the warm, moist conditions are optimal for vector breeding. There are a number of factors that decide the outcome in the horse that is bitten by a midge infected by AHS virus, including the virulence of the individual virus serotype and the immune status of the horse, however when the disease first appears in an area, affected equines should be eliminated immediately, and the non-infected equines vaccinated with polyvalent vaccine and rested for a week.
[Enyiew Alemnew Alamerew, Andualem Yimmer and Habtamu Addis. Review on the Epidemiology of African Horse Sickness. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):79-86]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 10. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.10.

Key words: African horse sickness, Clucoids, Epidemiology, Epizootics, Horse

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Cost And Return Analysis Of Sugarcane Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State Nigeria

 

Anaryu B. Wahu, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and extension, Faculty of Agricultural sciences. Adamawa State University Mubi. Adamawa State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s Email: jzalkwi4u@gmail.com

 

AbstractThis study analysed the cost and return of sugarcane production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State Nigeria. The objective was to estimate the cost and returns in sugarcane production. Sample sizes of 80 sugarcane farmers were selected using multi-stage sampling technique and administered with well-structured questionnaire to generate primary data. Descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques (gross margin) were used as analytical tools for the study. Results shows that majority (97.5%) of the farmers were male and fall within the age of 41 years and above. About 25% of them had no formal education; while 75% have one form of education or the other. They cultivate average farm size of 1-2ha. The average total revenue/ha, average variables cost/ha, gross margin, average gross margin/ha, average total fixed cost/ha and the net from income were N500,762.50, N222,156.06, N65,828,933.94, N168,852.44, N9091 and N26915.44 respectively. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that, the study area had great and substantial potential to increase sugarcane farmers’ income, if efforts are made for the widespread of new technologies.

[Anaryu B. Wahu, Joyce D Moses and Jimjel Zalkuwi. Cost And Return Analysis Of Sugarcane Production In Mubi North Local Government Area Of Adamawa State Nigeria. Rep Opinion 2017;9(11):87-92]. ISSN 1553-9873 (print); ISSN 2375-7205 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/report. 11. doi:10.7537/marsroj091117.11.

 

Keywords: Cost; Return Analysis; Sugarcane; Production; In Mubi North Local Government; Adamawa State; Nigeria

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