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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 8), February 16, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

1

Prevalence of Rabies Virus Antigens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Yola, Nigeria

 

Aliyu, T. B1. , *De, N1. , Yenda, E.N2 And Lynn, .M1

1. Department of Microbiology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B.2076, Yola, Nigeria. Phone: +2348053518540,

2. Health Services Management Board, P.M.B. 1082, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria

e-mail: ebeny@justice.com

 

Abstract: Fifty dog heads were collected from apparently healthy dogs slaughtered in Jambutu, Army Barracks, Borronji and Mbamba wards of Adamawa State, Nigeria. These were subjected to Microscopic examination of Negri bodies (M.E.N.) and Fluorescent Antibody Test (F.A.T) for the examination of rabies virus antigen. Investigations were done on the following parameters: age, type of tissues, sex, location and nature of management to see the relationship with rabies antigen presence in apparently healthy dogs slaughtered in the different locations. Out of 50 samples, 22 (44%) of them using F.A.T and 13 (26%) of them using M.E.N were found to be positive for rabies antigen. The findings for this work revealed that there is no significant statistical difference in age, sex, nature of management, types of tissues and locations in respect to the positivity or presence of rabies virus antigen at p0.05. The results of this work has now provided a basis for the reassessment of dog bite cases for the institution of proper prophylactic cover for human and dog populations. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):1-14]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.01

 

Keywords: Prevalence; Rabies Virus; Antigens

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2

Study of Physical-Chemical Variables and Primary Productivity in Bacanga River Estuary Dam, Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil

Ana Paula P. Carvalho1*, Tang Zhonghua1, Maria Marlucia F. Correia2 & Jose Policarpo C. Neto2

 

1 China University of Geosciences, 388 LuMo road, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China. Zip code 430074

2Federal University of Maranhao, Labohidro, Campus do Bacanga S/N, Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil.

*app_carvalho@yahoo.com.br

 

Abstract: The study of the biological variables and the physical-chemical characterization of the aquatic ecosystems it is an important tool as subsidy not only in the characterization of the environment, but also in the capacity of recharge and sustainable use of the livings resources. The present work approaches the study of the primary productivity related with the physical and chemical variables of the Bacanga river estuary dam (BRED). To study the variables in the water column, samples were taken from four depths according to the light penetration (Subsurface, 50%, 25% and 1%) at a single sampling station during the dry and rainy season. The following variable had been analyzed: pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, light attenuation coefficient, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, ammonium, the phytoplankton community - qualitative and quantitative - chlorophyll and primary productivity. The GPP of phytoplankton ranged from 10.0mg.C.m-3.h-1to 752.5mg.C.m-3.h-1. The consumption showed the highest value of 1556.7mg.O2.m-3.h-1 and lowest of 0.0mg.O2.m-3.h-1, while NPP ranged from -369.3mg.O2.m-3.h-1 and 702.5mg.O2.m-3.h-1. A total of 41 taxa were found, being primarily distributed in 7 groups of microalgae: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Crysophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrophyta. The phytoplankton biomass of BRED ranged from 97.460cells/L (Oct/04 and May/05) to 43.359.370cells/L (Feb/05). The values for the diversity index ranged from 1.06bit.ind-1 to 1.56bit.ind-1, richness from 1.07 to 2.08 and equitability from 0.48 to 0.60. The highest value of diversity, richness and equitability was recorded in February/05, while May/05 and October/04 had the same value for the Diversity Index. For BRED was possible to infer that the contribution of nitrogen and phosphate compounds increased during the rainy season, which could be explained by the increase of water in the drainage system. The gotten results had been important to evaluate the quality of the water of BRED. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):15-24]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.02

 

Keywords: Bacanga River; phytoplankton; primary productivity; physical-chemical variables

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3

Model for Computational Analysis of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Temperature Dependent Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore

 

Chukwuka I. Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering,Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Model for computational analysis of the concentration of sulphur removed during temperature dependent oxidation (by potassium chlorate) of iron oxide ore has been derived. The model was found to predict the concentration of sulphur removed, very close to the corresponding %S values obtained from the actual experimental process. It was found that the model is dependent on the values of the treatment temperature used during the desulphurization process. The validity of the model is believed to be rooted in the expression [(T)β%S] = γ/kn where both sides of the expression are approximately equal to 2. The positive or negative deviation of each of the model-predicted values of %S from those of the corresponding experimental values was found to be less than 21% which is quite within the range of acceptable deviation limit of experimental results, hence showing the validity and usefulness of the model for computational and predictive analysis.[Researcher. 2010;2(2):25-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.03

 

Keywords: Model, Sulphur Removed, Iron Oxide Ore, Oxidation, Potassium Chlorate

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4

Model for Evaluation of Quantity of Heat Absorbed by Hydrogen Peroxide Solution relative to Solution Temperature during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore

 

Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye1* and Chinedu Chris Nwakwuo2

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

2Department of Material Science, Oxford University, United Kingdom

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Model for evaluating the quantity of heat absorbed by hydrogen peroxide solution relative to solution temperature (during leaching of iron oxide ore) has been derived and validated. The values of the absorbed heat as predicted by the model: Q = e(0.195T) was found to agree with those obtained from the experiment in showing that the leaching process is endothermic in nature, culminating in the positive values of the absorbed heat. It was found that the validity of the model stems on the expression ln Q = NT where both sides of the equation are approximately equal to 5. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted quantities of absorbed heat from the corresponding experimental values is less than 25% which is quite within the acceptable range of deviation limit of experimental results. [Researcher 2010:2(2):30-36] (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.04

 

Keywords: Model, Heat absorbed, Hydrogen peroxide, Leaching, Iron oxide ore, Solution temperature

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5

TREE/SHRUBS SPECIES DIVERSITY OF EHOR FOREST RESERVE IN UHUNMWODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE, NIGERIA

 

Jane Ihenyen, Mensah, J.K and Okoegwale, E.E

Department of Botany, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. inejanet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tropical forests are the richest and the most diverse ecosystem on earth but are unsustainably over exploited despite legislation to control their exploitation. This study was therefore undertaken to assess the effects of such uncontrolled exploitation on the tree/shrub diversity of Ehor Forest Reserve. Five sample plots of 30 m x 30 m were laid out in each of compartments 81, 95 and 112 of 160 hectres each. Ninety-eight species of trees/shrub distributed in 87 genera and 36 families were identified. Fifteen of these families were monospecific while the others had two or more species. Fabaceae was the most diverse with 18 species. Ninety-one percent of all the species encountered were trees while the remaining nine percent were shrubs. Compartment 81 had the highest number of species (61) while compartment 95 had the least (54 species). Twenty-four species were common to the three compartments. Celtis zenkeri was the most abundant with 157 tree stands out of the 2064 stands encountered. The inverse of Simpson’s diversity indices calculated for compartments 81, 95 and 112 were 25.0, 31.3 and 21.7 indicating some measure of heterogeneity within the compartments. The Sorensen’s similarity indices were 45.3%, 41.4% and 43.6% for paired compartments of 81 and 95, 95 and 112 and 81 and 112 respectively. These values indicated that there is no much variability between the compartments of study. The presence of monospecific families and the low density of the species also showed that a number of these species are under threat of extinction. So exploitation should be drastically reduced to allow the Ehor Forest Reserve to regenerate itself. [Researcher 2010:2(2):37-49] (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.05

 

Keywords: Diversity index, similarity index, monospecific, exploitation, compartment

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6

Diversity and Present Status of Medicinal Plants in and around Srinagar Hydroelectric Power Project in Garhwal Himalaya, India: Needs for Conservation

Jay Krishan Tiwari1, Radha Ballabha1 and Prabhawati Tiwari1

 

1. Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand- 246 174, India

Authors E-mail: jktiwari31@rediffmail.com, radhekuniyal.2007@rediffmail.com, ptiwari29@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study has been carried out in Alaknanda valley around Srinagar Hydroelectric Power Project in Garhwal Himalaya, India, to document the medicinal uses of plants and their status of availability in the area. A total of 102 species belonging to 92 genera and 54 families were recorded from the study area. Out of the documented species 32 were herbs, 27 shrubs, 30 trees and the rest 13 were climbers. Of all the recorded plant species, 26 were abundant, 57 common and 19 uncommon to this area. A list of plant species along with their local names, plant part(s) used and mode of administration in different ailments has been given which can be utilized in the future for technological advancement, economic prosperity and providing employment opportunity to the local people. A management plan for conservation of medicinal plants in the hydroelectric power project area is also suggested. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):50-60]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.06

 

Keywords: Hydroelectric Power Project, Garhwal Himalaya, plant diversity, ethno-medicine, distribution status, conservation

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7

SusMiRTrain: ab initio SVM classifier for porcine microRNA precursor prediction

Peng-Fang Zhou , Fei Zhang, Zhen-Hua Zhao, Wen-Qian Zhang, Wen-Chao Lin, Yang Zhang, De-Li Zhang

Investigation Group of Molecular Virology, Immunology, Oncology & Systems Biology, Center for Bioinformatics, and Research Laboratory of Virology, Immunology & Bioinformatics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, P.R.China

Corresponding author: zhangdeli@tsinghua.org.cn

 

Abstract: MicroRNA (miRNA), which is short non-coding RNA, plays important roles in almost all biological processes examined. Several classifiers have been applied to predict humans, mice and rats precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs), but no classifier is applied to classify porcine pre-miRNAs only based on the porcine pre-miRNAs because of the little known miRNA component in the porcine genome. Here, we developed a novel classifier, called SusMiRTrain, to predict porcine pre-miRNAs. Trained on 60 porcine pre-miRNAs and 65 pseudo porcine hairpins, SusMiRTrain achieved 86.4% (5-fold cross-validation accuracy) and 0.9144 (ROC score). Tested on the remaining 14 porcine pre-miRNAs and 1000 pseudo hairpins, it reported 100% (sensitivity), 87.3% (specificity) and 87.5% (accuracy),respectively. Furthermore, a Java package, called SusMiRPred, was developed to filter out the short sequences which have not the pre-miRNAs structure features and to extract features for porcine pre-miRNAs prediction. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):61-63]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.07

 

Key words: MicroRNA; Swine; SVM

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8

Application of GC/MS Quantitation in the Adsorption of Herbicide by Sorbents from two Abundant Nut Shells

 

Itodo A.U.1, Abdulrahman F.W.2, Hassan L.G3, Maigandi S.A.4, Itodo H.U5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

itodoson2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Economically viable remediation technique based on adsorption by locally made Groundnut shells (GS) and Sheanut shells (SS) biosorbents was proposed to improve the ecological system. Samples were employed to investigate the removal of organochlorine herbicide (atrazine) from waste water as it was evidently proven. GC/MS quantitation experiment based on external standard method was performed and demonstrated over 95% atrazine removal. The equilibrium study showed that SS/A/25 adsorbed up to 66.324% Atrazine. The entire filters however shows a good competitive adsorption (18.736-22.977gdm-3) but lower than the commercially available M&B reference carbon, with uptake of 23.731 out of 25.00gdm-3 . Adsorption of herbicide at different level by the different sorbent was linked to their activating agent and physicochemical parameters such as density (0.125-0.496) and porosity (0.833-0.975) which were determined based on swellings. Other parameter investigated include sorption capacities (qe).The major results support the conclusion that the sorted Agro-wastes has the potential to serve as extractants adsorbents in remediation process. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):64-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.08

 

Keywords: GCMS, herbicide, activated carbon, adsorption.nut shells

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9

Intraparticle Diffusion and Intraparticulate Diffusivities of Herbicide on Derived Activated Carbon

Itodo A.U.1, Abdulrahman F.W.2, Hassan L.G3, Maigandi S.A.4, Itodo H.U5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

itodoson2002@yahoo.com

Abstract: Three fundamental relationships were applied to study the mode of transport of Atrazine sorption onto derived Poultry based sorbent. Intraparticle diffusion rate constant via percentage uptake method ( kid = 61.094 mgg-1 min -1(1/2) ) is closely related to that which was based on qt and t1/2 (72.41 (mgg-1 min -1(1/2)). This supports an enhanced rate of adsorption which is linked to improved bonding. Deviation from validity test for sorption mechanism is an indication that intraparticle transport is not the only rate limiting step .For particulate diffusivity study, Fractional attainment of equilibrium (αe) was utilized to investigate if sorption equilibrium is either film-diffusion controlled or particle-diffusion controlled. At equilibrium, the fraction of sorbate (Atrazine) on the adsorbent include; 0.9335, 0.9740, 0.9819, 0.9922 and 1.00 at 60,120,180,240 and 300 minutes respectively. It thus implies that equilibrium time for this analysis is 300 minutes. The sorption is particle diffusion controlled (transport of the sorbate through the sorbent-sample interphase onto the pores of the sorbent) with rate coefficient for particle diffusion controlled process (kp ) of 0.011.Hence, the diffusivity of Atrazine onto the adsorbent surface is independent of the extent of sorption. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):74-86]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.09

 

Key words: GCMS, Intraparticulate Diffusivities, Herbicide, Activated Carbon, Atrazine

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10

THE AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME: ITS ROLES, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN NIGERIA’S QUEST FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

NWOSU, F. O; N.N.O. OGUOMA; N.G. BEN-CHENDO; A. HENRI-UKOHA

. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo state

ofnwosu@yahoo.com; nnooguoma@yahoo.com; gnbenchendo@yahoo.co.uk; haukoha@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) is a policy instrument of the Federal Government of Nigeria on Agricultural Credit. The Scheme was established by Decree Number 20 of 1977 but started effectively in 1978. The Scheme was established to provide guarantee on loans granted by banks to farmers for agricultural production and agro-allied processing. This paper, therefore, tried to review the scheme, its roles since inception, problems and prospects in contributing towards the nation’s agricultural development. It was concluded that since credit is needed for enhanced productivity and agricultural development, the three tiers of government in Nigeria should give the scheme the necessary support and publicity so that farmers ( particularly small farmers) can benefit from its laudable objectives. This will go a long way in ameliorating the seemingly dismal output of our farmers. [Researcher.2009;2(2):87-90].(ISSN:1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.10

 

KEYWORDS: Agricultural Development; Credit Guarantee; Farm Productivity, Food insecurity

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11

EFFECT OF ORGANIC, ORGANOMINERAL AND NPK FERTILIZER ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF AMARANTHUS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

 

1Makinde, E.A. 2*Ayeni, L. S and., 3Ojeniyi, S.O1 4Odedina J.N.

 

1Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.

2University of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Land Management, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Crop Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria.

4University of Agriculture, College of Plant Science, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2* Author for correspondence. leye_sam@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: In Nigeria, organic fertilizers are being developed from organic and farm wastes and these can be fortified with inorganic. Therefore eight fertilizer treatments namely: (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) Pacesetter Grade B organic fertilizer (PGB) at 3t/ha 100%, (3) 300 kg/ha NPK fertilizer, (4) PGB + NPK fertilizer (75:25), (5) PGB + NPK (50:50), (6) Kola pod husk (KPH) at 3t/ha 100%, (7) KPH + NPK (75:25), and (8) KPH + NPK (50:50), were applied to amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus). Residual effect on second and third crops was also studied. Proximate analysis was done to determine crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract (EE). The PGB and KPH alone or combined with reduced level of NPK generally increased CP, ash and EE significantly on immediate and residual basis. The organic fertilizers had more residual effect than NPK. Organic materials alone or combined with NPK reduced CF especially on residual basis. Compared with organic materials, NPK gave least values of CP, ash, CF and EE. Application of KPH + NPK (50:50), KPH and PGB gave highest values of CP and ash respectively. Integrated application of organic fertilizers and NPK gave highest values of EE in order PGB + NPK (50:50), KPH + NPK (50:50), and PGB + NPK (75:25). Organic fertilizers and OMF maintain adequate CP and EE in first and second crops whereas NPK did not maintain adequate CP in second crop. [Researcher. 2010;2(2):91-96]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.11

 

Key Words: Ash, crude protein, fibre, residual effect, integration

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.01

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.02

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doi:10.7537/marsrsj020210.11

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