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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 10), April 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Reserach0204
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: marslandresearcher@gmail.com

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

1

Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as Influenced by Farmyard Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer

 

Eifediyi E. K and S. U. Remison

Department of Crop Science, Ambrose Alli University, P.M.B. 14, Ekpoma, Nigeria

Email: keveifediyi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. The growth and yield of Ashley variety of cucumber in response to the effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer NPK 20:10:10 was evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria Lat 6o 451 N and long 6o 081E..The farmyard manure was applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10t/ha and the inorganic fertilizer at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400kg/ha.The layout was a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. The combined rates of farmyard manure at 10t/ha x 400kg/ha fertilizer increased the growth characters such as the vine length and the number of leaves. At 8 weeks after planting (WAP), the application of 10t/ha of farmyard manure x 400kg/ha of fertilizer gave the longest vine length of 276.93cm and the highest number of leaves. The fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight per plant and fruit weight per hectare were significantly influenced by the application of farmyard manure x fertilizer. The highest weight of 2.43kg per plant and yield per hectare of 43,259kg/ha were obtained with 10t/ha farmyard manure and 400kg/ha of fertilizer which were 166.42 % higher than the control. [Researcher 2010;2(4):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.01

 

Keywords: Cucumber, farmyard manure, inorganic fertilizer, growth and yield

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2

Land Cover Change Assessment Using Remote Sensing: Case Study of Bamako, Mali

 

Boubacar Amadou DIALLO1, BAO Zhengyu2

1Department of Geography, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China. BP 430074, Lumo Road 388

2Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences Wuhan BP 430074, Lumo Road 388

diallo.bouba@hotmail.com , zybao@cug.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Large surfaces of green cover are annually lost around the world, especially in the tropic regions. Natural processes combined with human activities explain this situation. Human population growth has exerted a significant role on the landscape change. As an outcome of ongoing increase of population, urbanization has provoked drastic alterations in the loss of biodiversity around the world; especially in Bamako, and has caused serious environmental problems, such as pollution. In this paper remote sensing technologies are used to assess Bamako’s land cover change within a twenty-year period. For this purpose, three remotely sensed data acquired respectively on 14 November 1986, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), 25 October 1999, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and 26 September 2006 (ETM+) have been processed; and a classification into five land use land cover classes (forest, built up, non forest, bare land and water) has been carried out. The results showed that over the time span the built up area has steadily been increasing; with area expansion from 41.27 km2 (16.98 %) in 1986 to 102.48 km2 (42.17 %) in 2006. In contrast, forest and bare land were about 3.58 % (8.69 km2) and 48.45 % (117.73 km2) in 1986; the percentage decreased to about 2.89 % (7.03 km2), and 15.71 % (38.17 km2) in 2006, respectively. The other classes are bumpy. The main driving force of the depletion of vegetative cover is attributed to urbanization under growing population. [Researcher 2010;2(4):7-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.02

 

Keywords: Mali, urbanization, remote sensing, GIS, land use/cover

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3

Health hazards among a sample of workers exposed to a combination of noise and organic solvents in a fermentation factory in Egypt

 

Sanaa A. Rizk*, Nevin E. Sharaf*

*Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Exposure to noise can induce hearing impairment among industrial workers. Studying the impact of combined exposure to both industrial pollutants such as noise and organic solvents on hearing was scarcely pointed. The aim was to study the risk of hearing loss among a sample of fermentation plant workers in Egypt exposed to both noise and a mixture of organic solvents. Materials and Methods: The exposed group consisted of 110 workers in a fermentation plantdivided into two groups. Group A (50 workers,) exposed to noise only, group B (60 workers) exposed to noise and mixture of organic solvents, The control group (group C;30 workers) were matched to the exposed group in age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking habit and systolic blood pressure but were neither exposed to noise nor organic solvents. All studied sample were subjected to complete medical examination and audiometric examination using pure tone Audiometer (GS.Model 1703). The characteristic V-notch in the audiogram was used as early sign of hearing loss. Noise level at work place was carried out using a calibrated Precision sound level meter type 2232. Results: Noise level was comparable in groups A&B but significantly higher than in control work places. Thirty six percent of exposed workers suffered from hearing loss versus 3.3 percent in the control group (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was significantly higher among group B (24%) than group A (18%) (p< 0.05) . Results showed that both exposed groups had higher hearing loss than normal control.. Workers exposed to both noise and organic solvents suffered from the highest proportion of hearing loss compared to those exposed to noise alone, therefore we concluded that solvents may interact synergistically with noise. [Researcher 2010;2(4):18-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.03

 

Keywords: Noise- organic solvents- hearing loss

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4

Prognostic Value OF MELD Score IN Acute Variceal Bleeding

 

Engy Yousry Elsayed , George Sfwat Riad and Marcel William Keddeas

 

Department of Internal Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The Child-Pugh (CP) score has long been used in predicting mortality in acute variceal bleeding. The model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was originally determined to predict survival in cirrhotic patients undergoing surgery. It is now used to assign priority for liver transplantation. MELD score is a useful tool to assess prognosis in critically ill cirrhotic patients. There is conflicting results have been found on the comparison between MELD and CP score performance in predicting mortality after variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic use fullness of MELD score in cirrhotic patients presented with acute variceal bleeding. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 200 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis presented with first attack of acute variceal bleeding. After giving appropriate pharmacological and endoscopic therapy, each patient was assigned a Child and MELD score and all patients were followed up for 6 weeks to assess the outcome (re-bleeding or death). Results: Thirty nine patients (19.5%) died through out the follow up period of 6weeks. Of these deaths, 12(6%) occurred within the first 5 days (in-hospital mortality) and 23 (11.5%) patients had re-bleeding. Patients who died in hospital had significantly higher MELD score as well as Child score compared to the survivors (35.64.35 & 12.8 0.9 vs. 13.8 7.9 & 7.4 2.43 respectively P<0.01). Moreover MELD and Child scores were higher among patients who died allover the 6 weeks when compared to those who survived (28.9 6.4&8.4 5.3vs. 10.56 2.5& 6.6 1.2 respectively P <0.001). MELD score was superior to Child score in prediction of both mortality and re-bleeding after acute variceal bleeding. As MELD score ≥ 12 and Child score ≥6 were associated with re-bleeding (accuracy 90.2% vs. 82% and AUC 0.739 vs. 0.591 respectively), while MELD score≥ 17 and Child score ≥ 9 were associated with mortality (accuracy 98% vs. 87% and AUC 0.768 vs. 0.556 respectively). Conclusion and recommendation: meld score allow for early identification of patients with acute variceal bleeding who are at substantially increased risk of re-bleeding or death over the short term. These patients may require care in more specialized units during the bleeding episode, and aggressive follow-up in the immediate post variceal bleed setting. [Researcher 2010;2(4):22-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.04

 

Key words: Child score, liver cirrhosis, MELD score, Variceal bleeding

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5

Boron Status in the irrigated fields of semi arid north Ethiopia

 

Fassil Kebede1, * and Phil Hollington2

1,*FASSIL KEBEDE, Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection Mekelle University, P.O.Box-231, Mekelle, Ethiopia, E-Mail: fyimamu@gmail.com;

2CAZS Natural Resources, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW UK; p.a.hollington@bangor.ac.uk

 

Abstract: In many regions of the earth, notably in the subtropics, the annual rainfall is not enough to meet the evaporative need of a complete vegetative cover on the soil. Likewise, the drylands in Ethiopia, which fall within the range of UNEP’s definition of desertification cover 860 000 km2 or 71.5% of the country’s total land area. In spite of the fact that the irrigation potential is estimated to be 3 637 000 ha Ethiopia uses only about 300000 ha currently. Basically, irrigation is an agricultural operation, which supplies the need of a plant for water. However, irrigation adds salts to soil including boron if it isn’t used systematically. Soil salinization in its early stages of development reduces soil productivity, but in advanced stages kills all vegetation and consequently transforms fertile and productive land to barren land, leading to loss of habitat and reduction of biodiversity. Hence a soil survey was conducted in the irrigated fields of cereal growing areas of semi arid north Ethiopia in order to examine the concentration of soil boron. Twelve soil profile pits in six different areas were opened wherein soil samples from three depths, viz. 0-30, 30-70 and 70-100 cm were collected. The boron concentrations were determined in a hot 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts using Inductively- Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study revealed that hot water extractable boron contents of 0-30 cm depth soils varied from 0.19-1.38 ppm and the average value was 0.74 ppm. If 0.3 ppm is taken as the critical value for deficiency then the potential boron deficient areas occupy 16.6 %, if the critical value is accepted as 0.5 ppm for deficiency then the potential boron deficient areas occupy 33.3 % of the soils in the semi arid north Ethiopia. If 2.5 ppm is accepted as the possible critical level for boron toxicity then all the studied soils were found is potentially non-toxic for boron. The average boron levels of the soils did not significantly differ along the soil depth. The average boron values were 0.74, 0.69 and 0.65 ppm in the soil depths of 0-30, 30-70 and 70-100 cm, respectively. Emerging boron toxicity was observed in the Luvisols of Hizat at depth of 30-70 cm where the soil boron content was 2.35 ppm. Besides, pH of all the studied soils was alkaline (pH>7.0). Generally, boron concentrations in the irrigated fields of semi arid north Ethiopia were varied from 0.14 to 2.35 ppm with an average and median of 0.69 and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Besides, 25.7% of the soils were boron deficient and boron deficiency seems a greater problem than the boron toxicity in the rainfed cereal growing areas of the arid north Ethiopia. [Researcher 2010;2(4):28-37]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.05

 

Keywords: Boron, deficiency, irrigated field, semi arid north Ethiopia, toxicity

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6

Analytical Assessment of Effect of Heat Absorbed and Remitted By Copper Present In Molten Pb-Sb-Cu Alloy System on the Electrical Properties of the Solidified Alloy

 

Chukwuka I . Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of heat absorbed and remitted by copper present in molten Pb-Sb-Cu alloy system on the electrical properties of its solidified form was studied and assessed following casting of the alloys (furnace cooled) and computing the quantities of heat absorbed and remitted to the alloy as a result of copper addition. Electric current flow through the solid Pb-Sb-Cu alloy was measured and other electrical properties; electrical resistance, resistivity, conductivity and power dissipation calculated using appropriate equations. The results of the investigation indicate that current flow, power dissipation and electrical conductivity increases with increase in the quantity of heat remitted to the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy. It was also found that the electrical resistance and resistivity of the alloy decreases with increase in the heat remittance to the alloy. This is attributed to the fact that the minimum additional energy (energy gap) which a bonding electron must acquire to leave the bond in the valence band and move into the conduction band hence becoming free to conduct electricity, decreases with decrease in the electrical resistance, resistivity and with increase in the heat content of the alloy (due to heat absorbed). Increased copper addition (up to a maximum of 45g) to the base alloy (Pb-Sb) was discovered to have increased correspondingly the current flow, power dissipation, electrical conductivity and decreased correspondingly the electrical resistance and resistivity of Pb-Sb-Cu alloy so produced. This is attributed to the increased absorption of heat by the alloy as a result of increased impurity atoms in the alloys in the form of copper. The correlation coefficients between heat absorbed by the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy and its electrical properties are all above 0.97 indicating a good system parameter interaction and connection. [Researcher 2010;2(4):38-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.06

 

Keywords: Effect, Heat Absorbed and Remitted, Electrical Properties, Pb-Sb-Cu Alloy.

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7

Model for Predictive Analysis of Hardness of the Heat Affected Zone in Aluminum Weldment Cooled in Water Relative to HAZ Hardness of Mild Steel and Cast Iron Weldments Cooled in Same Media

 

 Chukwuka I. Nwoye*1, and Ihuoma E Mbuka 2

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria.

2Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

 *Corresponding author: chikeyn@yahoo.com Phone no.0806 800 6092

 

Abstract: Model for predictive analysis of hardness of the heat affected zone in aluminum weldment cooled in water has been derived. The general model;  γ = 0.6090√(αβ)  is dependent on the hardness of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in mild steel and cast iron weldments cooled in same media. Furthermore, re-arrangement of these models could be done to evaluate the HAZ hardness of mild steel or cast iron respectively as in the case of aluminum. The respective deviations of the model-predicted HAZ hardness values β, γ and α from the corresponding experimental values was less 0.02% indicating the reliability and validity of the model. [Researcher 2010;2(4):44-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.07

 

Keywords: Model, Hardness, Heat Affected Zone, Aluminum Weldments, Mild Steel, Cast Iron, Water

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8

Ethno-medico botany of some aquatic Angiospermae from North-West Himalaya

 

L.R. Dangwal1, Antima Sharma1, Naveen Kumar2, C.S Rana3 & Upvan Sharma4

1Herbarium and Plant Systematic Laboratory, Department of Botany,

2School of Natural Products, Department of Chemistry, H.N.B Garhwal Central University, SRT Campus, Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Uttarakhand

3State Medicinal Plant Board Uttatrakhand, Herbal Research & Development Institute Gopeshwar, Chamoli (Uttarakhand)

4Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu. antimasharma82@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: North-West Himalaya has been the reservoir of enormous natural resource including vegetation wealth, natural streams as well as rivers. The large human populace with diverse life styles, beliefs, traditions and cultural heritage inhabiting Himalaya has learnt to utilize natural resources and products in various ways. The present communication pertains to the ethno-medico botanical survey of some aquatic Angiospermae of North-West Himalaya identified 38 plant species belonging to 34 genera and 28 families used by tribals and villagers to cure numerous ailments. [Researcher 2010;2(4):49-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.08

 

Keywords: North-West Himalaya; Aquatic Angiospermae; Ethno-medico; Tehri

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9

IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASSES (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) AND LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IN NIGERIAN CEMENT FACTORY WORKERS

 

Ogunbileje J.O1, Akinosun O.M1, Arinola O.G 1, Akinduti P.A2

1Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

Email: ifemiwale2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Crystalline silica has recently been reported to act as an adjuvant which increases inflammation and antibody production. On the basis of new knowledge, it is possible that cement dust may have effects on the immune functions of cement factory workers. Previous studies on Nigerian cement factory workers were concentrated on the pulmonary function tests, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), prevalence of chest infections and liver function tests neglecting the immune parameters of the cement workers. The present study determines the levels of serum immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgM, IgG & IgE) and Alanine aminotransaminase, Alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase in 45 male cement factory workers that are occupationally exposed to cement dust compared with 30, age and sex-matched, office workers that were not resident in the town of study. Immunodiffusion method was used to determine serum IgA, IgM, IgG while ELISA method was used to determine serum IgE. Alkaline phosphatase(ALP), alanine amino transferase(ALT), bilirubin were determined using Hitachi 902 auto analyser while gamma glutamyl transferase(GGT) was determined using colorimetric method. The levels of IgM and IgA were not statistically different in cement factory workers compared with control (p>0.05) while IgG and IgE were significantly higher in cement factory workers (p<0.05) when compared with corresponding levels in the controls. Also, ALP and bilirubin were higher in the test subjects than in control group (p<0.05). Though the mean levels of ALT and GGT were not statistically significantly higher cement factory workers when compared with control group (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that higher level of IgG may be a mechanism to block anaphylaxis reaction of IgE in Nigerian cement factory workers. The raised ALP and bilirubin levels may suggest hepatotoxic effects of cement dust. [Researcher 2010;2(4):55-58]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.09

 

Key-words: Silica, Cement dust, Nigeria, Immunoglobulin, Liver

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10

Ventilatory function and oxidative- antioxidant Status in shoe makers

 

Heba Mahdy -ABDALLAH1, Amal SAAD-HUSSEIN1, Nasser M. ABDEL-LATIF2 Jihan S. HUSSEIN3, and Mahmoud A. HASSANIEN2

Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine1, Department of Air Pollution2, and Department of Medical Biochemistry3, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

hebamahdy2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Each process in shoe manufacture is associated with certain type of occupational hazard. Environmental risk factors including inhalation of leather dust, petroleum products, metals and solvents deteriorate shoe makers’ health. A number of studies implicated shoe manufacture with the occurrence of diffuse lung disease. Objective The aim of the study was assessment of the respiratory health problems in shoe makers and their oxidative-antioxidant status. Method It was conducted on forty-three male workers employed in different steps of shoe manufacturing. Forty subjects were recruited as a control group matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. Dietary habits of both groups were nearly the same to exclude diet as confounding factor. Results revealed that none of the measured airborne pollutants exceeded the Egyptian standards. But, the results recorded high percentages of chronic respiratory symptoms in shoe makers than in the controls (cough 39.5 %, expectoration 3.4 %, wheeze 6.7 % and dyspnea 10.3 % compared to 7.5 %, 5 %, 2.5 % and 0 % in control group respectively). Smoking was taken into consideration as a risk factor in inducing deterioration in the lung function, oxidative stress, and lowering antioxidant capacity. Ventilatory function in form of PEFR, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 of the shoe makers (smokers and non-smokers) were significantly reduced compared to the controls (smokers and non smokers). Antioxidant activity detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) were also significantly lower in the workers than in their controls. On the other hand, malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in exposed group. There were no significant relationships between oxidative-antioxidant status and the ventilatory function of the workers. Conclusion and discussion: It could be concluded that shoe workers are at risk of respiratory affection. It is reasonable to provide those workers with protective equipments and antioxidant supplements with their regular diet. [Researcher 2010;2(4):59-66]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.10

 

Keywords: Shoe makers, ventilatory function, oxidative stress, antioxidant status

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11

Strawberry post-harvest energy losses in Iran

Payman Salami *1 Hojat Ahmadi1, Alireza Keyhani1, and Mohammad Sarsaifee 2

1. Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran

2. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

salami@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of energy losses caused by post-harvest strawberry losses in the Kurdistan province of Iran. Preserving the shelf life and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, necessitates reducing respiration rates and protecting these fresh produce items from postharvest infection by moulds and microorganisms. This can be accomplished in most cases through storage at reduced temperatures and through modified atmosphere storage. The most common decay of strawberry is Botrytis rot, also called Gray Mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. The disease can begin pre-harvest, remaining as latent infections, or begin postharvest. The total strawberry production was about 22,679 ton in Kurdistan province. The average strawberry post-harvest losses were found to be 28% in the study area, thus the total post-harvest strawberry losses were estimated as 6350.12 ton. The total energy losses of strawberry production in Kurdistan province were evaluated to be 12.065 TJ. This amount of losses is equal to 1971.4 BOE (Barrel of Oil Equivalent). Also the total post-harvest strawberry losses were equal to 7,809,200 $. The amount of losses could be reduced by using controlled atmosphere storage technology and by improving the quality of inputs, cultural practices, harvest operation methods, packing and packaging, sorting, transport, and storage. Also the amount of post-harvest losses could be reduced by using the breeding varieties instead of landrace variety, because the landrace variety has a very soft tissue and it is tremendously sensitive to mechanical injury. Biological control of post-harvest disease might be effective. Perhaps the antagonists could be used at harvest to prolong the shipping and marketing periods. The Botrytis responsible for pre-harvest and post-harvest rotting of strawberries could be reduced by spraying with Trichoderma species. Additional studies are needed in this context to survey the biological control. [Researcher 2010;2(4):67-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.11

 

Key words: Botrytis cinerea; energy losses; Kurdistan; Iran; Post-harvest losses; Rhizopus stolonifer; Strawberry

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12

Characterization of Salivary Glutathione reductase in Normal Individuals and its Implications on Smokers

 

T.Sathishkumar1*, S.Shanmugam1, S.Rameshkumar1, G.Rajavelan1 and V.Haridoss2

1. Department of Biotechnology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 006, Tamil Nadu,

India.

2. Department of Science and Humanities, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 006,

Tamil Nadu, India. sathishkumart29@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The assay of saliva is an increasing area of research with implications for basic and clinical purposes. Although this biological fluid is easy to manipulate and collect, careful attention must be directed to limit variation in specimen integrity. In this study, glutathione reductase (GR) activity of saliva obtained from smokers and non smokers of both the sex of various age groups were assessed. The investigation of salivary GR from non smokers revealed a pH optimum of 6.8, temperature optimum as 37C and a low Km of 0.058 mM for the substrate (Oxidized glutathione, GSSG). A significant reduction in the salivary GR activity has been observed from smokers of both acute and chronic than the non smokers. A drastic decrease in the GR activity was noticed in chronic smokers than the acute smokers, proving the possibility of utilizing the enzyme as a diagnostic biomarker for detecting the oral, throat and neck cancers. This optimized developed protocol was also found to be simple and cost effective. [Researcher 2010;2(4):74-81]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.12

 

Key words: Glutathione reductase, oral cancer, saliva

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 13

Novel quinazolinone derivatives: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity

 

Redha I. Al-Bayati, 1 Ahmed A. H. Al-Amiery2.*, & Yasmien K. Al-Majedy2

3. Chemistry Department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq

4. Biochemical division, Department of applied science, University of Technology, Baghdad-Iraq

dr.ahmed1975@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Problem statement: This work involves to synthesis novel organic compounds and studies their pharmacological. Approach: The title compound quinazolinone derivatives were prepared by reacting 3 amino of 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (first) with various aldehydes and ketones, and Second coupling through diazonium salts with resorcinol or with ethylacetoacetate then cyclized with hydrazine. The starting material 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one was synthesized by reacting hydrazine with 2-methyl-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one, which in turn was prepared from anthranilic acid. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data (FT-IR, UV/visible spectra, 1HNMR, and CHN analyses). All synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aurous, E.coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and two fungal Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans in order to assess their antimicrobial properties. Results: The study indicates that these compunds have high activity against tested bacteria. Aim: We aim to synthesize quinazolinone derivatives having active moieties to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the reported results, it may be concluded that 3-amino-2-methyl- quinazolin-3(4H)-one act as synthones for Schiff bases and for diazonium coupling. [Researcher 2010;2(4):82-88]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.13

 

Key words: 3-amino-2-methyl- quinazolin-3(4H)-one, antibacterial activity

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14

SCREENING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KERATINASE FROM Bacillus licheniformis ISOLATED FROM NAMAKKAL POULTRY FARM

 

C. Vigneshwaran, S. Shanmugam*, T. Sathish Kumar

Department of Biotechnology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 006, Tamil Nadu,

India. shan2274@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Keratin are insoluble fibrous proteins found in hair, wool, feather, nail, horns and other epithelial covering which is rich in beta helical coil linked through cysteine bridges. Keratinase (EC 3.4.4.25) belongs to the class hydrolase which are able to hydrolyse insoluble keratins more efficient than other proteases. The bacteria Bacillus licheniformis showing higher keratinase activity was screened out of the ten different bacterial strains isolated. The ability of Bacillus licheniformis to utilize chicken feather powder as a substrate was tested. It was found that maximum enzyme activity was 10.76U/ml. Similarly optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity was found to be 60C and 7.0 respectively. The km and Vmax values were 0.22 mg/ml and 0.01 U/ml respectively. The enzyme is stable (30-40oC) and active around wide pH range (6-8). Among the various metal ions tested zinc, magnesium were found to enhance the enzyme activity where as mercury, copper, cadmium, 1, 10 phenanthroline and EDTA completely inhibit the enzyme activity. It was found from this study, organism such as Bacillus licheniformis isolated from poultry soil can be used as a potential candidate for degradation of feather and for dehairing process in leather industry. [Researcher 2010;2(4):89-96]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020410.14

 

Key words: Feather, Keratin, Bacillus licheniformis, degradation, dehairing

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