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Science Journal


Volume 2 - Issue 5 (Cumulated No. 11), May 10, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Reserach0205
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: marslandresearcher@gmail.com



Titles / Authors



Group-think among Health Workers; the Nigerian Perspective

Adeniji F.O

Centre for Health and Development, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria



Abstract: Group think has been described as the ways in which members of a group distort their thinking to become overly supportive of suggestions made within the group and dismissive of suggestions from outside the group. This paper looks at the various ways in which group think affects the working relationship between health workers especially doctors and nurses in Nigeria. Review of relevant literature was carried out with particular emphasis on those related to doctor nurse relationship and group think in Nigeria. The role of culture, level of education and training as well as the influences from the various health professional bodies were identified as factors that affect the working relationship between health workers. In fighting among the various health worker unions has led to industrial action and paralyzing of the health sector in Nigeria, with some professional bodies resulting to legal action. It is imperative for government to recognize the existence of group think and establish committees that will attend to grievances among health workers. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):1-4]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Group-think; health workers; conflict; doctors; nurses

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Synthesis of Novel fuel additives

Salal Abdulhadi Abdulla Murrhige and Ahmed Abdulamier hussain Al-Amiery*

Biochemical division, Department of applied science, University of Technology, Iraq



Abstract: Powders are typically magnesium oxide or hydroxide. Particle sizes range from a couple of microns up to tens of microns. The concentration of magnesium in powders is the highest of any magnesium products with magnesium oxide being 60% magnesium. Powders are very inexpensive. Handling problems make powders less than desirable to use. The inclusion of any moisture in a powder will cause clumping. For this reason it is necessary to keep sacks of powders dry. Powders are often added to the back end of a boiler between the superheater and the economizer. They cannot be added to the fuel since they are insoluble and would separate from fuel if the fuel were not kept in motion. Methods: Preparation of magnesium carboxylates by added of sodium hydroxide to the carboxylic acids than added magnesium chloride. Preparation of magnesium sulphonate. Preparation of magnesium complexes as oil additives. Results: The oil molecules dissolve the magnesium carboxylate when the polarity of magnesium carboxylate became less. Two factors determine the solubility of carboxylate salts in oil. One is the nature of the carboxylate ion, i.e. its length, shape, amount of branching and so on. The larger and less polar this group is, the more soluble it is in oil. Solubility of five-carbon-atom in water is not appropriate for carboxylate ions. The reason is that the carboxylate functional group is not merely polar, it is ionic. This allows for stronger ion-dipole bonds to be formed with the water molecules and pull longer carbon chains into solutions. Soaps, for example, generally have from twelve to eighteen carbon atoms in the carbon chain. The other factor is the positive ion. Ammonium, potassium and sodium salts are generally soluble in water. Magnesium and calcium salts are generally less soluble. Many others are generally insoluble. For example, a soap containing sodium ion will dissolve in water. Conclusion: The metal content of the emulsion additives can be increased by increasing the water content with respect of the total volume. Generally it can be shown that a wide variety of additive formulations have been presented with varying degree of solubility and metal content, the choice among them can be judged depending on the user requirements. Suggestions: Due to the unavailability of the technique required to study the effectiveness of the prepared magnesium complexes, it is of great importance to test their effectiveness as corrosion inhibitors using small oil burning unit. In order to have higher metal content by using metal oxide or salts, a particle size reduction technique has to be used to get a nanoparticale size of these compound to obtain miscible oil mixture. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):5-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Emulsion additives, magnesium carboxylate, nanoparticale, petroleum

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Resource Use Efficiency in Arable Crop Production Among Smallholder Farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria

Eze Christopher Chiedozie

Department of Agricultural economics Federal University of Technology Owerri,

P.M.B 1526 Owerri Imo State. chrisceze2003@yahoo.com, +234 8033807761,

Amanze Blessing

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, Evan Enwerem University Owerri, PMB 2000. Imo State, Nigeria. blessingamanze@yahoo.co.uk, +234 8035699643

Nwankwo Oliver

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, Evan Enwerem University Owerri, PMB 2000 Imo State, Nigeria. +234 8038757794.

Abstract: The study evaluated resource use efficiency in arable crop production among smallholder farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State. Specifically the study determined the influence of the farm inputs used in arable crop production, estimated the allocative efficiency of smallholder farmers in arable crop production, determined the elasticity of the production and their return to scale. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in selecting six Local Government Areas (LGAs), two communities from each selected LGA, two villages from each selected community and five farmers from each selected village. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire from one hundred and twelve farmers. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and efficiency ratio. Results of the analysis showed that resources were not efficiently allocated by the farmers. The farmers over-utilized the resources of labour, planting materials, fertilizer, capital, and underutilized land. There was a significant relationship between output and various inputs used by the farmers. The double log function showed that 86% of the variations in the crop output was determined by the independent variables in the model. There was an increasing return to scale (1.2787) in arable crop production. To reduce the negative consequences of inefficient resource use, farmers should be educated by government and non-governmental agricultural agencies on some fundamental farm management skills which will enable them to plan, evaluate, and appraise their farm business activities. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):14-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Resource use, allocative efficiency, smallholder farmers, Imo State

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1,2ALAO Olajumoke*,1,2AROJOJOYE Oluwatosin , 1OGUNLAJA Olumuyiwa.,1FAMUYIWA Abimbola.

1 Department of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan

2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan.



ABSTRACT: Impact of brewery effluent on water quality in Majawe was investigated. Water quality assessment was carried out on samples collected at 4 different sampling points; effluent discharge point, 500 meters away and two other discharge points downstream. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, TSS (total soluble solids),TDS (total dissolved solids), BOD (biological oxygen demand),COD(chemical oxygen demand),DO (dissolved oxygen), and concentration of chloride, iron, magnesium, calcium, cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury. The pH of samples ranged from 6.56 to 7.17 ,temperature ranged from 24.5oC to 27oC , alkalinity ranged from 95.10mgl-1 to 407.21mgl-1, electrical conductivity ranged from 23.3μScm-1 to 686 μScm-1, total hardness ranged from 58mgl-1 to 210.56mgl-1,TDS (total dissolved solids) ranged from 119.7mgl-1 to 331mgl-1, TSS (total suspended solids) from ND to 554mgl-1 BOD (biological oxygen demand) ranged from 0.92mgl-1 to 785.7mgl-1, COD (chemical oxygen demand) ranged from 2.2mgl-1 to 896.3mgl-1, DO (dissolved oxygen) ranged from 2 mgl-1 to 6.8mgl-1, calcium ranged from 28.24 mgl-1 to 90.47 mgl-1, magnesium ranged from 54.39mgl-1 to 75.31mgl-1, phosphate ranged from ND to 0.21mgl-1 and nitrate ranged from 11.2mgl-1 to 47.3mgl-1. The heavy metals: cadmium, arsenic and mercury were not detected in most of the samples; lead was detected in surface water and brewery effluent, 0.01mgl-1 to 0.7mgl-1 respectively. The physicochemical parameters studies shows that surface water and brewery effluent deviated from the WHO and FMENV standards but ground water sample was in line with the standards. Taken together these findings show that there is contamination of surface water by brewery effluent, however groundwater was non-toxic and therefore safe for drinking purposes. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):21-28]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Pollution, water, effluent, assessment, brewery and Majawe

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Agaricales of Sikkim Himalaya: A Review


Krishnendu Acharya, Manjula Rai, Prakash Pradhan

University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal 700019, India



Abstract: The loss of biological diversity is a global crisis. There is hardly any region on the earth that is not facing ecological catastrophes. Sikkim Himalaya is a biologically enriched place of diverse flora and fauna because of its typical geographical situation. But as the population is increasing, socio-economic and environmental changes are going on rapidly, and the natural resources are at risk. Thus, conservation is a major concern at this moment. In the Sikkim Himalaya only a few work on Agaricales has been done after Berkley (1856). Literature survey has shown that no up to date list of Agaricales has been created from this area. In this review we have developed a diversity list of Agaricales of this region. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):29-38]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Agaricales, Sikkim Himalaya, Red data List, Species richness

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Storage Life of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Ice and Ambient Temperature


Ihuahi Josiah Adoga 1, Egila Joseph 2, Omojowo Funso Samuel 1

1. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), P.M.B. 6006, New Bussa, Niger-State, Nigeria. 2. University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.

joeihua@yahoo.co.uk, egilajn@yahoo.com, jowosam@yahoo.com

Abstract: A study on the storage life of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ice and ambient temperature was carried out. The storage life of the fish was 15 days in ice and 12 hrs at ambient temperature. TVB-N and peroxide values continuously increased with the lapse of the storage period. TVB-N value increased from 5.51mg/100g to an acceptable value of 22.53 mg/100g in 15 days and finally to a rejection value of 38.75 mg/100g at the end of 21days storage period, TVB-N results showed acceptability for 9 hrs of the 18 hrs of ambient storage. Results of peroxide value did not support those of sensory evaluation and microbial analysis. Organoleptic acceptability was15days in ice and about 12 hours at room temperature. Results of bacterial load showed that the samples were in acceptable condition, not exceeding 106cfu/g for about 15 days in ice and 12 hrs at ambient temperature. The initial bacterial load for ice-stored samples was quite diverse with mesophilic bacterial population (Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp.) predominating. However, as storage period progressed, Aeromonas hydrophila, E. coli and Shigella spp. increased in number accounting for over 75% of the spoilage flora towards the end of the storage period, showing that these pathogens were the spoilage organisms in ice. At ambient temperature, major spoilage organisms were Aeromonas hydrophila, E. coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi and Baccilus spp. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):39-44]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Oreochromis niloticus, storage life, ice, ambient temperature

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Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and Fetal Heart


Ehab H. Nashaat, MD*, Ghada M. Mansour, MD**

*Department of internal medicine, **Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Ain Shams University

ehabnashaat@hotmail.com gourmansour@hotmail.com


Abstract: One hundred diabetic pregnant ladies were investigated and classified according to HbA1c to controlled and uncontrolled groups. Ultrasound was done for all cases including fetal biometry and measurement of fetal cardiac inter-ventricular septal thickness. Doppler ultrasound was done and umbilical artery and fetal Aorta resistance indices (RI) were estimated for all cases. One hundred normal pregnant ladies acted as controls. A significant increase in septal thickness in uncontrolled diabetics was detected with lower fetal aorta RI compared to controlled diabetics and normal group. Septal thickness correlated with glycemic status in these fetuses. According to the results of this study, proper glycemic control and prenatal routine fetal echocardiography are recommended for all diabetic pregnant ladies. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):45-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key Words: Fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diabetic pregnancy, Doppler ultraounsd, fetal aorta

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Lipid profile among chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients and its levels pre and post treatment


Ehab H Nashaat ,MD

Associated professor of internal medicine, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams university.



Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C is a common infection in the Egyptian population, specially genotype 4 .It is well recognized in many studies that hepatitis C chronic infection is associated with hypolipidemia ,so in our study we compare the lipid profile between 150 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 150 normal persons with comparable age, sex and body mass index (BMI). The fasting cholesterol ,low density lipoprotein(LDL),high density lipoprotein(HDL),and triglyceride were compared .Then 36 patients of them received treatment in the form of pegylated interferon and ribavirin and then the patients who achieved viral clearance was reevaluated as regard the lipid profile versus the patients who did not achieve viral clearance and the relpsers. In our study we found that patients with chronic hepatitis C had significant lower LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides than normal persons with comparable age, sex and BMI .The treated patients with sustained virological response showed increased LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides from baseline compared to patients without viral clearance and even 2of them had increased LDL more than 130 mg/dl and had increased in cholesterol level more than 200 which necessate treatment for dyslipidemia in order to prevent the risk of coronary heart disease. Conclusion : patients with chronic hepatitis C had high levels of LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides than non infected persons and after viral clearance a significant number of patients showed LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides rebound even to levels may be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease, so lipids should be carefully followed up after successful clearance of hepatitis C infection. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):56-62]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: HCV infection,lipids profile ,pre and post treatment.

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Development and Assessment of a Fish Feed to Assist in Aquaculture Nutrition Management


Swarnendu Chandra, Urmimala Chaudhury, Rajarshi Banerjee

School of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, West Bengal, India 721657. rajarshi.rishi@gmail.com


Abstract: The concept of Synbiotics was implemented to aquaculture feed formulation. Probiotic bacteria were isolated from the locally available confectionary sweetened food. The isolates were characterized through classical biochemical and microbiological techniques to identify them into the group of Lactobacillaceae. Further in the most potent isolate, an antibiotic molecular marker was developed through spontaneous mutation. Mass cultivation of freshwater Spirulina was after isolation and purification. Both were subjected to standardization of mass cultivation and harvesting of biomass. A globulated feed was formulated and fed to aquarium maintained catfish. A conclusion was drawn on the beneficial roles of such Synbiotic culture in Aquaculture nutrition management. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):63-75]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Economic Media, GIT Passage, Synbiotic Feed

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Helicobacter pylori and Hyperemesis Gravidarum Continous Study (2)

Ehab H. Nashaat, MD*, Ghada M. Mansour, MD**,

* Department of internal medicine, Ain Shams University.

** Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum, and the value of adding a non teratogenic regimen for its treatment in intractable cases. Methods: Sixty two hyperemesis gravidarum cases were recruited from Ain Shams University out patient clinics. A full history was taken including history of medical disorders as peptic ulcer and history of chronic medications intake as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. General and local examination was done for all cases. Ultrasound was done to exclude obstetric causes of hyperemesis as twin pregnancy, molar pregnancy or missed abortion. Sixty two normal pregnant women were used as control. Serum test for H-pylori IgG antibody titre using (ELISA) method was done for all patients and control. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: Fifty four cases of the Sixty two HG cases were H pylori positive and twenty out of the Sixty two controls were positive, six cases developed severe intractable vomiting. Two of them developed an attack of hematemesis. Gastroscopy in these case revealed severe antral gastritis, duodenitits (and gastric and duodenal erosions in two of them). The six patients received non teratogenic regimen for treatment. Attacks of vomiting decreased and pregnancy continued till delivery of healthy newborns. Conclusion: Screening for Helicobacter pylori should be added to the investigations of HG cases. Non teratogenic treatment can be considered in intractable cases. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):76-80]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Helicobacter pylori, Hyperemesis gravidarum

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Problems of animal grazing in Uttarakhand Himalaya


Vardan Singh Rawat

Department of Botany D.S.B. Campus Kumaun University, Nainital

Uttarakhand, 263002, India



Abstract: Grazing based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the economy of the state; the livestock rearer performed a long distance and timed their movement to match with seasonal fodder resource availability. Livestock and animal husbandry have made these people more dependent on their immediate environment, to meet their daily requirements of fuelwood and fodder supply. An increase in human and livestock population results forest degradation in terms of lopping, fire, overgrazing etc. Large scale population of the state depends upon grassland, forest, grazing land, pastures and agriculture land for fodder supply. It is believed that if adequate arrangements for the supply of fodder are not made, afforestation and reforestation programmes badly affected. There is a need to adopt approaches which enhance the fodder supply and reduces the demand. Intense grazing affects regeneration; it impairs the capacity of plants growth and ultimately causing soil erosion. Uncontrolled and unregulated, grazing results in the loss of productivity, biotic pressure on natural ecosystem and finally leads to ecological degradation. [Researcher. 2010;2(5):81-85]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).


Key words: Uttarakhand, Grazing, Livestock, Guzzar

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