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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 12), June 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Reserach0205
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: marslandresearcher@gmail.com

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Analysis of Household Consumption of Cassava Products in Ohaozara, Ebonyi State, Southeast Nigeria

 

C.S. Onyemauwa

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

csonyemauwa@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The broad objective of the study was to conduct an analysis of household consumption of cassava products in Ohaozara area of Ebonyi stata south-eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with questionnaire from 20 consumption households randomly selected from 3 out of the 30 communities in the area. The sampling frame used for the study was obtained from the National population Commission for the area. Sixty households were sampled in the area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares multiple regression technique. The results identified garri, pounded cassava, tapioca, cassava chips, and cassava flour as the various cassava products consumed in the area. The results show further that about 11% of the monthly income of an average household in the area was spent on cassava products while about 23% of their monthly income was spent by them on substitutes. Garri was identified as the major cassava product consumed by the respondents in the area while rice and plantain are the major substitutes consumed by them. The findings of the study show also that household size, household income, and the cost of substitutes were the statistically significant determinants of the quantity consumed of cassava products by the respondents in the area. The significant variables have positive coefficients, which imply that an increase in their magnitude will lead to an increase in the quantity consumed of cassava products in the area and vice versa. The result shows further that the sampled households have a moderate marginal propensity to consume, which imply that they spend a moderate percentage of their monthly income on consumption. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):1-6]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.01

KEYWORDS: Determinants, Household, Consumption, Cassava-Products, Substitutes

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Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Investigation of Antidiabetic Scoparia dulcis Linn Scrophulariaceae Whole Plant Grown in Nigeria

 

Okhale, Samuel Ehiabhi 1, *, Amanabo, Mercy Omachonu 2, Jegede, Ibikunle Adeola 2, Egharevba, Henry Omoregie 1, Muazzam, Ibrahim Wudil 2 , Kunle, Oluyemisi Folashade 2, 4

1. Phytochemistry Research Laboratory

2. Pharmacognosy Research Unit

Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research & Development, Idu Industrial Layout Idu, P.M.B. 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

3. Deparment of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

4. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jos, Nigeria.

samokhale@yahoo.com, yemisikunle@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Scoparia dulcis Linn has been widely reported to have pharmacological uses arising from its wide- spread folkloric uses. Some of these pharmacological properties have been evaluated and include antidiabetic, antitumor and antiviral. However, very limited work has been carried out on the Nigerian species toward documenting its ethnomedicinal uses and establishing its phytochemical and pharmacognostic fingerprints. Studies were therefore carried out to determine the phytochemical and pharmacognostic profile of S. dulcis L. grown in Nigeria. The phytochemical analysis of the powdered whole plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and terpenes. Successive extraction yielded hexane extract 1.93%, ethyl acetate extract 1.54%, and methanol extract 14.50%. Quantitative pharmacognostic analysis gave moisture content 7.74%, alcohol extractive value 20.00%, water extractive value 20.00%, total ash 6.32%, acid–insoluble ash 0.82% and water soluble ash 0.37%. Leaf and seed coat microscopy is reported here for the first time. Leaf microscopy revealed upper and lower epidermal surfaces made up of wavy-walled somewhat polygonal cells, with abundant stomata, striations, cystoliths and a fair distribution of glandular trichomes with multiseriate heads and particular base cells. The transverse section of the stem indicated a thick layer of cutin preceding the epidermal cells followed by a layer of collenchyma cells, thin layer of pericyclic fibers and a layer of phloem bundle preceding long trachids, proto- and meta- vessels leading to a collateral vascular bundle arrangement. The centre of the section was made up of parenchyma cells with traces of small raphids-type of calcium oxalate crystals. These phytochemical and pharmacognostic fingerprints of S. dulcis grown in Nigeria are relevant for developing monograph of this potential drug plant and as quality indices for its development into a phytomedicine. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):7-16]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.02

Key words: Scoparia dulcis L.; phytochemicals; pharmacognosy, microscopy

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Socio-Economic& Technological Appraisal Of Fishermen: A case study in Narmada River Basin (M.P.) INDIA

 

*Shailendra Sharma, **Babita Malakar,**Rekha Sharma, ***Anjali Chavhan

*Department of Zoology, Shri Umiya Girls College, Mandleshwar -451221 (M.P.) INDIA.

**Department of Zoology, Holkar Science College,Indore (M.P.) INDIA.

***Institute of Applied Research, Bhopal (M.P.) INDIA.

 

ABSTRACT: Rivers, reservoirs and aquaculture are the main sources of inland fisheries. Physical characteristics, the socio-economic-cultural environment and the institutional arrangements for managing fish production and associated activities are the most important factors in determining the productivity. The present low level of fish production can be attributed to poor management, as the propensities of production are very high on Narmada belt. Proper management system can enhance the productivity. Given the biophysical constraints, the socio-economic -cultural environment like consumption behavior, traditional knowledge of fishing techniques, historical presence of fishing communities all add to productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the institutional characteristics of reservoir fisheries to evaluate factors responsible for productivity of the river fisheries and consequent formation of collectives to manage the resource. The following aspects play an important role in the evolution of collective action in fisheries development. (1) Technological extension services and innovation in technology to enhance production. (2) Prevention catch of certain kinds and size of fish to sustain the reproductive capacity. (3) Adequate storage, transportation, and marketing facilities for efficient disposition of fish and enhancing revenue. (4) Mechanism to distribute revenues equitably. A system, which delivers or ensures the above –mentioned services, becomes a reliable response to the institutional requirement in Narmada river resource to achieve the goal of reducing poverty by generating employment and income, promoting sustainable development by sustaining the river resource base ,enhancing the welfare of fisher community with equitable distribution of income, and creating efficiency in production through proper technical and institutional services which can ensure that output caters to increasing demand in Narmada region. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):17-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.03

KEY WORDS: Fishermen, Socio-economic, Community features, living standard

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Comparative study between transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate, Octreotide, and Diclofenac injection

in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

Ehab Nashaat , MD,Hoda Al-Tayeb Naser,,MD, Magdy Galal ,MD, Noha El-Nakeeb, MD.

Internal Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo.

ehabnashaat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A universally applicable, inexpensive, effective and safe intervention that ameliorates this complication has not yet been identified. Various forms of pharmacologic prophylaxis have demonstrated modest reduction in PEP in some randomized controlled trials. Glyceryl trinitrate is an inexpensive and easily administered agent. Octreotide have shown encouraging results. Aim of the study: To study the effect of Glyceryl trinitrate in the prevention of PEP in comparison to Octreotide and Diclofenac I.M injection. Also, we aimed to detect the risk factors associated with PEP. Patients and methods: The study included 160 patients who were candidates for ERCP and divided into four groups: Group I: 40 patients who did not receive any prophylactic drug. Group II: 40 patients received transdermal Glyceryl trinitrate75 mg. Group III: 40 patients received Dilofenac75 mg by I.M injection. Group IV: 40 patients received Octreotide 0.1 mg S.C. injection. ERCP was performed for all patients by two endoscopists under propofol. Both baseline serum amylase and lipase were measured. Also, they were measured 24 hours and 72 hours after ERCP. Results: The incidence of PEP in our patients was 12.5%. No statistically significant difference between the studied groups as regards this incidence. Although, there was significant difference between the groups regarding the cannulation time, duration of the procedure and difficulty of cannulation, the difference was not significant on comparing GTN group to the control groups regarding the cannulation technical parameters. Univariate analysis revealed five risk factors for PEP: non-dilated CBD, long cannulation time, lengthy procedure, pancreatic duct visualization and poor drainage of dye. Conclusion: The used drugs in the study were not effective in the prophylaxis against PEP. Glyceryl trinitrate may have facilitatory effect on the cannulation technical parameters but did not reach statistical significance. Large scale trials are still needed. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):23-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.04

Keywords: transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate, post ERCP pancreatitis, octerioti, diclofenac

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Framingham Heart Study, The Legacy and health education implications in the age of genomic medicine

 

E. William Ebomoyi, Ph.D.

Reprint address: E. William Ebomoyi, Ph.D.

Dept of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, 9501 South King Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60628-1598, eebomoyi@csu.edu

 

Abstract: This study reviewed the legacy derived from the Framingham heart disease study (FHS). The investigator argues that the associated benefits from the FHS transcends medical and epidemiological sciences. In fact, several inklings from FHS have informed the initiation of many similar but un-identical studies not only in the United Sates but in many nations worldwide. The milestones were listed and there are many other serendipitous benefits from FHS including the development of various non-invasive medical devices used today to reduce the inadvertent occurrence of iatrogenic diseases and death. The role of genetics and genomics were described, emphasizing the relevance of physicians and behavioral scientists to reduce the barrier in their practice of clinical interventions in the management of cardiovascular disease so as to reduce the loss of human lives and the economic burden of heart disease nationwide. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):33-43]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.05

KEY WORDS: Framingham heart study, prospective epidemiological design, Non-invasive medical devices, FHS milestones, genetics and genomics in cardiovascular disease, precision medicine

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6

GROWTH RESPONSE AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF MANGO PEEL-BASED DIETS ON TILAPIA (Oreochromis Niloticus) FINGERLINGS.

 

Omojowo Taiwo Mary, Omojowo Funso Samuel and Alatise Peter Segun

omojowofs@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred (100) fingerlings of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with average weight of 10.830.37g were obtained from the college ponds. The fish were acclimatized for three days in the plastic bowls during which the fish were not fed with any form of feed. Five iso-nitrogeneous diets were formulated to contain 35% crude protein. Maize (10% crude protein) was replaced by mango peel meal (6.6% crude protein) at 0% (MPD1), 25% (MPD2), 50% (MPD3), 75% (MPD4) and 100% (MPD5). The results of the nutrient utilization of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings are expressed as food conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). The FCR ranged between 1.26 in fish fed diet DT2 and 2.09 in fish fed diet DT5. This increases with increase in level of replacement of mango peel meal in the diets. In FCR, Diet 2 is better than Diet 3, 4 and 5. Though, it is not significantly different from diet 3 but significantly different from diets 4 and 5 at P< 0.05. Protein efficiency ratio ranges between 0.28 in DT5 and 0.59 in DT2. Fish survival rate ranged between 61.2% in fish fed DT5 and 76.7% in fish fed DT1. Survival rate increased with decrease in replacement level of mango peel meal in the diets. Total fish production (TFP) ranged between 0.95kg/m3 in fish fed diet DT5 and 1.91kg/m3 in fish fed diet DT2. This decreases with increase in level of replacement of mango peel meal in the diets. Diet 2 is recommended also because of its better performance in weight gain and specific growth rate which is significantly different from diets 3, 4 and 5 at P< 0.05. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):44-49]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.06

KEY WORDS: Tilapia, fingerlings, mango peel meal, replacement and growth rate

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7

Socio-economic conditions act as dominant factors for the occurrence of human malaria: A case study from India

 

Pankaj Saini*, Bishambhar Datt Joshi, Trilochan Sharma1

Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences

Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Hardwar, Uttarakhand (India)

1. National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Station), Hardwar, Uttarakhand (India)

*E-mail : sainip_1984@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaria is one of the foremost public health problems in India. Some times the problem arises up to the extant, which take the shape of epidemic and several lives are lost due to the disease. Entomlogical, parasitological, clinical and environment related issues are looked into to bring down the morbidities and loss to human lives, but socio-economic aspect play a major affecting factor for malaria and needs to study for better understanding and implementation of action plan to control malaria. So, the aim of this study was to asses any link between socio-economic condition with occurrence of human malaria. Epidemiological survey was conducted to collect the information of the malarial patients in Roorkee town of hilly state Uttarakhand (India) during the year 2007. Out of the 430 suspected fever patients, 60 were found positive for MP (malaria parasite) test. 30 % patients were infected by P. falciparum while rest 70 % patients were infected by P. vivax. It was found that about 85% of malarial patients belonged to Below Poverty Line (BPL) and residents of slum area. It indicates that socio-economic conditions (SEC) play a major role in occurrence of this disease. Community awareness program and solid insanitary infrastructure is a need to control the cause of malarial and other vector borne disease. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):50-53]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.07

Key words: Malaria – SEC – Community hygiene – Marshy areas

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8

A Different Angle over E-Advertisement Services in India Prospective

 

Rajeev Kumar

Department of Computer Science

College of Engineering Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh-244001

Email: rajeevprof@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study “E-advertisement” is a web application that automatically matches posters of AD’s with potential viewers through a communication network in which a host system communicates with the Posters and Potential Viewers. The host system obtains and stores a first set of records each corresponding to a particular ads. This set of records can then be searched by a remote data terminal associated with a potential viewer. The results of this search are then provided to the potential poster, who indicates specific ad listings that the viewer may be interested in. The viewer provides identifying information which is then provided to the poster of the indicated ads. Provisions are made to ensure that the ad posters who list ads support the system. Further, the system permits automatic evaluation of potential viewers to screen posters whose information does not match minimum criteria. It’s a system for selectively displaying ad listings to potential viewers and for obtaining ad viewer profile information associated with said potential viewers which is provided to ad posters of ad described in said ad listings. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):54-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.08

Keywords: Login, Registration Process, Administrator, Search

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Respiratory Hazards Among Egyptian Ceramics Workers

Hisham M. Aziz1, Safia B. Ahmed1, and Inas A. Saleh2

1 Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, National Research Center-Cairo-Egypt

2 Air Pollution Department, National Research Center- Cairo-Egypt

E-mail: myazizhma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at determine the health hazards among ceramics workers exposed to different environmental risk factors including silica and radon dusts and also, to assess exposure response relationship between intensity of exposure and the degree of health impairment. This study included 150 male exposed ceramics workers and 80 male individuals as controls. The subjects were subjected to questionnaire sheet; clinical examination; plain chest X-ray, ventilatory function tests and detection of silica in urine. The environmental studies included measuring of respirable dust, total dust and percent of silica content. Samples from the raw materials used (talc, clay, kaolin, limestone, and feldspar) were collected and tested for activity concentration of 238U - series, 232Th - series and 40K. The results of this study revealed that all the respiratory tract symptoms (cough, sputum production, dyspnea and wheezes) were more frequent among the exposed workers than the control group however, the differences were not statistically significant, except for wheezes which was statistically significant. The results of ventilatory function tests revealed that there were no statistical significant differences between the two groups as regards FEV1% and FEV1/FVC % while FVC and VC parameters were statistically significant lower among the exposed workers than the control group. The results of environmental monitoring revealed that the mean percentage of the free silica was (5.2% 1.01) and radon progeny level was (5.67 1.97 Pci/L). These levels were found to be higher than the Egyptian permissible limits. Tests of Radium (226Ra) series, Thorium (232Th) series and Potassium (40K) in some raw materials used in ceramics industry showed that Feldspar represented the highest levels of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K compared with the other raw materials. Also, the results revealed that abnormal changes in chest x-rays and decline in ventilatory functions were statistically significant among workers exposed to free silica (more than 5%) and to radon progeny level (more than 4 Pci/L) than those exposed to free silica (less than 5%) and to radon progeny level (less than 4 Pci/L). [Researcher. 2010;2(6):65-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.09

Key Words: Ceramics industry –Silica dust – Radon progeny–Pneumoconiosis-ventilatory function tests

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Antimicrobial Activity Of The Extract Of Vernonia Ambigua (Aerial Part)

 

1Kunle, Oluyemisi Folashade; 1*Egharevba, Henry Omoregie; 1Ibrahim, Jemilat; 1Iliya, Ibrahim and 2Abdullahi, Makailu Sabo; 3Okwute, Simeon Koma; 1Okogun, Joseph Ibumeh

1Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine

National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research &Development (NIPRD), Idu Industrial Layout, Idu, P.M.B. 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

2National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Zaria, Nigeria.

3Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

*Corresponding author

Phone number: +234 8036453033; E-mail: omoregieegharevba@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extract of the aerial part of Vernonia ambigua (Kotschy and Peyr) was investigated. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 19 to 24mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 and 10mg/ml for all the sensitive organisms. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and fungicidal concentration (MFC) were 2.5-5 and 10mg/ml respectively. There was appreciable activity against most of the bacterial investigated and was only active against Candida albicans among the fungi specie. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of saponin, tannin, alkaloids and flavonoids in the extracts. The ability of the crude methanolic extracts of V. ambigua to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi, though at a higher concentration of 2.5mg/ml, is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be exploited in the management of microbial infections and a source of new lead/hit for antimicrobials. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):74-80]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.10

Key words: Vernonia ambigua, antimicrobial, MIC, MBC, MFC

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Study The Possible Protective Influence of White Cabbage and Septilin on The Cardiac Muscle of Male Rats Exposed to Gamma Radiation

 

Enas A K 1 and Atif I A2

1 Department of Histology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, 12553Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Cairo, Egypt

enasamk@hotmail.com, narmout@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Radiation leads to increase the formation of free radicals. Oxygen free radicals have been shown to cause contraction failure and structural damage to the myocardium that will affect cardiac performance. Cabbage has a potent antioxidant activity and previously been linked to a lower risk of heart attacks and strokes. Septilin is a plant mixture extract proved to normalize lipid metabolism, lower cholesterol and triglyceride. Also, supports heart health, regulates blood pressure, blood vessel contraction and the tendency of blood to form clots. This study was designed to identify the possible protection of white cabbage and septilin to suppress the progression of cardiac impairments in rats exposed to whole body ɤ- radiation. Sixty male albino rats were divided into six groups, control, irradiated, cabbage feeding, cabbage feeding for a month and irradiated, septilin treated and septilin treated for a week and irradiated. The present work showed serious histological alterations in the myocardium of irradiated rats appeared as thickened vascular wall of the myocardial blood vessels, dilated and congested blood vessels, mild vacuolation in myocytes, fragmentation, swelling and degeneration of the myocardial muscle fibers with edema in between the myocardial fibers. Altered protein, collagen fibers and DNA content were also observed in the cardiac myocytes. Feeding Cabbage leaves for a month before ɤ- irradiation led to a marked protection of cardiac myocytes and blood vessels, an improvement in total protein and DNA content in the myocardium and non significant change in collagen fibers. Pretreatment of rats with Septilin 100 mg/kg bw p. o. for 7days before ɤ-irradiation showed normal histological pattern of myocardium except few area appeared with edema in between the myocardial muscle fibers and dilated blood vessels, an improvement in total protein and DNA content was recorded in the myocardium with non significant change in collagen fibers. It is concluded that white cabbage proved marked protection than Septilin against ɤ- irradiation. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):81-94]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.11

Key words: radiation, white cabbage, septilin, cardiac muscle

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Distribution and Microbiological Characterization of Dermatophytes Infection among Primary School Children in Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

Sanuth Hassan A 1*, Efuntoye Moses O.2

1. Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), Alausa, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

2. Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, P.M.B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

aitch_ay@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract Investigations were carried out on the distribution of dermatophytes infection among primary School Children in Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Southern Nigeria. Out of a total population of 1404, 274 representing 19.52% of the children were found to be infected by the disease. The commonest dermatophytes infection among the children was Tinea capitis accounting for 82.4% of the infection. The infection was common among the male than the female and found to be frequent among the children between ages of 7 and 10 years. It was prevalent among families whose socio-economic status is below average. Thirteen species of dermatophytes were isolated from the various forms of the infection, Tinea capitis has the highest number of fungal isolates and the most common causative organism is Microsporium audouinii. The sources of infection among the school children in this area were found to be the soil and domestic animals. [Researcher. 2010;2(6):95-99]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020610.12

Key words: Dermatophytes, Children, Infections

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