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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 7 (Cumulated No. 13), July 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0207
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes in Wastewater on Nanometer-Sized TiO2

S.A. Abo-Farha

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Naser City, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail address: samiaelhosieny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proved very effective in treatment of the various hazardous organic pollutants in water. The photocatalytic degradation of two azo dyes, monoazo dye Acid Orange 10(AO10) and diazo dye Acid Red114(AR114) present in wastewater were studied. Homogeneous photocatalytic degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/H2O2 process was investigated. The rates of disappearance of the two azo dyes were monitored spectrophotometrically at the visible maximum absorption wavelengths. It was found that the rate of decolorization rises by increasing the initial dosage of H2O2 up to a “critical” value at which it is maximum and beyond which it is inhibited. The rates of reactions follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Also heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/TiO2 (titanium dioxide) interface was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation rate depends on dye structure, dye concentration, TiO2 concentration and pH of the medium. The mechanism of the photodegradation process under UV-visible light illumination involves an electron excitation into the conduction band of the TiO2 semiconductor leading to the generation of very active oxygenated species that attack the dye molecules leading to photodegradation. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was examined by focusing on its enhancement by electron scavengers in the photocatalytic decomposition of the two azo dyes. The electron scavengers employed was inorganic oxidant such as H2O2, adequate dose of H2O2 led to a faster degradation of the two azo dyes in the TiO2 photocatalytic system. The fast decolorization of monoazo dye (AO10) than diazo dye (AR114) is an indication that, the number of azo and sulphonate groups in the dye molecule may be a determining factor for increasing the degradation rates. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):1-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.01

Keywords: Azo dyes; UV/H2O2 oxidation, Titanium dioxide; Photodegradation; Semiconductor.

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2

Development and Studies on Deferrated-Kaolinite-Template Porous Carbons from Furfuryl alcohol.

 

C.O. Nwokem 1,*, N.C. Nwokem 2

 

1. National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, PMB 1052, Zaria, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

 onyenwokem@yahoo.com, nsi19@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study reports the preparation of porous carbon via the template synthesis technique using kaolinite clay from Kankara, Katsina State, Nigeria as template material and poly(furfuryl alcohol) as carbon precursor. Characterization of the prepared carbon was via determination of adsorptive capacities of the prepared carbons for methylene blue (indicating mesoporosity) and iodine (indicating microporosity). The adsorptive capacity of the free PFA and templated carbons for methylene blue are 256.14mg/g and 594.61mg/g respectively. The iodine number for the free PFA and template carbons are 984.30mg/g and 602.88mg/g respectively. These results reveal a higher degree of mesoporosity in the template carbons as compared to the free PFA carbon which had a higher degree of microporosity. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):21-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.02

 

Keywords: porous carbon, kaolinite, poly(furfuryl alcohol), template

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3

Effect of Craway, Coriander and Fennel on the structure of Kidney and Islets of Langerhan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: Histological and Histochemical Study.

 

Nermeen M. Shaffie, Fatma A. Morsy, Amina G. Ali, Hafiza A. Sharaf

 

Pathology Department, Medical researches Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

nermshaf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Caraway, coriander and fennel are known hypoglycemic agents, which are used in folklori medicine for improving blood glucose level and preventing long term complications in diabetes mellitus. So, this study was designed to clarify their role on the histological and histochemical changes in kidney and islets of Langerhan in diabetic rats. 80 rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group was control. For the second group diabetes mellitus was induced in 40 rats, using alloxan. 30 rats of diabetic rats were divided into 3 subgroups: subgroup 1: was given caraway for 2 weeks. Subgroup 2: was given coriander for 2 weeks. Subgroup 3: was dosed orally by fennel for 2 weeks. Each of the remaining 3 groups was given Caraway, coriander and fennel respectively only for 2 weeks. Histopathological effects in kidney were massive inflammatory infiltrate in interstitial tissue, vacuolar degeneration in tubular epithelial cells, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and some glomerular degeneration. The islets of Langerhan showed severe necrotic changes of pancreatic islets, especially in the center. Karyolysis, dilatation, congestion of large vessels and marked increase in connective tissue component at the expense of functioning tissue leading to relative reduction in the size of islets were also seen. DNA analysis showed hypoploidy in kidney and pancreas of rats treated with alloxan only. Alloxan caused decrease of protein and mucopolysaccharide content. Conclusion: the treatment of diabetic rats with caraway, coriander and fennel resulted in amelioration of histopathological and histochemical changes in kidney and islets of Langerhans. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):27-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.03

 

Key words: aloxan- kidney- pancreas- diabetes- caraway- coriander-fennel

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4

Influence of growth regulators on the explants of Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. under in vitro conditions

 

Narender Singh*, Amrita Garg, Kuldeep Yadav and Suman Kumari

 

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

*Email: nsheorankuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Commiphora mukul, popularly known as “Guggul”, is an important endangered medicinal plant. Various explants type (shoot tips, nodal, internodal and leaf segments) of C. mukul were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations ( 0.5 – 2.0 mg/l) of auxins and cytokinins individually and in various combinations. The result showed that BAP was found to be more effective than Kn for bud break (90%) and shoot length (1.5 cm) from nodal explants. In combination, the medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l IAA responded better than all other media combinations from nodal explants. MS half strength medium supplemented with 2.0mg/l IBA proved best with eighty per cent rooting after 20 days of implantation. Most of the roots were long and healthy. The micropropagated plantlets were hardened and acclimatized. They were successfully transferred in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (3:1) with 60% survival rate under field conditions. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):41-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.04

 

Key words: Single shoot, Nodal segments, Commiphora mukul , Auxins, Cytokinins.

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5

Determinants of Non Farm Income among Farm Households in South East Nigeria

 

Ibekwe, U.C; Eze, C.C; Ohajianya, D.O; Orebiyi, J.S; Onyemauwa, C. S. and O.C. Korie

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B, 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Email: csonyemauwa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture led growth played an important role in reducing poverty and transforming the economies of many Latin American Countries, but the same has not yet occurred in sub –Saharan Africa. Most Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have not yet met the criteria for a successful agricultural revolution. Factor productivity still lags far behind the rest of the world. This has led to growing doubt about the relevance of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction in the region, especially in Nigeria. As a result the promotion of off farm activities as part way out of poverty has gained widespread support among development agencies. However little policy efforts have been made to promote the off farm sector to reduce poverty and overcome potential constraints in counties of sub-Saharan Africa like Nigeria. Results indicate that self employed activities dominate source of farm income. The share of non farm income is positively correlated with overall income. The econometric analysis shows that households with low education and infrastructure are constrained in their ability to participate in non farm activities. Policy implication is that barriers for disadvantaged households to participate in better paying non farm income activities need to be overcome to promote crop and livestock activities which will benefit the poor more than the rich. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):49-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.05

 

Key words: Farm, off farm, income, diversification, self employment, Push factors.

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6

Restoration of Mothronwala Fresh water Swamp of Doon valley, Uttarakhand

 

Neelam Sharma1,*, S.P. Joshi1, H.M. Pant2

1. Department of Botany, D.A.V (P.G) College DehraDun, Uttarakhand, India

2. Department of Anthropology, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

 nbneelambhatt@gmail.com, nbbotdav@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Doon valley has many fresh water swamps, due to its unique topography and peculiar situation in the foothills of Himalaya. One of such swamp is Mothrowala fresh water swamp, where the present study was carried out. During the study it has been observed that over a period of few decades the vegetation of the swamp has been disturbed to a great extent for want of fuel, fodder and timber. Due to this indiscriminate and unscientific exploitation of swamp by the local people, the swamp is degrading, depleting and reducing day by day and loss their natural beauty. The vegetation structure of this swamp is also changing as consequences of these disturbances, resulting is that more hardy exotic and invasive species such as Eupatorium adenophorum, Lantana camara and Parthenium hysterophorus are invading and thus replacing the indigenous flora. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):53-55]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.06

 

Key words: Mothronwala; fresh water swamp; restoration; doon valley

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7

 Assessment of noise level in different zones of Haridwar City, Uttarakhand

 

Avnish Chauhan, Mayank Pawar, Dharmendra Kumar, Suneet Kumar Shukla*, Pradeep Kumar Bainola$ Mohit Kurmar Gupta and Sanjeev Pratap Singh Chauhan#

 

Department of Applied Sciences & Humanities, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India-244001

*Department of Computer Science, Punjab Technical University, Punjab, India.

#Dept. of Military Study, KGK (PG) College, Moradabad, UP, India

$Dept. of Hotel and Tourism Management, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India-244001

Dept. of Environmental Science, Uttaranchal College of Science and Technology, Deradun.

Corresponding authors: avnishchauhan_phd@aol.in, kumar2all2008@rediff.com,

anumayak@gmail.com, akshat.suneet@aol.in

 

Abstract: The present study indicates that Haridwar city suffering from higher level of noise pollution as compared to standard stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi. The main sources of higher noise level in Haridwar city due to transportation activities. For this purpose present study was carried out at 16 different locations with Sound Level Meter to assess the day and night sound level in Haridwar City. Haridwar city one of the crowded city in the world. So an attempt has been made in city of Haridwar to measure noise level and also made recommendations to overcome this noise pollution in Haridwar. [Researcher 2010;2(7):56-59).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.07

 

Keywords: Haridwar city; noise pollution; Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB); New Delhi

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8

 Redesign Of A Grinding Mill For The Minimisation Of Iron Filing Production

 

E. Normanyo*,1 E. K. Esiam2, K. Amankwa-Poku1, I. A. Adetunde 3

University Of Mines And Technology

1department Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering

2department Of Mineral Engineering

3 Department Of Mathematics

Tarkwa, Ghana

*Corresponding author. Tel: +233 24 2214103; E-mail address: e.normanyo@umat.edu.gh

 

ABSTRACT: The local food grinding mills in usage across the country are characterized by the production of iron filings as part of the grounded food meant for human consumption. The filings of iron when taken into the body create health problems such as hemochromatosis leading to hepatoma, the primary cancer of the liver. The root causes of the production of iron filings were determined based on existing design of the grinding mill. Therefore, it is imperative to improve and redesign a grinding mill that will eliminate or minimize the iron filings production that get into the human digestive system which is associated with health problems. In this paper, we redesigned a new grinding mill, by employing the use of a misalignment detecting sensor and signalling apparatus together with the incorporation of a permanent magnet to drastically minimize if not totally eliminate the iron filings. Conclusively, the new grinding mill is more human friendly as it can not contaminate ground food stuffs with iron filings. [Researcher 2010;2(7):60-77].

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.08

 

KEY WORDS: Grinding mill, Iron fillings, health problems, hepatoma, hemochromatosis, existing design of mill, grinding mill redesign.

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9

 Effect Of Burning On Soil Chemical Properties In The Dry Sub-Humid Savanna Zone Of Nigeria

 

 S. A. Pantami1, N. Voncir2*, G. A. Babaji2 and S. Mustapha2

 

1Department of Soil Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

2Crop Production Programme Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

demokalla71@yahoo.com; * voncirn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the effects of burning on the chemical properties of soil on soils obtained from within the dry sub-humid savanna agro-ecological zone of northern Nigeria. Surface (0-15cm) composite soil samples were collected from selected locations comprising Bauchi, Gombe and Kano states from un-burnt, lightly burnt and intensely burnt sites in farmers’ farms during land preparation of the 2007/2008 cropping season. The samples were obtained from both upland and lowland areas and analysed in the laboratory to assess the effect of burning on the soil’s physical properties. The collected data were analysed using the SAS statistical software to test for significant differences at 5% level of significance. Where significant differences were found, the means were separated using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). Result of the laboratory analyses revealed that burning had no effect on pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium percentage, effective cation exchange capacity, percent base saturation and amounts of potassium and sodium of the soil. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium of the soil were reduced from 12.29gkg-1 to 6. 29gkg-1, 1.40gkg-1 to 0.58gkg-1, 43.29mgkg-1 to 13.06mgkg-1, 2.76cmol(+)kg-1 to 2.36cmol(+)kg-1 and 0.62cmol(+)kg-1 to 0.38cmol(+)kg-1 respectively within the lowland areas; and from 7.62gkg-1 to 5.59gkg-1, 1.52gkg-1 to 0.58gkg-1, 35.33mgkg-1 to 5.37mgkg-1, 2.88cmol(+)kg-1 to 1.8676cmol(+)kg-1 and 0.69cmol(+)kg-1 to 0.47cmol(+)kg-1 respectively within the upland areas as a result of zero-burning and intense-burning respectively. Based on this research it is evident that burning causes reduction in the fertility status of the soil within the dry sub-humid savanna region of Nigeria. [Researcher 2010;2(7):78-83].

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020710.09

 

Keywords: Burning, Chemical properties, Dry-humid Savanna

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