Volume 2 - Issue 7 (Cumulated No. 13), July 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0207
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Titles / Authors
Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo
and Diazo Dyes in Wastewater on Nanometer-Sized TiO2
Chemistry Department, Faculty of
Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Naser City, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)
have proved very effective in treatment of the various
hazardous organic pollutants in water. The photocatalytic
degradation of two azo dyes, monoazo dye Acid Orange 10(AO10) and diazo dye Acid
Red114(AR114) present in wastewater were studied. Homogeneous
photocatalytic degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/H2O2
process was investigated. The rates of disappearance of the two
azo dyes were monitored spectrophotometrically at the visible
maximum absorption wavelengths. It was found that the rate of
decolorization rises by increasing the initial dosage of H2O2
up to a “critical” value at which it is maximum and
beyond which it is inhibited. The rates of reactions follow
pseudo-first-order kinetics. Also heterogeneous photocatalytic
degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/TiO2
(titanium dioxide) interface was investigated. The
photocatalytic degradation rate depends on dye structure, dye
concentration, TiO2 concentration and pH of the
medium. The mechanism of the photodegradation process under
UV-visible light illumination involves an electron excitation
into the conduction band of the TiO2 semiconductor
leading to the generation of very active oxygenated species
that attack the dye molecules leading to photodegradation.
Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was examined by
focusing on its enhancement by electron scavengers in the
photocatalytic decomposition of the two azo dyes. The electron
scavengers employed was inorganic oxidant such as H2O2,
adequate dose of H2O2 led to a faster
degradation of the two azo dyes in the TiO2
photocatalytic system. The fast decolorization of monoazo dye
(AO10) than diazo dye (AR114) is an indication that, the number
of azo and sulphonate groups in the dye molecule may be a
determining factor for increasing the degradation rates.
[Researcher. 2010;2(7):1-20]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Keywords: Azo dyes; UV/H2O2
oxidation, Titanium dioxide; Photodegradation; Semiconductor.
Development and Studies on
Deferrated-Kaolinite-Template Porous Carbons from Furfuryl
C.O. Nwokem 1,*, N.C.
Research Institute for Chemical Technology, PMB 1052, Zaria,
of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
study reports the preparation of porous carbon via the template
synthesis technique using kaolinite clay from Kankara, Katsina
State, Nigeria as template material and poly(furfuryl alcohol)
as carbon precursor. Characterization of the prepared carbon
was via determination of adsorptive capacities of the prepared
carbons for methylene blue (indicating mesoporosity) and iodine
(indicating microporosity). The adsorptive capacity of the free
PFA and templated carbons for methylene blue are 256.14mg/g and
594.61mg/g respectively. The iodine number for the free PFA and
template carbons are 984.30mg/g and 602.88mg/g respectively.
These results reveal a higher degree of mesoporosity in the
template carbons as compared to the free PFA carbon which had a
higher degree of microporosity. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):21-26].
Keywords: porous carbon, kaolinite,
poly(furfuryl alcohol), template
Effect of Craway, Coriander and Fennel
on the structure of Kidney and Islets of Langerhan in
Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: Histological and Histochemical
Nermeen M. Shaffie, Fatma A.
Morsy, Amina G. Ali, Hafiza
Pathology Department, Medical researches
Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Abstract: Caraway, coriander and fennel are
known hypoglycemic agents, which are used in folklori medicine
for improving blood glucose level and preventing long term
complications in diabetes mellitus. So, this study was designed
to clarify their role on the histological and histochemical
changes in kidney and islets of Langerhan in diabetic rats. 80
rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group was control.
For the second group diabetes mellitus was induced in 40 rats,
using alloxan. 30 rats of diabetic rats were divided into 3
subgroups: subgroup 1: was given caraway for 2 weeks. Subgroup
2: was given coriander for 2 weeks. Subgroup 3: was dosed
orally by fennel for 2 weeks. Each of the remaining 3 groups
was given Caraway, coriander and fennel respectively only for 2
weeks. Histopathological effects in kidney were massive
inflammatory infiltrate in interstitial tissue, vacuolar
degeneration in tubular epithelial cells, karyolysis and
karyorrhexis and some glomerular degeneration. The islets of
Langerhan showed severe necrotic changes of pancreatic islets,
especially in the center. Karyolysis, dilatation, congestion of
large vessels and marked increase in connective tissue
component at the expense of functioning tissue leading to
relative reduction in the size of islets were also seen. DNA
analysis showed hypoploidy in kidney and pancreas of rats
treated with alloxan only. Alloxan caused decrease of protein
and mucopolysaccharide content. Conclusion: the
treatment of diabetic rats with caraway, coriander and fennel
resulted in amelioration of histopathological and histochemical
changes in kidney and islets of Langerhans. [Researcher.
2010;2(7):27-40]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
pancreas- diabetes- caraway- coriander-fennel
Influence of growth regulators on the explants
of Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.
under in vitro conditions
Narender Singh*, Amrita Garg, Kuldeep Yadav and Suman Kumari
of Botany, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra 136119 (India)
Commiphora mukul, popularly known as “Guggul”, is an
important endangered medicinal plant. Various explants type
(shoot tips, nodal, internodal and leaf segments) of C. mukul
were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented
with various concentrations ( 0.5 – 2.0 mg/l) of auxins and
cytokinins individually and in various combinations. The result
showed that BAP was found to be more effective than Kn for bud
break (90%) and shoot length (1.5 cm) from nodal explants. In
combination, the medium supplemented with
2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l IAA
responded better than all other media combinations from
nodal explants. MS half strength medium supplemented with 2.0mg/l IBA proved best with
eighty per cent rooting after 20 days of implantation. Most of
the roots were long and healthy. The micropropagated plantlets
were hardened and acclimatized. They were successfully
transferred in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture
(3:1) with 60% survival rate under field conditions.
[Researcher. 2010;2(7):41-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Single shoot, Nodal segments,
Commiphora mukul , Auxins, Cytokinins.
Determinants of Non Farm Income among
Farm Households in South East Nigeria
Ibekwe, U.C; Eze, C.C; Ohajianya, D.O;
Orebiyi, J.S; Onyemauwa, C. S. and O.C. Korie
Department of Agricultural Economics,
Federal University of Technology, P.M.B, 1526, Owerri, Imo
Abstract: Agriculture led growth played an
important role in reducing poverty and transforming the
economies of many Latin American Countries, but the same has
not yet occurred in sub –Saharan Africa. Most Countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa have not yet met the criteria for a successful
agricultural revolution. Factor productivity still lags far behind
the rest of the world. This has led to growing doubt about the
relevance of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction in the
region, especially in Nigeria.
As a result the promotion of off farm activities as part
way out of poverty has gained widespread support among
However little policy efforts have been made to promote
the off farm sector to reduce poverty and overcome potential
constraints in counties of sub-Saharan Africa like Nigeria.
Results indicate that self employed activities dominate source
of farm income. The share of non farm income is positively
correlated with overall income.
The econometric analysis shows that households with low
education and infrastructure are constrained in their ability
to participate in non farm activities. Policy implication is
that barriers for disadvantaged households to participate in
better paying non farm income activities need to be overcome to
promote crop and livestock activities which will benefit the
poor more than the rich. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):49-52]. (ISSN:
Farm, off farm, income, diversification, self
employment, Push factors.
Restoration of Mothronwala Fresh water
Swamp of Doon valley, Uttarakhand
Neelam Sharma1,*, S.P.
Joshi1, H.M. Pant2
Department of Botany, D.A.V (P.G) College DehraDun, Uttarakhand, India
Department of Anthropology, HNB
Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India
valley has many fresh water swamps, due to its unique
topography and peculiar situation in the foothills of Himalaya.
One of such swamp is Mothrowala fresh water swamp, where the
present study was carried out. During the study it has been
observed that over a period of few decades the vegetation of
the swamp has been disturbed to a great extent for want of
fuel, fodder and timber. Due to this indiscriminate and
unscientific exploitation of swamp by the local people, the
swamp is degrading, depleting and reducing day by day and loss
their natural beauty. The vegetation structure of this swamp is
also changing as consequences of these disturbances, resulting
is that more hardy exotic and invasive species such as Eupatorium adenophorum,
Lantana camara and
hysterophorus are invading and thus replacing the
indigenous flora. [Researcher. 2010;2(7):53-55].
Key words: Mothronwala; fresh water swamp; restoration;
Assessment of noise level in different zones
of Haridwar City, Uttarakhand
Mayank Pawar, Dharmendra Kumar, Suneet Kumar Shukla*, Pradeep
Kumar Bainola$ Mohit Kurmar Gupta and Sanjeev Pratap
Department of Applied
Sciences & Humanities, College of Engineering, Teerthanker
Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India-244001
Computer Science, Punjab Technical University, Punjab, India.
of Military Study, KGK (PG) College, Moradabad, UP, India
of Hotel and Tourism Management, College of Engineering,
Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh,
Environmental Science, Uttaranchal College of Science and
The present study indicates that
Haridwar city suffering from higher level of noise pollution as
compared to standard stipulated by Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB), New Delhi. The main sources of higher noise level
in Haridwar city due to transportation activities. For this
purpose present study was carried out at 16 different locations
with Sound Level Meter to assess the day and night sound level
in Haridwar City. Haridwar city one of the crowded city in the
world. So an attempt has been made in city of Haridwar to
measure noise level and also made recommendations to overcome
this noise pollution in Haridwar. [Researcher 2010;2(7):56-59).
Haridwar city; noise pollution; Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB); New Delhi
Of A Grinding Mill For The Minimisation Of Iron Filing
E. Normanyo*,1 E. K.
Esiam2, K. Amankwa-Poku1, I. A.
University Of Mines And
Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering
Of Mineral Engineering
Department Of Mathematics
*Corresponding author. Tel: +233
24 2214103; E-mail address:
The local food grinding mills in
usage across the country are characterized by the production of
iron filings as part of the grounded food meant for human
consumption. The filings of iron when taken into the body create
health problems such as hemochromatosis leading to
hepatoma, the primary cancer of the liver. The root causes
of the production of iron filings were determined based on
existing design of the grinding mill. Therefore, it is
imperative to improve and redesign a grinding mill that will
eliminate or minimize the iron filings production that get into
the human digestive system which is associated with health
problems. In this paper, we redesigned a new grinding mill, by
employing the use of a misalignment detecting sensor and
signalling apparatus together with the incorporation of a
permanent magnet to drastically minimize if not totally
eliminate the iron filings. Conclusively, the new grinding mill
is more human friendly as it can not contaminate ground food
stuffs with iron filings. [Researcher 2010;2(7):60-77].
Grinding mill, Iron fillings, health problems,
existing design of mill, grinding mill redesign.
Of Burning On Soil Chemical Properties In The Dry Sub-Humid
Savanna Zone Of Nigeria
A. Pantami1, N. Voncir2*,
G. A. Babaji2
and S. Mustapha2
of Soil Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
Production Programme Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi,
A study was carried
out to assess the effects
of burning on the chemical properties of soil on soils obtained
from within the dry sub-humid savanna agro-ecological zone of
northern Nigeria. Surface (0-15cm) composite soil samples were
collected from selected locations comprising Bauchi, Gombe and
Kano states from un-burnt, lightly burnt and intensely burnt
sites in farmers’ farms during land preparation of the 2007/2008
cropping season. The samples were obtained from both upland and
lowland areas and analysed in the laboratory to assess the
effect of burning on the soil’s physical properties. The
collected data were analysed using the SAS statistical software
to test for significant differences at 5% level of significance.
Where significant differences were found, the means were
separated using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). Result
of the laboratory analyses revealed that burning had no effect
on pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium percentage,
effective cation exchange capacity, percent base saturation and
amounts of potassium and sodium of the soil. Organic carbon,
total nitrogen, available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium of
the soil were reduced from 12.29gkg-1 to 6. 29gkg-1,
1.40gkg-1 to 0.58gkg-1, 43.29mgkg-1
to 13.06mgkg-1, 2.76cmol(+)kg-1 to
2.36cmol(+)kg-1 and 0.62cmol(+)kg-1 to
0.38cmol(+)kg-1 respectively within the lowland
areas; and from 7.62gkg-1 to 5.59gkg-1,
1.52gkg-1 to 0.58gkg-1, 35.33mgkg-1
to 5.37mgkg-1, 2.88cmol(+)kg-1 to
1.8676cmol(+)kg-1 and 0.69cmol(+)kg-1 to
0.47cmol(+)kg-1 respectively within the upland areas
as a result of zero-burning and intense-burning respectively.
Based on this research it is evident that burning causes
reduction in the fertility status of the soil within the dry
sub-humid savanna region of Nigeria. [Researcher
Burning, Chemical properties, Dry-humid Savanna
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