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Science Journal

 

Researcher
 
Volume 2 - Issue 8 (Cumulated No. 14), August 20, 2010, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0208
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: researcher@sciencepub.net 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

No.

1

Nutritional Evaluation of Gari Diets from Varying Fermentation Time Using Animal Model

 

C.I. Owuamanam1 , A.D. Hart2 and I.S. Barimalaa2, L.I. Barber 2 and S.C. Achinewhu2

 

1. Department of Food Science and Technology Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Food Science and Technology River State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

e-mail icliffowums@yahoo.com; achinewhu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The implications of consumption of dietary cyanide from gari were investigated by feeding trials on experimental rats (Rattus norwagicus) in this study. The biological assay technique was used to assess diets formulated from gari (fermented cassava product) processed for zero, 24, 48, 72h and control (corn starch) which contain varying amounts of residual cyanide (ranging from 111.6 – 18.6 mg HCN/kg). The diets were balanced in minerals, vitamins and casein. The only source of variability among the diets was the levels of residual dietary cyanide as affected by the duration of fermentation. Weaning male albino rats (21 day old) were grouped in tens (10 rats per group) and fed the diets. The feeding trials was carried out for twenty eight (28) days and thereafter repeated for another set of rats giving a total of 100 rats. The results show that average weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio (PER) differed significantly (P> 0.05). The highest PER, 0.22 was obtained from rats on the control diet while the least was obtained for gari diet from 24h fermented product, 0.15. The red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell column (PCV) differed significantly, P>0.05. The poor performance of rats on 24h diet might be associated with presence of high level of cyanogenic glucoside intermediates – cynohydrin, which readily interacts with b-glucosidase in the gut and triggers wide range biological effects. Hence fermenting for periods beyond 24h makes garri safe for consumption. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):1-10]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.01

 

Key words: Dietary cyanide; gari; Feed conversion ratio; PER; Blood parameters

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2

Sorption Isotherm, Particle Size, Chemical And Physical Properties Of Cocoyam Corm Flours

 

C.I. Owuamanam1, Ihediohanma, N.C1 and E.C Nwanekezi2

 

1 Department of Food Science and Technology Federal University of Technology PMB 1526, Owerri.

2. Department of Food Science and Technology Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri

e-mail: icliffowums@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The sorption isotherm, particle size chemical and physical properties cocoyam corm flours were studied in order to enhance the storage and their applications in food formulation. Cocoyam corms: Colocasia exculenta cv ede cocoindia, Colocasia exculenta cv ede ofe, Xanthosoma sagittifolium cv ede uhie and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cv ede ocha were processed into flour. The flours were subjected to analysis to determine their equilibrium moisture content at different relative humidity, particle size distribution, chemical and physical properties. The equilibrium moisture content at 30oC determined over varied relative humidity showed differences in the amounts of moisture absorbed while the sorption isotherm curves obtained revealed typical type II isotherm. Moreover the monolayer values obtained differed among the cultivars. Chemical properties determined were moisture content, crude proteins, fibre, fat, and ash as well as the carbohydrate content. Also, the physical properties investigated were the particle size, water absorption capacity, viscosity, bulk density, porosity, gelatinization temperature, blue value index, pH and solid density. Mean water absorption capacity: 2.195g/g, 2.410g/g. 2.178g/g and 2.0082g/g were recorded for ede cocoindia, ede ofe, edeuhie and ede ocha respectively. Also gelling temperature: 63.8oC, 96.8oC, 65oC and 73.8oC for ede coconidia, ede ofe, ede uhie and ede ocha respectively. The results show that the physicochemical properties of cocoyam corm flours are comparable to other root crops and could be used in various food formulations. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):11-19]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.02

 

Key words: Cocoyam corms; equilibrium moisture; Water activity; Sorption isotherm; Chemical and Physical

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3

An Energy optimisation Approach for WSN

 

*Vikas Gahlot 1, Rajender Kumar 2 and Anuj Goel 3

 

1. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, U.I.E.T., Kurukshetra University, INDIA

2. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, N.I.T., Kurukshetra, INDIA

3. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, M.M.U., Mullana, INDIA

*vikasgahlot@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Energy Optimisation is one of the critical issues and an important research topic in emerging wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There is a greater need of reducing energy/ power consumption in nodes deployed in WSN. Paper investigates key energy models used in WSN and simulates the different battery models. Paper provides a comparative analysis of MICA Motes & MICAZ energy models. Finally Mica-motes seem to be more promising energy model as compared to MicaZ, when deployed in sensor nodes transmitting at higher power level. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):20-23]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.03

 

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, MICAZ, MICA Motes, Nodes, transmission power

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4

Study the Possible Protective and Therapeutic Influence of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Against Neurodegenerative Disordersand Alzheimer's disease Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Cerebral Cortex of Male Albino Rats

 

Enas, A.Khalil

Department of Histology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, 12553Cairo, Egypt

enasamk@hotmail.com

Abstract: Several studies reported many neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer' disease induced by aluminum chloride on cerebral cortex of male rats. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a plant among others which improve blood circulation to the head, impart mental concentration and memory capabilities. Coriander, both its leaves and its seeds are grown as spice group all over the world. The present investigation aims to clarify the role of coriander seed aqueous extract as a protective and therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's disease induced byAlCl3 on the pyramidal cells in cerebral cortex of male albino rats. 24 Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups 6 for each, control, (300mg/kg p.o) AlCl3 treated group for a month, (300mg/kg p.o.)AlCl3 plus (0.5gm/kg p. o) aqueous seed coriander extract treated group for a month and (0.5gm/kg p.o.) aqueous seed coriander extract treated group after stopping aluminum chloride treatment each for a month. Specimens from cerebral cortex were processed for haematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue and Nauta stains. Aluminum chloride treatment showed dilatation of blood capillaries and presence of many shrunken pyramidal cells, the cells are pale and chromatolytic, the fibers appear detached and irregular in thickness. Aluminum chloride and coriander treated group restore the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex to normal. The treatment with coriander for a month after stopping AlCl3 treatment restores the pyramidal cells to nearly normal. In conclusion coriander eedsaqueous extract showing protection and an improvement in therapeutic action on pyramidal cells in cerebral cortex against neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer' disease induced by aluminum chloride treatment. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):24-33]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.04

 

Key words: coriander, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral cortex, aluminum chloride, rat

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5

Characterization of Heavy Metals in Effluent of Textile Industry in Hardwar

 

DEEPALI and GANGWAR K. K.

Punjab State Council for Science and Technology, Chandigarh-160019, India

E-mail: deepaligangwar.phd@gmail.com, kamalkishor14@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Present study was made to assess the heavy metal concentrations in untreated and treated effluent samples collected from Rishabh Valvleen, a textile industry situated in Bahadarabad, Hardwar. The effluents were analyzed for metallic properties. The effluent showed increased chromium concentration from the recommended norms of textile effluent discharged on ground (CPCB, 2001). The values of metals namely Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn and Cu were noted to be decrease by 78.43%, 66.66%, 54.11%, 39.82% and 100%, respectively, after treatment. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):34-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.05

Keywords: textile industry; heavy metals; effluent

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6

Mother-To-Child Transfer Of Measles Antibody Among Patients Attending University Of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria.

 

1Haruna S.B, 1 BukBuk D.N, 1Dawurung J.S.

1Department of Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Email: dawurungj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: The transfer of Measles specific IgG antibody was assessed in 128 sera of infants and 30 sera of mother-child pairs at delivery. The 158 infants were within the age range of birth to 9 months. Of the 30 serum samples of mother to child pairs, 30(100%) of the mothers had the antibody but only 28(93.3%) passed the antibody to their newborn which means 2(6.7%) of the infants did not acquire the antibody. In the 158 serum samples of infants tested 44.8% (71) were seropositive which means they acquired the antibody while 55.1% (87) were susceptible to measles virus. The result indicates that with increase in age, the percentage susceptibility of infant increases. The antibody level is high (77.8%) in one day olds and none (0%) in 9 months infants. This shows that infants at late ages before vaccination are susceptible to the measles virus. In conclusion, the result shows that infants within the age of 0 to 3 months have a higher level of antibody than other ages. Hence, susceptibility to measles virus in infants within the ages of 7 to 9 months is high. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):36-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.06

Keywords: Mother- to- Child, Transfer, measles, antibody

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7

Incidence Cases Of Hiv/Aids Infection In Owerri West Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria.

 

IJIOMA, B. C.1, KALU I.G2, NWACHUKWU C. U1., NWACHUKWU I. G3.

Dept. of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State

Dept. of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State

Dept. Of Accountancy Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State

nwachukwucu2005@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the incidence cases of HIV/AIDS infection in Owerri West L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria, between Apirl 2007 and September, 2009. Data was collected from the HIV/AIDS co-ordination and control unit, Owerri General Hospital Umuguma, Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. It was observed that a total number of seventeen thousand nine hundred and sixty four patients made up of eleven thousand and ten (16.3%) females and six thousand nine hundred fifty four (38.7%) males were diagonized on HIV/ AIDS infection. Statistical analysis shows that only one thousand four hundred and sixty two (8.1%) patients were infected with HIV/AIDS. From this number, One thousand two hundred and eighteen (83.3%) patients aged 25 years and above were most infected with HIV/AIDS while two hundred and forty four (16.7%) patients aged below 24 years were also infected. The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS infection was moderate at (8.1) while annual increase in HIV/AIDS infection was not statistically significant at (p<0.05). [Researcher. 2010;2(8):43-50]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.07

 

Keywords: Human Immunedeficiency virus (HIV) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Patient Transmission, Owerri West Local Government Area

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8

The Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths of Dogs (Canis familaris) in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

 

Kutdang E.T1*., Bukbuk D. N1., Ajayi J. A. A2.

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

* Kutdangezra_2008@yahoo.com ; +234 7032928308

 

Abstract: One thousand faecal samples of dogs were examined for eggs of parasites in two local government areas of Plateau state, namely, Jos North and Jos South Local Government Areas using the sugar floatation method .Of the 1000 faecal samples examined, 661 (66.10%) harboured eggs of six different helminth parasites. The overall prevalence rates for the eggs of different types were 118 (11.80%) Dipylidium caninum, 58 (5.80%) for Spirocerca lupi, 382 (38.20%) for Taxocara canis, 318 (31.80%) for Trichuris vulpis) 501 (50.10%) for Ancylostoma caninum and 129 (12.90%) for Taenia species. Out of the 521 (52.1%) male dogs examined, six different parasites were found and recorded. Also, of the 479 (47.9%) female dogs examined, six different parasites were also found and recorded. Out of the 1000 faecal samples examined, 339 (33.9%) did not show any parasite, 101 (10.10%) showed single infections with different parasites, mixed infections were common. A total of 666 (66.10%) harboured multiple infections (polyparasitism) caused by 2 - 6 different parasites. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):51-56]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.08

 

Keywords: Prevalence, helminths, Dogs, Jos, Nigeria

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9

On Simple And Bisimple Left Inverse Semi Groups

 

1Oladejo, N.K.; Makanjuola , S.O and 3Adetunde, I.A.

1Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science

University for Development studies Navrongo, Ghana

2Department of Mathematics, University of Ilorin. Ilorin, Nigeria.

3Department of Mathematics, University of Mines and Technology

Tarkwa, Ghana

adetunde@googlemail.com

 

Prof. Isaac Adetunde,

University of Mines and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Dept.of Mathematics.

P.O.Box 237, Tarkwa.Ghana.

Website: www.isaacadetunde.com

Ghana Tel:+233-24-3151871, +233-27-5032707, +233-20-7112264, +233-24-6101306

Nigeria Tel: +2348033777786, +2348055676596, +2348057071943

 

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with Simple and bi-simple inverse semi-groups. The general properties and characteristics of simple and bi-simple semi- groups and inverse semi-groups were discussed. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):57-67]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.09

 

Key words: Simple, bi-simple semigroup, inverse semigroup

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10

 Constraints of Resource Poor Farmers and Causes of Low Crop Productivity in a Changing Environment

 

1Ibeawuchi I.I. 1Obiefuna J. C., 2Ihem E, 3Nwosu F.O, 4Nkwocha V.I., 1Ofor, M.O. and 5Ezeibekwe I.O

 

1. Department of Crop Science and Technology

2. Department of Soil Science and Technology

3. Department of Agricultural Economics

4. Centre for Agricultural Research

 Federal University of Technology, Owerri

 P.M.B. 1526, Owerri Imo State Nigeria

5. Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology

 Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria.

Email: ii_ibeawuchi@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In most sub-Saharan African countries, there is serious low crop yield as a result of use of poor planting materials, soil infertility, erosion problem and climate change. Also, the farmers attitude through improper use of agro-chemicals or excessive use of high external inputs causing damage and posing danger to the farmer, his crops, livestock, man and his environment. Government intervention is required to improve extension services, train farmers on proper use of agro chemicals, proper soil management and good methods of pest control techniques through monitoring. Adequate funding of research institutes and universities is required to help them find solutions to these mounting problems including climate change and to avert immediate occurrence of famine now and in the future. Organic agriculture is advocated for as it is sustainable and environment friendly. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):68-72]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.10

 

Keywords: Resource poor farmers changing environment and crop productivity

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11

 

Groundwater Chemistry Of Nagapattinam Coastal Town, Tamilnadu, India

 

T. Ramkumar, S. Venkatramanan, I. Anitha Mary*, M. Anuradha, S. Varunkumar.

Dept. of Earth Sciences, Annamalai Unviersity. Annamalainagar - 608 002.

*Corresponding author: geoanitha@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Seasonal study on the ground water quality was carried in the coastal town of Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu. Totally seventy two groundwater samples were collected from nine wells covering three season (postmonsoon, summer, premonsoon) during 2007. The groundwater quality was determined on the basis of (APHA-1998), were physical and chemical parameter like (Ec,pH,TDS,Ca,Mg,Na,K,No3,So4,Cl). The analytical result indicates two or three well water suitable for drinking purpose, remaining suitable for domestic, irrigation and industrial usage. The piper trilinear diagram indicates that the majority of the sample falls in Na, Mg, Ca facies is dominating in groundwater, which is followed by Cl, SO4. The USSL classification indicates most of the samples fall in salinity and sodium hazard. Finally correlation coefficient calculation method also adapted. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):73-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.11

 

Keywords: Nagapattinam, hydrogeochemical facies, correlation coefficient, Irrigation water, Seawater intrusion

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 12

 Influence Of Soil Incorporation Of Common Food Legume Stover On The Yield Of Maize In Sandy Soils Of Moist Savanna Woodland Of Nigeria

 

Egbe, O.M1. and Ali, A2.

1Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

2Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

*Corresponding author: onyiloegbe@yahoo.co.uk, Phone: +2348068698638

 

ABSRACT: Two separate field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2008 to evaluate the influence of soil incorporation of common food legumes on the yield and yield related parameters of maize grown on sandy soil environment of Odoba-Otukpa in the Moist Savanna Woodland of Nigeria. Five most commonly planted traditional food legume crops[groundnut (Arachis hypogea var.Camerun’), bambaranut (Vigna subterranean var’.Ikpeyiole’), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var.’adoka white’),pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan var.’igbongbo’) and soybean (Glycine max var.Samsoy 2) were incorporated as green manure after 12 weeks of field growth and also as stover after harvest into the soil in two separate experiments.NPK:15:15:15 applied at 45 kg/ha (NPK 45) and natural fallow were included as checks. The experiments were laid out in Completely Randomized Block Design. The results indicated that particle size distribution of soil in the experimental site was altered, levels of organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and the exchangeable bases (except Na+) also increased with the addition of both the food legume and the natural fallow materials. The incorporated food legume treatments had 56-76% (when incorporated at 12 weeks of field growth) and 42.5-61.49% (when incorporated as stover) of the total grain yield of maize produced by the inorganic fertilizer treatment, but gave significantly higher grain yield of maize than the natural fallow check. Soil incorporation of food legume plant parts also produced significant effects on hundred-seed weight and nitrogen yield of maize and soil nitrogen after harvest of maize. Although NPK 45 treatment plots gave higher grain yield and other yield related parameters than the food legume treated plots, the net benefits values were higher for most of the legumes as compared to NPK 45, indicating higher profitability of food legume incorporation than the inorganic fertilizer option. [Researcher. 2010;2(8):84-90]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.12

 

Keywords: legume stover, incorporation, NPK fertilizer, maize

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.01

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.02

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.03

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.04

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.05

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.06

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.07

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.08

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.09

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.10

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.11

doi:10.7537/marsrsj020810.12

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